The American Revolution By Donald Johnson World Geography Hastings Ninth Grade Center
Land Transportation The American colonies in 1775 were sparsely settled and largely rural in character. Only a few centers of population were large enough to be classed as cities. On the eve of the Revolution main roads connected the principal port towns. All important places in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island were connected by stage wagons. Such conveyances provided transportation between Boston and New York as well. Indian trails across New Jersey had been improved to provide routes between Philadelphia and New York City via Burlington and Perth Amboy or by way of Bordentown and New Brunswick.
British troop deployments <ul><li>After the Boston Tea Party the British send more troops to enforce the Intolerable Acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial militias prepare for war. </li></ul>
The Revolutionary War gets started - 1775 <ul><li>Paul Revere's Ride </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Wadsworth Longfellow </li></ul><ul><li>Lexington and Concord </li></ul><ul><li>Bunker Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline of the American Revolution </li></ul>
<ul><li>British attempt to “search and seize” stolen weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>First shots of the Revolution in Action </li></ul>
Battle of Lexington <ul><li>8 Americans killed. </li></ul><ul><li>British didn’t find any weapons and continued to Concord </li></ul><ul><li>British Captain Pitcarin orders Minutemen off the green. </li></ul><ul><li>Response by the Minutemen, “ this is our green ” </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over who fired the first shot </li></ul>
The Shot Heard Round The World <ul><li>"By The Rude Bridge That Arched The Flood, </li></ul><ul><li>Their Flag to April's Breeze Unfurled, </li></ul><ul><li>Here Once The Embattled Farmers Stood, </li></ul><ul><li>And Fired The Shot Heard Round The World." </li></ul>Minute Man Monument at Lexington Green
Battle of Concord Forewarned by Paul Revere, American militiamen fought 800 British troops on April 19th, 1775. The battle broke out at Concord. Over 200 British soldiers were wounded and 73 killed. North Bridge
Second Continental Congress <ul><li>Organized first American army called the Continental Army and appointed George Washington as our Commanding General. </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to stay part of the empire but King must “redress our grievances” </li></ul><ul><li>Congress prepares for war……. </li></ul><ul><li>Came together again after the battles of Lexington and Concord, May 10, 1775. </li></ul>
The Battle of Bunker Hill On June 17, 1775 , American troops inflicting casualties on nearly half of the British troops dispatched to secure Breed's Hill (the actual site of the battle). African-American soldiers comprised approximately one-third of the rebel troops. A monument now stands to the minutemen of Boston
Battle of Bunker Hill <ul><li>June 17, 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>The British suffered over 40% casualties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,250 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,054 injured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>226 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans: Moral victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>140 killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>271 wounded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King George sends 10,000 Hessian soldiers to help put down the rebellion. </li></ul>
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. </li></ul>
Re-enactments 1st New Market Militia Reformed in 1972 for the US Bicentennial, the militia acts as the Foot Guard for the Governor of New Hampshire, and helps maintain Fort Constitution in New Castle, site of the colonies' first rebellion against the King of England.
Continental Army <ul><li>First US Army </li></ul><ul><li>made up of </li></ul><ul><li>volunteers, militias </li></ul><ul><li>and Minutemen. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially lacked the </li></ul><ul><li>discipline of a </li></ul><ul><li>professional army. </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked resources, 2nd Continental Congress lacked resources to supply army men weren’t paid and some quit after the first few battles. </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington chosen as Commanding General. </li></ul><ul><li>Not an army of professionals but mostly farmers. </li></ul>
Second battle of Trenton - 1777 On December 26th, 1777, Washington's Nearly defeated Army crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton. The main attack was made by 2,400 troops under Washington on the Hessian Garrison . Washington's troops achieved total surprise and defeated the British forces.
Valley Forge - 1777-1778 The site of the harsh winter camp of the Continental Army for the winter of 1777-1778, was a time of testing, formation, and training for Washington's Army. Prussian Baron Von Steuben volunteered to train General Washington’s Continental Army at Valley Forge.
Maj. General John “Gentleman Johnnie” Burgoyne The Battle(s) of Saratoga were considered by many historians to have been the turning point of the American Revolutionary War and one of the most decisive battles in history. The defeat and capture of a major British military force in the Saratoga campaign by American revolutionary forces resulted in securing the northern American colonies from attacks out of Canada Summer 1777
Saratoga 1777 Historians consider the Battle of Saratoga to be the major turning point of the American Revolution. This battle proved to the world that the fledgling American army was an effective fighting force capable of defeating the highly trained British forces in a major confrontation. This map shows troop movements (British in red) culminating in Burgoyne’s defeat on Sept. 19, 1777. General Benedict Arnold led a charge against a British stronghold that changed the direction of battle and also caused him a serious leg injury.
Daniel Morgan’s riflemen The Battle of Cowpens, January 17, 1781, took place in the latter part of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution and of the Revolution itself. It became known as the turning point of the war in the South, leading to Patriot victory at Yorktown. At the Cowpens General Daniel Morgan’s unusual tactics defeated a crack British regular army under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre “Bloody” Tarleton. The American long rifle was more accurate than the standard smoothbore musket. However, what the rifle gained in accuracy, it lost in the rate of fire. General Daniel Morgan
In a stunning reversal of fortune that signaled the end of fighting in the American colonies, Charles Lord Cornwallis signed orders surrendering his British Army to a combined French and American force outside the Virginia tobacco port of Yorktown. Yorktown - 1781 The World Turned Upside Down
Virginia From the Battle at Lexington in 1775 to the Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781, war raged in the American colonies. The alliance with France helped trap a major British army at Yorktown. These cannons shelled the British troops during the siege.
End of the Revolutionary War - 1783 When Benjamin West began painting the signing of the peace treaty (left), he started confidently with portraits (left to right) of John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and Franklin's grandson, William Temple Franklin. Unfortunately for West, the British commissioners refused to pose, and the picture was never finished. The Treaty of Paris signed on September 3, 1783, by Great Britain and the United States concluded the American Revolution. By its terms, Great Britain recognized its former 13 colonies as the free and sovereign United States of America.
The aftermath of the Revolution “ The American Revolution was a beginning, not a consummation.” - Woodrow Wilson
Questions to consider: Was the Revolution really necessary? Did we need to go to war with Great Britain at that time, or could we have gradually gained all the freedoms we now have had we just given them time to see their error? Given that two-thirds of the colonists were tories, loyalists to the Crown, many of whom fought with the British against their countrymen, was this just a power grab by a Boston elite who simply didn’t want to be given rules to follow? Do you suppose slavery would have been abolished sooner had the British remained in control?