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Bab 6 use case diagram 2010

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  • 1. BAB VIUSE CASE
  • 2. Use Case Model• Teknik pemodelan untuk mendapatkan functional requirement dari sebuah sistem• Menggambarkan interaksi antara pengguna dan sistem• Menjelaskan secara naratif bagaimana sistem akan digunakan• Menggunakan skenario untuk menjelaskan setiap aktivitas yang mungkin terjadi• Kadangkala notasi kurang detail, terutama untuk beberapa aktivitas tertentu
  • 3. Kapan Menggunakan Use Case?• Use case sederhana digunakan pada saat proses requirement analysis - Tidak semua pengguna paham bahasa teknis• Versi yang lebih detail dibuat sebelum implementasi rancangan - Dibuat khusus untuk mempermudah desain sistem oleh para developer
  • 4. Skenario• Buy a product scenario * The customer browses the catalog and adds desired items to the shopping basket. * When the customer wishes to pay, the customer describes the shipping and credit card information and confirms the sale * The system checks the authorization on the credit card and confirms the sale both immediately and with a follow-up e-mail• Bagaimana jika proses pembayaran menggunakan CC gagal atau konsumen lama yang tidak perlu merekam informasi CC? Buat skenario baru
  • 5. • Catatan: Proses pada skenario tidak selalu harus berhasil Kesimpulan: * USE CASE adalah sekumpulan skenario yang dihubungkan satu sama lain dengan satu tujuan yang sama dari pengguna * Use Case berisi apa yang dilakukan oleh sistem / apa yang terjadi pada sistem, bukan bagaimana sistem melakukan
  • 6. Level Use Case ModelUse Case memiliki dua istilah* System use case : interaksi dengan sistem* Business use case : interaksi bisnis dengan konsumen atau kejadian nyataCookburn menyarankan adanya pembedaanlevel* Sea level : interaksi sistem dengan aktor utama* Fish level: use case yang ada karena include dari use case sea-level* Kite level : menggambarkan sea-level use case untuk interaksi bisnis yang lebih luas
  • 7. Use Case Mdl. Key ElementsWhat actions or procedures exist within asystem Use Case Who’s involved in those actions Actor How those actions related to each other ina system Relationship
  • 8. Element: Use CaseAksi yang terdapat di dalam sistem,melingkupi semua aksi yang harusmaupun dapat terjadiTidak harus berelasi dengan seorang/sebuah aktorPada umumnya berupa kata kerja
  • 9. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman • Actor menggambarkan segala sesuatu yang berinteraksi dengan sistem untuk melakukan pertukaran informasi. Actor adalah pengguna, pemeran (role), yang bisa berupa sistem eksternal maupun orang. • Actor menginisiasi aktivitas sistem, dalam bentuk use case, bertujuan untuk melengkapi beberapa kegiatan bisnis. • Actor menggambarkan peranan yang dilakukan oleh user yang berinteraksi dengan sistem dan bukan menggambarkan individual jabatan pekerjaan.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 10. Element: ActorDalam notasi Use Case, pengguna sistemdisebut dengan Actor (role)Actor bisa berupa manager, pimpinan,mahasiswa, dan lain sebagainya* Actor tidak harus berupa manusia* Jika sistem A mengerjakan sebuah fungsi untuk sistem sistem B, maka sistem B disebut actorSatu use case diagram bisa memiliki banyakactor didalamnya
  • 11. Use Case ModelsUSE CASE USE CASE TEXT DIAGRAM* lebih detail * lebih abstrak kurang detail* tidak ada visualisasi * bentuk visual (berbentuk teks) (gambar) * Cocok bagi * Cocok untuk developer berkomunikasi dengan client
  • 12. Use Case TextPilih salah satu skenario sebagai skenarioutama yang suksesTuliskan langkah-langkah untuk menyelesaikanskenario tersebut* Setiap langkah menampilkan tujuan dari sang actor* Tidak perlu menuliskan bagian user interfaceTulis skenario lain dan sebut sebagai extensions,variasi dari skenario utama* Extension bisa sukses atau gagal, tetapi interaksinya harus berbeda dengan skenario utama* Extension bisa kembali ke skenario utama
  • 13. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Keuntungan Use Case 1. Sebagai dasar untuk membantu mengidentifikasi objek-objek dan hubungan tingkat tinggi dan tanggung jawab masing-masing. 2. Sebagai gambaran dari behavior sistem yang akan dibuat dari sisi pengguna eksternal. 3. Sebagai alat yang efektif untuk memvalidasi kebutuhan. 4. Sebagai alat komunikasi yang efektif 5. Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan perencanaan testing. 6. Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan pembuatan user manual.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 14. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Langkah-langkah dalam membuat use case modeling 1. Mengidentifikasi actor-actor tambahan dan use case-use case 2. Buatlah model Use Case 3. Dokumentasikan kejadian-kejadian dalam Use Case 4. Definisikan Analysis Use CasesIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 15. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 1: Identifying Actors and Use CasesActor Use Case Name Use Case DescriptionPotential SUBMIT NEW Potential member joins the club by subscribing. (“Take anu 12 CDs for one pennyMember SUBSCRIPTION and agree to buy 4 more at regular club prices within two years.”)Club PLACE NEW MEMBER Club member places order.Member ORDERClub MAKE ACCOUNT INQUIRY Club member wants to examine his or her account history.Member (90-day time limit)Club MAKE PURCHASE INQUIRY Club member inquires about his/her purchase history.Member (three-year time limit)Club MAINTAIN MEMBER ORDER Club member wants to revise an order or cancel an order.MemberClub SUBMIT CHANGE OF Club member changes address.Member ADDRESS (including e-mail and privacy code)Past SUBMIT Past member rejoins the club by resubscribing.Member RESUBSCRIPTIONMarketing SUBMIT NEW MEMBER Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to entice new SUBSCRIPTION PROGRAM members.Marketing SUBMIT PAST MEMBER Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to lure back former RESUBSCRIPTION members. PROGRAMMarketing SUBMIT NEW PROMOTION Marketing initiates a promotion. (Note: A promotion features specific titles, usually new, that company is trying to sell at a special price. These promotions are integrated into a catalog sent (or communicated) to all members.)Time GENERATE QUARTERLY Print quarterly promotion analysis report. PROMOTION ANALYSISTime GENERATE QUARTERLY Print annual sales analysis report. SALES ANALYSISTime GENERATE QUARTERLY Print annual membership analysis report. MEMBERSHIP ANALYSISTime GENERATE ANNUAL SALES Print annual sales analysis report. ANALYSISTime GENERATE ANNUAL Print annual membership analysis report. MEMBERSHIP ANALYSISIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 16. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 2: Constructing a Use Case Model DiagramOrder Subsystem Subscription Subsystem Maintain Member Submit Change of Submit New Potential Member Order Address Subscription initiates initiates Club Member initiates Place New initiates Submit Member Order Resubscription initiates initiates Make Purchase Submit Past Submit New Past Member Inquiry Member Member Resubscription Subscription Program Program initiatesOperations Subsystem Promotion Subsystem initiates initiates Make Account Generate Quarterly Inquiry Membership Analysis initiates Time Marketing Generate Annual Generate Quarterly Submit New initiates initiates Sales Analysis initiates Promotion Analysis Promotion initiates initiates Generate Quarterly Generate Annual Sales Analysis Membership AnalysisIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 17. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical CourseAuthor: S. Shepard Date: 10/05/2000Use Case Name: Submit New Member OrderActor(s): MemberDescription: This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted.References: MSS-1.0 1 System responseTypical Course Step 2: The member’s personal information such asof Events: Actor Action address is validated against what is currently Step 1: This use case is recorded in member services. 2 initiated when a member submits an order to be Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with processed Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 18. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical Course (concluded)Alternate Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on theCourses: promotion order, update the club member’s record with the new information. Step 3: If Accounts Receivable returns a credit status that the customer is in arrears, send an order rejection notice to the member. Step 4: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting them to submit a valid product number. If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark as “back-ordered.”Pre-condition: Orders can only be submitted by members.Post-condition: Member order has been recorded and the picking ticket has been routed to the warehouse.Assumptions: None at this time.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 19. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Extension and Abstract Use Cases • An extension use case extends the functionality (typical course) of an original use case. An extension use case can only be invoked by the use case it is extending. • An abstract use case contains typical course steps that were common to two or more original use cases. An abstract use case reduces redundancy and promotes reuse.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 20. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Depicting Extension and Abstract Use Cases using UML Notation Generate Warehouse Calculate Order Subtotal & Packing Order Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case Submit Change of AddressIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 21. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case ANALYSIS USE CASEAuthor: S. Shepherd Date: 10/25/2000USE CASE NAME: Place New Member OrderACTOR(S): Club MemberDESCRIPTION: This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for SoundStage products. On completion, the club member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted.REFERENCES MSS-1.0 Actor Action System ResponseTYPICAL COURSEOF EVENTS: Step 1: This use case is initiated Step 2: The member’s personal information such as when a member submits an address and phone number is validated against what is order to be processed. currently on file. Step 3: For each product being ordered, validate the product number. Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information such as the quantity being ordered. Step 5: Invoke extension use case Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax. Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 7: Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse Step 9: This use case concludes Packing Order. when the member receives the Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating order confirmation notice. the status of the order and send it to the member. (continued)Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 22. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case (concluded)ALTERNATE Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on theCOURSES: order, invoke abstract use case Revise Street Address. Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears, a credit problem notice is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold pending payment.”PRECONDITION: Orders can only be submitted by members.POSTCONDITION: Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse.ASSUMPTIONS: None at this time.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 23. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Finding and Identifying Business Objects • Step 1: Find the Potential Objects – Underlining (or highlighting) the use case nouns • Step 2: Select the Proposed Objects – Removing the nouns that represent: • Synonyms • Nouns outside the scope of the system • Nouns that are roles without unique behavior or are external roles • Unclear nouns that need focus • Nouns that are really actions or attributesIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 24. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Use Case with Nouns HighlightedAuthor: S. Shepherd ANALYSIS USE CASE Date: 10/25/2000USE CASE NAME: Place New Member OrderACTOR(S): Club MemberDESCRIPTION: This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for SoundStage products. On completion, the club member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted.REFERENCES MSS-1.0TYPICAL COURSE Actor Action System ResponseOF EVENTS: Step 1: This use case is initiated Step 2: The member’s personal information such as when a member submits an address and phone number is validated against what is order to be processed. currently on file. Step 3: For each product being ordered, validate the product number. Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information such as the quantity being ordered. Step 5: Invoke extension use case Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax. Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 7: Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse Step 9: This use case concludes Packing Order. when the member receives the Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating order confirmation notice. the status of the order and send it to the member. (continued)Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 25. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Use Case with Nouns Highlighted (concluded)ALTERNATE Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on theCOURSES: order, invoke abstract use case Revise Street Address. Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears, a credit problem notice is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold pending payment.”PRECONDITION: Orders can only be submitted by members.POSTCONDITION: Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse.ASSUMPTIONS: None at this time.Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 26. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Potential Objects Extracted from Use Case POTENTIAL OBJECT LIST Accounts Receivable Department Amount Due Club Member Credit Card Information Credit Problem Notice Credit Status File Marketing Department Member Address Member Order Member Phone Number Member Services Department Member Services System Order Order Confirmation Notice Order Sales Tax Order Status Order Subtotal Ordered Product Ordered Product Information Ordered Product Quantity Past Member Payments Potential Member Product Product Inventory Product Number Street Address Transaction WarehouseIrwin/McGraw-Hill Warehouse Packing Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Order
  • 27. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Analysis of the Potential Objects POTENTIAL OBJECT LIST REASON Accounts Receivable Department x Not relevant for current project Amount Due x Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER” Club Member / Type of “MEMBER” Credit Card Information x Attribute of “MEMBER” Credit Problem Notice x Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented design Credit Status x Attribute of “MEMBER” File x Not relevant for current project Marketing Department x Not relevant for current project Member Address x Attribute of “MEMBER” Member Order / “MEMBER ORDER” Member Phone Number x Attribute of “MEMBER” Member Services Department x Not relevant for current project Member Services System x Not relevant for current project Order x Another name for “MEMBER ORDER” Order Confirmation Notice x Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented design Order Sales Tax x Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER” Order Status x Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER” Order Subtotal x Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER” Ordered Product / “MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT” Ordered Product Information x Unclear noun Ordered Product Quantity x Attribute of “MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT” Past Member / Type of “MEMBER” Payments / Type of “TRANSACTION” Potential Member / Type of “MEMBER” Product / “PRODUCT” Product Inventory x Attribute of “PRODUCT” Product Number x Attribute of “PRODUCT” Street Address x Attribute of “MEMBER” Transaction / “TRANSACTION” Warehouse x Not relevant for current project Warehouse Packing Order x Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented designIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved
  • 28. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh • Sebuah use case menjelaskan interaksi antara user dengan sistem aplikasi. • Sebagai contoh dalam sebuah sistem reservasi peminjaman mobil (rent a car), sebuah use case harus dapat menjelaskan apa yang user lakukan dengan sistem aplikasi dalam sebuah kejadian/event bisnis dalam sebuah proses bisnis. Misalnya reservasi sebuah mobil Ferrari untuk Pak Agus. • Sebuah proses dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa use case jika dapat diketahui dengan jelas tiap-tiap kejadiannya atau jika bagian-bagian yang diidentifikasi tersebut dikerjakan oleh orang-orang yang berbeda. • Jika diasumsikan sistem yang akan di analisa adalah Sistem Informasi Peminjaman Mobil (Rent a car) maka orang yang akan kita temui adalah:Addison-Wesley
  • 29. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh • Customer service (central telephone operator) – Information – Reservation • Customer service (branch office) – Vehicle hand-over – Vehicle return • Service personnel (branch office, vehicle clerk) • Branch office management • Phone service management • Managing clerks, vehicle transfer staff, accounting staff (jika diperlukan)Addison-Wesley
  • 30. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Objek-objek yang disebutkan diatas harus dapat diidentifikasi dan diberi nama. Sebagai contoh objek-objek tersebut adalah: • Data customer • Kontrak • Invoice • Konfirmasi reservasi • Aturan pengembalian mobil • Aturan pemarkiran • Dokumentasi kendaraanAddison-Wesley
  • 31. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh • Aksesories yang ada dalam mobil • Fixed accessories (AC, tape, sun roof) • Kunci-kunci kendaraan • File-file customer • Alokasi / lot tempat parkir • Contract condition / aturan kontrak • Dsb.Addison-Wesley
  • 32. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Identifikasi use case dan actor • Gambar use case dari kasus diatas dapat dilihat pada gambar di bawah ini. Disini actor-nya adalah interested party yaitu customer, dan staff untuk reservasi (staff for reservation), penyerahan mobil yang akan dipinjam (vehicle hand-over) dan pengembalian mobil (vehicle return) • Interested party (Calon customer) berbeda dengan Customer, karena calon customer biasanya belum ada datanya (anonymous), karena data mereka belum terdaftarAddison-Wesley
  • 33. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Car Rental Agency Advise, give information Interested Party <<include>> Reservation Staff reserve Stipulate contract Customer Handover vehicle Hand-over staff Take back vehicle Driver Return Staff Invoice CustomerAddison-Wesley
  • 34. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Business use case dan System use case Dalam bisnis use case, actor adalah semua peran (role) yang terlibat dalam proses bisnis, sedangkan dalam system use case, mereka dibatasi hanya kepada mereka yang mempunyai kontak langsung dengan sistem aplikasi. Biasanya customer tidak memiliki akses langsung dengan sistem aplikasi, tetapi dalam bisnis use case mereka tetap dicatat. Jika customer dapat melakukan reservasi melalui self-service terminal atau melalui internet, mereka berinteraksi langsung dengan sistem aplikasi dan oleh karena itu mereka harus digambarkan dalam system use case.Addison-Wesley
  • 35. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Jika use case car rental agency diatas dikelompokkan, Reservation bentuknya : Advise, Interested party give information <<include>> Reservation Reserve Customer Rental Stipulate Vehicle contract hand-over Hand over vehicle Accept Driver return vehicle Vehicle Invoicing return Customer InvoiceAddison-Wesley
  • 36. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Menggunakan use case • Menggambarkan use case dalam bentuk diagram elips adalah langkah pertama, setelah itu yang berikutnya adalah menjelaskannya dalam bentuk lebih detil lagi. • Penjelasan detil dari use case adalah tujuan utama dari use case analysis untuk itu ada dua contoh yang menggambarkan use case lebih detil.Addison-Wesley

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