Slanguages2009 Zheng

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Slanguages2009 Zheng

  1. 1. Second Life Chinese School: Iterative Design for Embodiment and Game Play Dongping Zheng, Ph. D. zhengdo@msu.edu Michigan State University Slanguages, 2009
  2. 2. Problems • Mimi’s new teacher • “PG reports having observed another of the NS instructors intimidate a student who was unable to completely produce a line of dialog…. As soon as the student began his recitation, the teacher “snapped” at hime in Chinese “Buhao?” (Lantolf & Genung, 2002, p. 187) 50,000 Chinese learners in grades 7-12 compared to just 5,000 in 2000 (Washington post, April 20, 2006) 40,000,000 in the world (Hanban) Economy in China is expected to grow 8%
  3. 3. The world is in our head vs. Our head is in the world? 4
  4. 4. Information processing vs. Embodiment Input-output Mind/body/world 5
  5. 5. Hierarchies vs. Networks Linear, Hierarchies Non-linear, Networks scissors paper stone • scissors > paper >stone >scissors > paper >stone … (van Lier, 20044) 6
  6. 6. Niche, Affordance (Network), Reflexivity, Relations • The “niche” implies a kind of animal and the animal implies a kind of niche,” by which Gibson inferred the duality of affordances and affectivity (Gibson 1979, p. 128 ). • “Affordance Networks” cuts across the dichotomy of subjective-objective (Barab & Roth, 2006) • “Reflexivity”: language and context feed off each other constantly dynamically (Gee1999, p. 82) • “Relations”: relationship between people and the world, affordance signals an opportunity for action (van Lier, 2004, p.18)
  7. 7. Embodied Experience • Ecological and Social perspectives on design and language learning (Gibson,1979; Hodges, 2007; Young, 2004; Hodges, 2007; van Lier, 2004) • The essential properties of language learning and activity design in virtual worlds should be “physically grounded, and biologically, socially and culturally determined joint (dialogical) activity” (Kravchenko, 2007). ● The dual nature of perception and action is viewed as embodiment which focuses on the demonstration of how cognition is embodied in the physical, real body (Hirose, 2003).
  8. 8. Change • Change is the essential element, the essence of a dynamic system. Change (variance) and stability (invariance/patterns) provide the information to be detected (perception) by actors to be acted upon (Zheng, et al., 2009) • Changes in the physical context result in changes in the nature and number of a particular word’s relationships with other phenomena constitutive of its environment (Kravchenko, 2007, p. 657) • New Designs Change the World for Interaction (Gaver, 1996)
  9. 9. Negotiation for Action • Literal Understanding vs. Understanding and Meaning- making (Gee, 2004, 2007) – “Play” that can give situation-specific meanings to the styles of language associated with that domain • Multiple Trajectories vs. Linear Paths (van Lier, 2004: Young, 2004) – Emergence, not linear, accumulation, of objects, but transformation, growth and reorganization – Attune learners to the patterns of language through meaning-making with Non-Playing Characters, instructors, tutors and environments by providing a sandbox for multiple goal-directed learning trajectories and scaffolding students in (inter) actions rich in cultural nuisances. • Activity vs. object, – but in the world; authorship, emotionally connected to action and speech, and to community (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; van Lier, 2004)
  10. 10. Caring, Goals, Identity Caring (Hodges, 2007) ● The larger context that makes social cooperation and coordination possible. ● Perception and action are best understood as values-realizing activities. Goals/Intentions (Kravchenko, 2007; Jacob & Michaels, 2007) ● Language use is associated with intention as an act of a desire to enter communication as shared (and, therefore, value-laden) activity. ● Intentions define task situations. Identity (Hodges, 2007b; van Lier, 2004) ● Identity can be realized only within interactions and within the symmetries that reflect the dynamics of the ecosystem as a whole. ● Fluid and emergent; learners shape the world they lived in, but also are transcendented by the world.
  11. 11. Ecological Psychology +Design (Gibson, 1979; (Shaw, Kadar, Sim, & Repperger,1992; van lier 2004; Young, 2004) Key Concepts Design for Embodied Experience Learning as Activity-in-the Affordance/effectivity world Perception-action Negotiation for Action Meaning-making Goals and intentions Emerging goals Recognizing and Variance/invariance picking up patterns Attunement Opportunities for scaffolding Heterarchical Values Multiple identities, values- realizing, caring Prolepsis, Feedforwardness Assume the learners already have the abilities we and they wish to develop
  12. 12. Design-Based Research • A new methodological approach that guides reach and design work in the context of real-life settings (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992 ). • “Innovations into the booming, buzzing confusion of real- world practice (as opposed to constrained laboratory contexts) and examining the impact of those designs on the learning process” (Barab et al, 2002; Barab et al, 2007). • The implications of the findings are cycled back into the next iteration of the design innovation so as to build evidence of the particular theories being researched. • Develop theory in practice, they have the potential to lead to interventions that are trustworthy, credible, transferable, and ecologically valid (Barab, Hay, Barnett, & Squire, 2001; Brown, 1992; Kelly, 2003; Roth, 1998).
  13. 13. Kate
  14. 14. Kyle
  15. 15. Al
  16. 16. Virtual Quest Curriculum link Lesson 2B: I am looking for my handbag: How to ask about others’ names and say thanks 。 wǒ zhǎo wǒde shǒutíbāo : Rúhé xúnwèn tā rén de mínɡzi hé zhìxiè ? 我找我的手提包: 如 何 询 问 他 人 的 名 字 和 致 谢 ? Lesson 4B: Looking for a Friend 。 zhǎo yī ge péngyou 找一个朋友。 Lesson 6A:   I want to be a tour guide! Wǒ xiǎng dāng dǎoyóu! 我想当导游!
  17. 17. Three Cases: Kate and Kyle ● Kate’s Trajectories ● Kyle’s Trajectories ● Al’s Identity
  18. 18. Kate
  19. 19. Kyle
  20. 20. What did the participants say? • “The quests force to think about languages and responses, you are almost forced to learn it. I never would have thought about what I was actually doing, just answer the questions in my French class” • “the sentence structure is so different, once I get over with that, I think my brain has adapted to something of different ways of thinking something”
  21. 21. What did the participants say? • In terms of the quests, I think it was good both with working with the tutor. Because you are with the native speaker, then he can really push you and try to reset certain responses and correct you along the way. That the third quest at the end was really a different feeling quest but I found out so much fun. Because I felt like we were a group of foreigners in China and we were trying really figure things out without any help. And you know often how life is and you’ve got to communicate to survive or to get questions and answer. So I think I liked both quest, and in the last quest, I was much more comfortable and didn’t feel so nervous, but that might be just because it was the end of the course, and I felt I gradually know the classmates a little bit, and also I didn’t put so much pressure perhaps on myself to try to precise with the Chinese. I could feel more relaxed because they were both the Americans with me too.
  22. 22. Creation • ¤<905087>(0:15:05.1)Kyle : (... 远不远 ) ? • ¤<915364>(0:15:15.4)Kate :是的,东海鱼店在, I couldn't say that, ,远 ,um, 远不远, can I say that? uh, 东海鱼店在前面, oh, no, 在 what I’ve been say 在公公寓楼前面。 ((video out)) • Naiyi: ((Tempted to say something)) • Dp: (typing: Naiyi, hold on, let Tyler answer) • ¤<975759>(0:16:15.8)Kyle : 对, for me, when I did this one , they taught me a different word , It's uh, it is uh, 在斜对面。 • ¤<991376>(0:16:31.4)kate: 奥, ok.
  23. 23. • ¤<993256>(0:16:33.3)Kyle:Hang on for second ((Tyler typed: xie2 dui2mian4)). • ¤<994166>(0:16:34.2)Kate:oh, Ok ,对面,走吧, ok, 请带我们去 ( ( kate is reading naiyi's tyiping )。对, 对, ok 。 请我们,我们去吧, Tlyer. • ¤<1039188>(0:17:19.2)Kyle :对, If that's the right answer for that 。 • ¤<1045440>(0:17:25.4)Kate :好的,我们去东海 ((video out)).Tyler ,东海东海鱼店在, I already forget to say, it’s here 在这儿,在这儿。在 is that right ?在 这儿 . • ¤<1079589>(0:17:59.6)Kyle : Right 。 • ¤<1081322>(0:18:01.3)Kate : um-hum, 对 .
  24. 24. Take Away Message Learners act into the opportunities and problematics afforded by others and designed environments (Hodges 2007). Through the care the quest prompted, and developed for each other in the challenge, each learner acted out their identity and allowed the environment to shape their new identity so to create new possibilities that invite responsible action. Also through the caring interactions, learners adopted new goals after each discourse and new challenge. Conversations engaged are nurtured from good prospective acts of collaboration that realize values. Embodied environments made all these good prospective acts available and accessible.

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