<ul><li>Road to Merger </li></ul><ul><li>Merger with Malaysia was one of the main goals of the PAP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A promise made during the 1959 elections when the PAP was swept to power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morally obliged to fulfill its election promises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So the PAP did everything to give Singapore a Malayan outlook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malay was promoted as the national language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Malay Singaporean, Yusof Ishak was made the head of state in Singapore </li></ul></ul>
Road to Merger <ul><li>Although the PAP made these overtures, yet the Tenku was not very keen on taking Singapore in. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Malays will lose their dominant position in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>If the Chinese are brought in then the population distribution in Malaya would be, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese in Malaya and Singapore-3.6 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malays in Malaya and Singapore-3.4 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communist threat </li></ul><ul><li>There was a very strong communist influence in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was seen as a second China that had very strong links with china rather than as a part of SEA. </li></ul>
Road to Merger However the Tenku changed his mind later and proposed that Singapore be included into Malaysia because Communist Fear Did not want Singapore to become a second Cuba whereby Singapore becomes a communist base and create trouble for Malaysia The PAP in Singapore was losing its control over the people and was losing the by-elections Racial Balance The racial equation could be solved by including the people of Sabah and Sarawak as Malays Other benefits The federal govt will have a share in the large reserves of Singapore Malaya could gain additional territory from Sabah and Sarawak.
Road to Merger <ul><li>The British were happy that Singapore will not be controlled by </li></ul><ul><li>the communists and that its economic survival will be assured. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore’s response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welcomed the proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Malayan hinterland and the raw materials were thought to be beneficial for Singapore’s economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through Merger Singapore will gain independence from the </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore’s unemployment problem also would be solved if the merger goes ahead due to the large market </li></ul></ul>
Road to Merger But the communists were totally opposed to the idea of merger. Reasons The Malayan government was vehemently anti- communist If the merger goes ahead, the communists will be finished as the federal government will mobilise all resources to eradicate them. Thus the PAP was split into two groups. Pro-communists called as Barisan Sosialis and The PAP that was against the communists As a result of this the PAP was further weakened.
Road to Merger Referendum Thus in order to solve the issue of whether to merge or not with Malaya, the PAP came out with a referendum. All citizens of Singapore were asked to vote on the issue. There was intense propaganda between the two groups, with the communists and the PAP both trying to convince the voters to make the right choice. However in the end the PAP was successful in the referendum with 71% of the people voting for merger. Thus Singapore was merged with Malaya.
Road to Merger Negotiations and points of agreement Both Malaya and Singapore had different views with regard to the merger and separation. Singapore wanted the merger badly because it would be the best way to solve her economic problems and to gain independence. Malaya on the other hand wanted to go with the merger because she did not want a strong communist country at her doorstep and so she saw the merger as a convenient way of getting rid of the communist problem. The negotiations were long and stormy and also highly contentious.
Road to Merger Common Market Singapore wanted to sell her products in Malaya without any tax, but Malaya was reluctant to let this happen as she thought that it will affect her trade Singapore wanted to confirm the common market first and then go ahead with the merger, but Malaya wanted the merger first and then settle the common market issue later. In the end a compromise was agreed upon whereby the common market would be established in stages.
Road to Merger Revenue Both sides agreed that Singapore would pay 40 % of its annual revenue to the Federal Government Pioneer certificates Pioneer certificates were to be granted to certain types of new industries which would exempt them from taxes for between five and ten years. Both sides agreed that KL would grant these certificates after Malaysia was formed.
Road to Merger Borneo Loan Singapore was to help financially for the development of Sabah and Sarawak. Malaysia wanted a gift of 50 million dollars. Singapore insisted that it would give a loan and not an outright gift. In the end Singapore was to provide a loan of M$ 150 million. The loan was to be repaid in 15 years without charging any interest for 100 million dollars. Besides, 50 % of the labour used in the development projects would have to come from Singapore
Road to Merger Constitutional matters Based on its population Singapore was to have 24 seats in the Malayan parliament, but she was given only 15 seats because Singapore wanted full control over education and labour policies. These two areas were important because the communists were had strong influence in education and labour.Thus Singapore would be better able to handle these situations. Education was important to Singapore because it did not want KL pro-Malay policies to be forced on the Singapore Chinese who might go against the merger
Road to Merger Citizenship issues Singapore citizens would retain their citizenship and become nationals of Malaya They will not be allowed to vote Malaysian elections and vice-versa. However political parties from both sides could continue to take part in the elections provided the candidates must be citizens of the respective countries.
Road to Merger Malay rights Special privileges enjoyed by the Malays in Malaya would be extended to Singapore Privileges to be extended to Malays and their special indigenous position would be recognised Free education to Malays until their university level In July 1963 the Malaysia Agreement was signed by Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. Brunei did not join and Indonesia and the Philippines opposed the formation as a neo-colonial plot.
Road to Merger External pressures Indonesia saw the creation of Malaysia as an attempt by the British to maintain their power in SEA as the British bases were allowed to remain in Singapore even after Malaysia was formed. Thus Indonesia launched an anti-Malaysia campaign known as the Indonesian confrontation. The Philippines was also against the formation as it claimed Sabah as its territory The UN intervened and conducted a survey and concluded that the people of Sabah and Sarawak wanted to join the federation. Indonesia rejected the UN proposal and its confrontation turned violent. Trade was affected and unemployment rate went up in Singapore
Road to Separation Malaysia was officially proclaimed on 16 September 1963. But the excitement and high hopes that were raised with the formation of Malaysia quickly disappeared as problems began to surface between Singapore and the Federal govt.The first clash occurred in the 1963 Singapore General election. 1963 Singapore GE UMNO contested in the Singapore elections in 1963 under the banner of SA (Singapore Alliance)and many leaders including the Tenku came to support to garner support for the SA. But the SUMNO or SA did not win a single seat and even lost the three predominantly Malay constituencies to the PAP. Thus Communal based politics was rejected by the Malays in Singapore and secondly people were greatly attracted to Singapore’s non-communal approach in politics, economic and social programmes.
The PAP or MCA in UMNO? The PAP argued that it would be a more effective partner of UMNO within the Alliance instead of MCA, as it would gain the support of the Chinese community. UMNO viewed this move as a challenge to its Malay-based political system. MCA, on the other hand, felt that this was a threat to their position in the Alliance. This contest of the PAP trying to enter UMNO and the UMNO instead supporting the MCA also was another factor in souring the relationship.
Road to Separation 1964 Federal election The PAP sent 17 candidates to participate in the Federal elections held in April 1964. It wanted to introduce new economic and social policies so as to narrow the gap between the rich and poor But the Alliance saw the PAP’s participation as a direct challenge to its supremacy. At the election rallies the PAP’s calls were heard by people of all races and there was a large turn out for the PAP. However in the end the PAP won only one seat of the contested 14 seats. However this had far reaching consequences Senior UMNO leaders were unhappy with the PAP and were no longer tolerant of it and stepped up their criticism. Secondly the UMNO leaders saw the PAP as a threat and wanted the PAP to be confined to Singapore and not involved in Malaysian politics.
“ I consider it a misfortune to make this announcement. This concerns the separation of Singapore from Malaysia” “ For me it is a moment of anguish. All my life,my whole adult life, I have believed in merger and the unity of the two territories…It broke everything we stood for” On our Own: Separation from Malaysia
<ul><li>Political rivalry UMNO contested in the Singapore elections in 1963 and the PAP contested in the Malayan elections in 1964. This created a lot of unhappiness and both parties accused each other of interfering in the other party’s turf. </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Politics UMNO leaders in KL criticised Singapore leaders of not looking after the Malays in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Other misleading articles that aimed to inflame the Malays were printed in the Malay mass media and this resulted in two race riots . </li></ul>Singapore became part of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Yet on 9 august 1965 Singapore became separated from Malaysia and became an independent nation. How did this come about?
<ul><li>Economic Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in setting up the common market </li></ul><ul><li>New taxes imposed on Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to increase Singapore’s contribution from 40% to 60%. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Personality clash between Mr. Lee Kuan Yew and the Tenku </li></ul>
Formation of a Malaysia Solidarity Convention The PAP formed a Malaysia Solidarity Convention in May 1965 which combined various opposition parties in Malaysia. It called for a democratic Malaysian Malaysia that would be for all Malaysians and not one community. Members of UMNO’s right wing viewed the Convention as a plot against Kuala Lumpur. Lee Kuan Yew’s open attacks against the Central government sparked accusations that he was trying to seize power for himself.
Racial riots Racial riots between the Malays and Chinese erupted in Singapore on July 21, 1964. 23 people were killed and 454 were injured in the riots.
The Tunku, saw the situation as hopeless -- as soon as one issue was resolved, another cropped up. After much thought, the Tunku was convinced that separation was the only way to settle their differences without bloodshed. Tunku’s reaction to the problems
On Aug 9, 1965, Tunku Abdul Rahman issued a proclamation that Singapore would cease to be a part of Malaysia and would become independent and separate
“My dream is shattered and so we come now to the parting of the ways. Now we find we have reached a stage where it is difficult to agree on anything at all however trivial the matter may be.”
Singapore's Prime Minister, Mr. Lee Kuan Yew, this afternoon called on the people to remain firm and calm -- three hours after Singapore ceased to be part of Malaysia. His eyes brimming with tears, Mr. Lee declared: “ We are going to have a multi-racial nation in Singapore. This is not a Malay nation, not a Chinese nation, not an Indian nation. Everybody will have a place in Singapore, and we will continue helping the Malays in competition with Umno. We unite regardless of race, language, religion or culture." Reaction of Singapore
Long Beach Linda Lim, 18 year-old Miss Malaysia in the current " Miss International" beauty pageant, said last night she had no idea whether her status would be changed by the withdrawal of Singapore from Malaysia. Linda, who was elected "Miss Malaysia" in Singapore said she was "Completely in the dark" about the situation. Contest officials said they had heard nothing from Singapore on whether she should change her representation. Linda, a model was born in Penang, but lives in Singapore. Other problems faced due to separation
Factors Responsible for Separation Personality Radical Vs Gradual change Special rights or Meritocracy Common Market Import duties Increased Revenue UMNO Nationalist Racial Riots 63,64 Elections Alliance Dominance Malayan Solidarity Convention Political Economic Ideological Social