Made in the World
From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks
andreas.maurer@wto.org
Boeing Dreamliner 787
Source: Graphic News
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405274870482810457602114290241
3796.html
Processors, €34, 6%
Memories, €15, 3%
Integr.circuits, €32, 6%
Display, €22, 4%
Camera (5 mp), €17, 3%
Other parts, €59, 1...
Smiley Face
(Source: Business Week International online extra, May 16, 2005, Stan Shih on
Taiwan and China)
Higher Added-v...
7
MIWI website
News
Discussion forum
MIWI publications
Upcoming/Past events
Recently submitted
articles
Feedback
Links to ...
Trade patterns and global
value chains in East Asia :
From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks
andreas.maurer@wto.org
Global production chains – Ins and outs
International consumer demand
Export processing zones
Development of infrastructur...
Asian economies have relatively low applied tariffs on imports
(especially on semi-processed goods)
Source: WTO
Export processing zones account for about 20% of total
merchandise exports of developing economies
Sources: ILO & WTO
(200...
Asia is the most attractive FDI destination
in the developing regions
Source: UNCTAD
(Billions of US$)
… Confirming that:
• Asia is the “World manufacturer”
• Asian supply chains boost the regional markets
• Asian economies p...
Towards a new measure of international trade
• Traditional statistics present some biases:
– Multi-counting of trade flows...
Computers and electronic equipment
exports and their domestic and imported contents
(in billions of $ and percentage)
Sour...
United States-China trade balance
Traditional versus VA measure (in billions of US$)
Sources: UN Comtrade Database, IDE-JE...
Summary of the benefits of trade in value added
analysis
• A better evaluation of the actual contribution of
international...
http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/miwi_e/miwi_e.htm
Made in the World. From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks
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Made in the World. From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks

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Andreas Maurer WTO.org
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Made in the World. From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks

  1. 1. Made in the World From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks andreas.maurer@wto.org
  2. 2. Boeing Dreamliner 787 Source: Graphic News
  3. 3. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000142405274870482810457602114290241 3796.html
  4. 4. Processors, €34, 6% Memories, €15, 3% Integr.circuits, €32, 6% Display, €22, 4% Camera (5 mp), €17, 3% Other parts, €59, 11% Licenses, €21, 4% Nokia’s operating profit, €89, 16% Final assembly, €11, 2% Distribution, €19, 4% Value added in Nokia’s internal support fns, €169, 31% (Excl. Operating profit & assembly listed below) Retailing, €60, 11% Who Captures Value in Global Supply Chains? Case Nokia N95 Source: Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö, Petri Rouvinen, Timo Seppälä & Pekka Ylä-Anttila ETLA, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy
  5. 5. Smiley Face (Source: Business Week International online extra, May 16, 2005, Stan Shih on Taiwan and China) Higher Added-value and Lower Replacement Marketing Brand Innovation Design R&D R&D/Innovation Centre Value Creation Standardisation Added Value Value-added process Global Logistics Center Logistics AssemblyManufacture
  6. 6. 7 MIWI website News Discussion forum MIWI publications Upcoming/Past events Recently submitted articles Feedback Links to other websites Stay Informed Related articles, documents … Flyer Videos
  7. 7. Trade patterns and global value chains in East Asia : From Trade in Goods to Trade in Tasks andreas.maurer@wto.org
  8. 8. Global production chains – Ins and outs International consumer demand Export processing zones Development of infrastructure and technological progress Lower applied tariffs and trade policy incentives Outsourcing and offshoring strategies and FDI Emergence of “Trade in tasks”: Need for new statistical measures of international trade Global production chains and world trade • Dominance of trade in intermediate goods • Development of intra- firm trade • Increase of processing trade
  9. 9. Asian economies have relatively low applied tariffs on imports (especially on semi-processed goods) Source: WTO
  10. 10. Export processing zones account for about 20% of total merchandise exports of developing economies Sources: ILO & WTO (2006 or most recent year): economies with EPZs
  11. 11. Asia is the most attractive FDI destination in the developing regions Source: UNCTAD (Billions of US$)
  12. 12. … Confirming that: • Asia is the “World manufacturer” • Asian supply chains boost the regional markets • Asian economies present a high degree of industrial specialization Key facts on Asia trade in intermediate goods … • Asia’s share in world exports of intermediate goods increases : 35% in 2009 • Intra-Asian trade is predominant • Asia imports more intermediate goods than it exports • Intermediate goods traded by Asian economies are more and more sophisticated • More and more concentrated trade on few components Intermediate goods dominate world non-fuel merchandise exports Source: UNSD & WTO 2009 value BillionsofUS$
  13. 13. Towards a new measure of international trade • Traditional statistics present some biases: – Multi-counting of trade flows in intermediate goods – Difficult attribution of the country of origin of an imported product • Measuring trade in value added terms allows: – To circumvent the biases observed with traditional statistics – To take into account the specificity of trade occurring between the different actors of a production chain
  14. 14. Computers and electronic equipment exports and their domestic and imported contents (in billions of $ and percentage) Source: WTO, based on IDE-JETRO Asian Input-Output tables
  15. 15. United States-China trade balance Traditional versus VA measure (in billions of US$) Sources: UN Comtrade Database, IDE-JETRO AIO table and WTO estimates
  16. 16. Summary of the benefits of trade in value added analysis • A better evaluation of the actual contribution of international trade to an economy (incl. development, employment, environment) • To highlight the interdependency of economies, and the counter-productive effects of protectionist measures on economies and enterprises they are supposed to protect • Better evaluation of the contribution of the services sector on trade • Conventional trade statistics need complement for analysing value added – data gaps and how can they be closed (TEC, WIOD, OECD/WTO)
  17. 17. http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/miwi_e/miwi_e.htm

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