Qte4 nq _


Published on

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Qte4 nq _

  1. 1. Designation: A 185 – 02 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 185; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1. Scope* 3.1.1 convoluted wire—when wire for welded wire rein- 1.1 This specification covers welded wire reinforcement to forcement is formed into a sinusoidal wave shape, it isbe used for the reinforcement of concrete. commonly referred to as convoluted wire. The wire is used in the manufacture of cages for certain applications of concrete NOTE 1—Welded wire for concrete reinforcement has been described pipe reinforcing.by various terms: welded wire fabric, WWF, fabric, and mesh. The wire 3.1.2 welded wire reinforcement—as used within the scopereinforcement industry prefers the term “welded wire reinforcement”(WWR) as being more representative of the range of products being and intent of this specification, designates a material composedmanufactured. Therefore, the term “welded wire fabric” has been replaced of cold-drawn steel wire, as-drawn or galvanized, fabricatedwith the term “welded wire reinforcement” in this specification and in into sheets or rolls by the process of electric resistancerelated specifications. welding. The finished material shall consist essentially of a 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound or SI units are to be series of longitudinal and transverse wires arranged substan-regarded as standard. Within the text the inch-pound units are tially at right angles to each other, and welded together atshown in parenthesis. The values stated in each system are not points of intersection.exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used inde- 4. Ordering Informationpendently of the other. Combining values may result innonconformance with the specification. 4.1 Orders for material to this specification should include the following information:2. Referenced Documents 4.1.1 Quantity (weight or square area), 2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.1.2 Name of material (welded wire reinforcement for A 82 Specification for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrete Re- concrete), inforcement2 4.1.3 Wire spacings and sizes, A 700 Practices for Packaging, Marking, and Loading 4.1.4 Minimum yield strength if Supplement S 1 of Speci- Methods for Steel Products for Domestic Shipment3 fication A 82 applies. 2.2 Military Standards: 4.1.5 Exclusion of oversteeling, if required (see 8.4.2), MIL-STD-129 Marking for Shipment and Storage4 4.1.6 Length and width of sheets or rolls, MIL-STD-163 Steel Mill Products Preparation for Ship- 4.1.7 Packaging (see Section 16), and ment and Storage4 4.1.8 ASTM designation and year of issue. 2.3 Federal Standard: NOTE 2—A typical ordering description is as follows: 10 000 ft2 Fed. Std. No. 123 Marking for Shipments (Civil Agencies)4 welded wire reinforcement for concrete, 4 3 12-W15 3 W 6, in flat sheets 96 in. wide by 240 in. long, in secured lifts, to ASTM A 185– _______ .3. Terminology 3.1 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard: 5. Materials 5.1 The wire used in the manufacture of welded wire reinforcement shall conform to Specification A 82 and its 1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Supplement S1 if so ordered.Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeA01.05 on Steel Reinforcement. 5.2 Welded wire reinforcement shall be furnished either in Current edition approved Sept 10, 2002. Published June 2003. Originally flat sheets, or in rolls, as specified by the purchaser.published as A 185 – 36 T. Last previous edition A 185 – 01. 2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.04. 3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05. 4 Available from Standardization Documents, Order Desk, Bldg. 4, Section D,700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094. *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. 1
  2. 2. A 185 – 026. Manufacture 7.4.1 Welded wire reinforcement having a relationship of 6.1 The wires shall be assembled by automatic machines or longitudinal and transverse wires other than those covered inby other suitable mechanical means which will assure accurate 7.4 shall not be subject to the weld shear requirement.spacing and alignment of all wires of the finished welded wire 7.4.2 Weld-shear tests for determination of conformance toreinforcement. the requirements of 7.4 shall be conducted using a fixture as described in Section 11. 6.2 Longitudinal and transverse wires shall be securely 7.4.3 Four welds selected at random from the specimenconnected at every intersection by a process of electrical- described in 11.2 shall be tested for weld shear strength. Theresistance welding which employs the principle of fusion transverse wire of each test specimen shall extend approxi-combined with pressure. mately 25 mm (1 in.) on each side of the longitudinal wire. The 6.3 Wire of proper grade and quality when fabricated in the longitudinal wire of each test specimen shall be of such lengthmanner herein required shall result in a strong, serviceable below the transverse wire so as to be adequately engaged bymat-type product having substantially square or rectangular the grips of the testing machine. It shall be of such lengthopenings. It shall be fabricated and finished in a workmanlike above the transverse wire that its end shall be above the centermanner, shall be free from injurious defects, and shall conform line of the upper bearing of the testing device.to this specification. 7.4.4 The material shall be deemed to conform to the NOTE 3—A variation of manufacturing includes the application of one requirements for weld shear strength if the average of the fouror more longitudinal convoluted wires at one edge of welded wire samples complies with the value stipulated in 7.4. If thereinforcement for concrete pipe reinforcing cages. This shape allows the average fails to meet the prescribed value, all the welds acrosscage ends to be expanded to a larger diameter to accommodate the the specimen shall then be tested. The welded wire reinforce-bell-shaped ends of concrete pipe. ment will be acceptable if the average of all weld shear test values across the specimen meets the prescribed minimum7. Mechanical Property Requirements value. 7.1 Tensile—Wire for the production of welded wire rein-forcement is described in Specification A 82. Tensile tests may 8. Dimensions, Mass, and Permissible Variationsbe made on wire cut from the welded wire reinforcement and 8.1 Width—The width of welded wire reinforcement shalltested either across or between the welds; no less than 50 % be considered to be the center-to-center distance betweenshall be across welds. Tensile tests across a weld shall have the outside longitudinal wires. The permissible variation shall notwelded intersection located approximately at the center of the exceed 13 mm (1⁄2 in.) greater or less than the specified width.wire being tested and the cross wire forming the welded In case the width of flat sheets or rolls is specified as the overallintersection shall extend approximately 25 mm (1 in.) beyond width (tip-to-tip length of cross wires), the width shall not varyeach side of the welded intersection. more than 625 mm (61 in.) from the specified width. NOTE 4—Tensile, reduction of area, and bend testing are normally done 8.2 Length—The overall length of flat sheets, measured onat the time the wire is drawn. The manufacturer’s finished product still any wire, may vary 625 mm (61 in.), or 1 %, whichever ismust satisfy the mechanical properties when tested after fabrication. greater. 7.2 Reduction of Area—The ruptured section of the tensile 8.3 Overhang of the transverse wires shall not projectspecimen is measured to determine this property. In the case of beyond the centerline of each longitudinal edge wire more thana specimen which has been tested across a weld, the measure- a distance of 25 mm (1 in.), unless otherwise specified. Whenment shall be made only when rupture has occurred at a transverse wires are specified to project a specific lengthsufficient distance from the center of a weld to permit an beyond the center line of a longitudinal edge wire, theaccurate measurement of the fractured section. The wire shall permissible variation shall not exceed 13 mm (1⁄2 in. ) greatermeet the minimum reduction of area requirements of Specifi- or less than the specified length.cation A 82. 8.4 The permissible variation in diameter of any wire in the 7.3 Bend Test—The wire shall withstand the bend test as finished welded wire reinforcement shall conform to thedescribed in Specification A 82 and shall be performed on a tolerances prescribed for the wire before fabrication, in Speci-specimen taken from between the welds. fication A 82, with the following exceptions: 8.4.1 Because of the mechanical characteristics of fabricat- 7.4 Weld Shear Strength—The weld shear strength between ing welded wire reinforcement, the out-of-round requirementslongitudinal and transverse wires shall be tested as described in shall not apply.Section 11. The minimum average shear value in Newtonsshall be not less than 241 multiplied by the nominal area of the 8.4.2 Unless otherwise precluded by the purchaser, thelarger wire in square millimetres (or in pounds-force shall not manufacturer will be permitted to apply over-sized wire (notbe less than 35 000 multiplied by the nominal area of the larger under-sized). The size differential shall not exceed one “W”wire in square inches). Typical examples of the 40 % or more size increment on sizes W 8 and smaller, and two “W” sizewire size differential area as follows: increments on sizes larger than W 8. A “W” size increment is a whole number increment, for example, W 5 to W 6, or W 5.4 Larger Smaller Size No. W 20 Size No. W 8 to W 6.4, etc. In all cases where such over-steeling is practiced, Size No. W 15 Size No. W 6 the producer shall identify the welded wire reinforcement with Size No. W 10 Size No. W 4 the style originally ordered. 2
  3. 3. A 185 – 02 8.5 The average spacing of wires shall be such that the total 10.2 One test for conformance to weld shear strengthnumber of wires contained in a sheet or roll is equal to or requirement shall be made for each 27 870 m2(300 000 ft2) ofgreater than that determined by the specific spacing, but the welded wire reinforcement or remaining fraction thereof.center-to-center distance between individual members mayvary not more than 6.35 mm (1⁄4 in.) from the specified spacing. 11. Weld Shear Test Apparatus and MethodsIt is understood that sheets of welded wire reinforcement of the 11.1 As the welds in welded wire reinforcement contributespecified length may not always contain an identical number of to the bonding and anchorage value of the wires in concrete, ittransverse wires and, therefore, may have various lengths of is imperative that the weld acceptance tests be made in a jiglongitudinal overhang. that will stress the weld in a manner similar to which it is stressed in concrete. In order to accomplish this the vertical9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance wire in the jig must be stressed in an axis close to its center 9.1 Wire of proper grade and quality, when fabricated in the line. Also the horizontal wire must be held closely to themanner herein required, shall result in a strong, serviceable vertical wire, and in the same relative position, so as to preventmat-type product having substantially square or rectangular rotation of the horizontal wire. When the welded wire rein-openings. It shall be fabricated and finished in a workmanlike forcement is designed with different wire sizes, the largermanner, as determined by visual inspection, and shall conform diameter wire is the “vertical wire’’ when tested (see Fig. 15).to this specification. 11.2 Fig. 1 shows the details of a typical testing jig together10. Number of Tests with two anvils which make it possible to test welds for wire 10.1 One test for conformance to tensile strength and bendrequirements shall be made for each 6 968 m2(75 000 ft2) of 5 A detailed drawing showing complete dimensions of the testing jig may bewelded wire reinforcement or remaining fraction thereof. obtained from ASTM Headquarters. Order ADJA0185. FIG. 1 Welded Wire Reinforcement Weld Tester 3
  4. 4. A 185 – 02up to 15.88 mm (5⁄8 in.) in diameter. This testing jig can be used 14. Rejection and Rehearingin most tension testing machines and should be hung in a ball 14.1 Material that does not meet the requirements of thisand socket arrangement at the center of the machine. This, or specification may be rejected. Unless otherwise specified, anya similarly effective fixture designed on the same principle, is rejection shall be reported to the manufacturer within five daysacceptable. from the time of selection of test specimens. 11.3 Test specimens should be inserted through the notch inthe anvil using the smallest notch available in which the 14.2 In case a specimen fails to meet the tension or bendvertical wire will fit loosely. The vertical wire shall be in test, the material shall not be rejected until two additionalcontact with the surface of the free rotating rollers while the specimens taken from other wires in the same sheet or roll havehorizontal wire shall be supported by the anvil on each side of been tested. The material shall be considered as meeting thethe slot. The bottom jaws of the testing machine shall grip the specification in respect to any prescribed tensile property,lower end of the vertical wire and the load shall be applied at provided the tested average for the three specimens, includinga rate of stressing not to exceed 689 MPa/min (100 000 the specimen originally tested, is equal to or exceeds thepsi/min). required minimum for the particular property in question, and provided further that none of the three specimens develops less12. Sampling than 80 % of the required minimum for the tensile property in 12.1 Test specimens for testing mechanical properties shall question. The material shall be considered as meeting thisbe obtained by cutting from the finished welded wire reinforce- specification in respect to bend test requirements, providedment a full width section, of sufficient length to perform testing both additional specimens satisfactorily pass the prescribeddescribed in 7.1 and 7.2. bend test. 12.2 Test specimens for determining weld-shear properties 14.3 Any material that shows injurious imperfections sub-shall be obtained by cutting from the finished welded wire sequent to its acceptance at the manufacturer’s works may bereinforcement, a full width section of sufficient length to rejected and the manufacturer shall be promptly notified.perform testing described in 7.4. 14.4 Welded intersections shall withstand normal shipping 12.3 Measurements for conformance to dimensional char- and handling without becoming broken, but the presence ofacteristics shall be made on full sheets or rolls. broken welds, regardless of cause, shall not constitute cause for 12.4 If any test specimen exhibits obvious imperfections, it rejection unless the number of broken welds per sheet exceedsmay be discarded and another specimen substituted. 1 % of the total number of intersections in a sheet, or if the13. Inspection material is furnished in rolls, 1 % of the total number of 13.1 The inspector representing the purchaser shall have intersections in 14 m2(150 ft2) of welded wire reinforcementfree entry at all times while work on the contract of the and, furthermore, provided not more than one half the permis-purchaser is being performed to all parts of the manufacturer’s sible maximum number of broken welds are located on any oneworks that concern the manufacture of the material ordered. wire.The manufacturer shall afford the inspector all reasonable 14.5 In the event of rejection because reason of failure tofacilities to assure that the material is being furnished in meet the weld shear requirements, four additional specimensaccordance with this specification. shall be taken from four different sheets or rolls and tested in 13.2 Except for yield strength, all tests and inspections shall accordance with Section 11. If the average of all the weld shearbe made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unless tests performed does not meet the requirement, the materialotherwise specified. Such tests shall be so conducted as not to shall be rejected.interfere unnecessarily with the operation of the works. 14.6 In the event of rejection because of failure to meet the 13.3 If the purchaser considers it desirable to determine requirements for dimensions, the amount of material rejectedcompliance with the yield strength requirements of Specifica- shall be limited to those individual sheets or rolls which fail totion A 82, yield strength tests may be made in a recognized meet this specification.laboratory, or their representative may make the test at the mill, 14.7 Rust, surface seams, or surface irregularities will notif such tests do not interfere unnecessarily with the mill be cause for rejection provided the minimum dimensions,operations. cross-sectional area and tensile properties of a hand wire 13.4 For U.S. Government Procurement Only—Except as brushed test specimen are not less than the requirements of thisotherwise specified in the contract, the contractor is responsible specification.for the performance of all inspection and test requirements 14.8 Rehearing—Rejected materials shall be preserved for aspecified herein. Except as otherwise specified in the contract, period of at least two weeks from the date of inspection, duringthe contractor may use his own or any other suitable facilities which time the manufacturer may make claim for a rehearingfor the performance of the inspection and test requirements and retesting.specified herein, unless disapproved by the purchaser at thetime of purchase. The purchaser shall have the right to perform 15. Certificationany of the inspections and tests at the same frequency as setforth in this specification where such inspections are deemed 15.1 If outside inspection is waived, a manufacturer’s cer-necessary to assure that material conforms to prescribed tification that the material has been tested in accordance withrequirements. and meets the requirements of this specification shall be the 4
  5. 5. A 185 – 02basis of acceptance of the material. The certification shall 16.2 When welded wire reinforcement is furnished in flatinclude the specification number, year-date of issue and revi- sheets, it shall be assembled in bundles of convenient sizesion letter, if any. containing not more than 150 sheets and securely fastened 15.2 This conformance is predicated upon testing and ac- together.ceptance of wire prior to fabrication, coupled with random 16.3 When welded wire reinforcement is furnished in rolls,shear testing during production. Because of warehousing and each roll shall be secured so as to prevent unwinding duringstocking problems, no efforts are normally taken to supply shipping and handling.actual test data on material shipped. If this is deemed essential,outside inspection should be utilized. 16.4 Each bundle of flat sheets and each roll shall have 15.3 When Supplement S1of Specification A 82 is specified attached thereto a suitable tag bearing the name of thefor the material, test results for yield strength, tensile strength, manufacturer, description of the material, ASTM A 185, andreduction of area, and bend tests shall be reported (S1.3.1 of such other information as may be specified by the purchaser.Specification A 82). 16.5 When specified in the contract or order, and for direct 15.4 A material test report, certificate of inspection, or procurement by or direct shipment to the U.S. government,similar document printed from or used in electronic form from when Level A is specified, preservation, packaging, and pack-an electronic data interchange (EDI) transmission shall be ing shall be in accordance with the Level A requirement ofregarded as having the same validity as a counterpart printed in MIL-STD-163.the certifier’s facility. The content of the EDI transmitted 16.6 When specified in the contract or order, and for thedocument must meet the requirements of the invoked ASTM direct procurement by or direct shipment to the U. S. govern-standard(s) and conform to any existing EDI agreement be- ment, marking for shipment, in addition to requirementstween the purchaser and the supplier. Notwithstanding the specified in the contract or order, shall be in accordance withabsence of a signature, the organization submitting the EDI MIL-STD-129 for U. S. military agencies and in accordancetransmission is responsible for the content of the report. with Fed. Std. No. 123 for U. S. government civil agencies. NOTE 5—The industry definition as invoked here is: EDI is thecomputer-to-computer exchange of business information in a standard 17. Keywordsformat such as ANSI ASC X12. 17.1 concrete reinforcement; reinforced concrete; reinforc-16. Packaging and Marking ing steels; steel wire; welded wire reinforcement 16.1 Unless otherwise specified, packaging, marking, andloading for shipment shall be in accordance with PracticesA 700. SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee A01 has the location of changes since A 185–01 that may impact the use of this standard.(1) Added Section 15.4 and Note 5. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org). 5