CHAPTER 8 Waves of Unrest Strikes and Riots after the War
<ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Malayan Communist Party  (MCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Activities : 1945 - ...
COMMUNISM <ul><li>What is communism? </li></ul><ul><li>A system of society where property belongs to the whole community <...
VLADIMIR I. LENIN <ul><li>The Russian Revolution of 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Created the comm...
VLADIMIR I. LENIN Monument of Lenin in Moscow
THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY <ul><li>Started off as just a study group between a professor and a head librarian </li></ul><...
THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY Young Mao Zedong
<ul><li>Formed in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>AIM   :  End colonial rule in Singapore and Malaya and replace it with a communis...
<ul><li>During WWII </li></ul><ul><li>After the war </li></ul><ul><li>1940s and 1950s </li></ul>THE MCP
<ul><li>Communist activities in Singapore and Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions, Chinese newspapers and student leader...
<ul><li>Stirred up feelings of the people </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to demand higher rice rations and cheaper foodstuffs <...
<ul><li>Government measures against the communists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passed laws to prevent TUs from being control...
1 9 4 8 - 1 9 6 0
<ul><li>Communists realised that their methods of stirring up anti-British feelings were not successful </li></ul><ul><li>...
Communist guerillas training in the jungles of Malaya
THE COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN (1948-49) CAMPAIGN  : A series of military operations undertaken to achieve a large scale objective...
<ul><li>The British government declared a state of Emergency in Malaya and Singapore in June 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGE...
THE EMERGENCY : 1948 to 1960 Government troops searching for communist guerillas.
<ul><li>As the MCP was banned in Singapore, communists infiltrated into the trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>One important p...
STRIKES AND RIOTS IN THE 1950s
<ul><li>Besides the TUs, Lim also concentrated on getting the support of students from Chinese-medium schools </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>A good example of how the communists stirred up anti-government feelings among Chinese-educated students </li></ul...
1954  ANTI-NATIONAL SERVICE RIOT
<ul><li>1955 : 275 strikes in all </li></ul><ul><li>One strike that turned violent was the Hock Lee Bus strike </li></ul>1...
1955  HOCK LEE BUS RIOTS
<ul><li>Oct 1956 : riot by Chinese-educated students </li></ul><ul><li>Closing down of SCMSSU by the government because of...
1956  SINGAPORE CHINESE MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS’ UNION RIOTS
RECENT STRIKES IN SEOUL & HK
RECENT STRIKES IN SEOUL & HK
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Riots broke out between 11 and 13 Dec 1950 over a 13-year old Eurasian girl named  MARI...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>With the defeat of Japan, Maria’s mother,  ADELAINE HERTOGH , was released </li></ul><u...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>May 1950 : Court ruled that Maria be returned to her natural parents </li></ul><ul><li>...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>When Maria was 13 years old and under Che Aminah’s care, she married a Malay teacher </...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Next two months : many newspaper articles on Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred up feeling...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Many Singapore Muslims felt  betrayed  by what they saw as the British taking the side ...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950)
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Many Europeans were attacked. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Many vehicles burned </li></ul><ul...
MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Compensation claims : $20,848 (Straits Dollars) - a huge sum of money at that time </li...
LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>Whole country can be affected by strikes, disorder and riots </li></ul><ul><li>People’s lives are u...
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Sec2 Chap8 Waves[1]

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Sec2 Chap8 Waves[1]

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8 Waves of Unrest Strikes and Riots after the War
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Activities : 1945 - 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>The Emergency in Malaya : 1948 - 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Workers and Students Unite : Strikes and Riots in the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>End of Communist Riots </li></ul>THE COMMUNIST IN MALAYA AND SINGAPORE
  3. 3. COMMUNISM <ul><li>What is communism? </li></ul><ul><li>A system of society where property belongs to the whole community </li></ul><ul><li>Each member work for the common good of the community according to his capacity and receiving according to his needs </li></ul><ul><li>However, since 1917, the term has come to denote those who regard the Russian Revolution as the model for all communists to follow </li></ul>
  4. 4. VLADIMIR I. LENIN <ul><li>The Russian Revolution of 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Created the communist state of USSR (Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic) </li></ul>
  5. 5. VLADIMIR I. LENIN Monument of Lenin in Moscow
  6. 6. THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY <ul><li>Started off as just a study group between a professor and a head librarian </li></ul><ul><li>discussing issues relating to Marxism </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY Young Mao Zedong
  8. 8. <ul><li>Formed in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>AIM : End colonial rule in Singapore and Malaya and replace it with a communist government controlled by China </li></ul>THE MCP
  9. 9. <ul><li>During WWII </li></ul><ul><li>After the war </li></ul><ul><li>1940s and 1950s </li></ul>THE MCP
  10. 10. <ul><li>Communist activities in Singapore and Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions, Chinese newspapers and student leaders in Chinese schools </li></ul><ul><li>Members : teachers and students in Chinese schools, Chinese workers </li></ul>COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES : 1945 - 1948
  11. 11. <ul><li>Stirred up feelings of the people </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to demand higher rice rations and cheaper foodstuffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Formed many trade unions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to demand for better working conditions and higher pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>influenced TU leaders to organise strikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British way of dealing with strikes made the workers even angrier </li></ul></ul></ul>STRIKES AND DISORDERS
  12. 12. <ul><li>Government measures against the communists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>passed laws to prevent TUs from being controlled by the communists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allowed govt to monitor membership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also to ensure money was not used for communist activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers lost interest in the communist cause for several reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they were not paid during strikes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tired of the disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communists were actually not interested in fighting for workers’ rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some workers had obtained better paying jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>STRIKES AND DISORDERS
  13. 13. 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 6 0
  14. 14. <ul><li>Communists realised that their methods of stirring up anti-British feelings were not successful </li></ul><ul><li>Turned to violence to drive the British out </li></ul><ul><li>MCP moved into the jungles and towns of Malaya and carried out attacks against the British government </li></ul><ul><li>Guerilla warfare : Attacking enemy in small groups in unexpected ways </li></ul>THE EMERGENCY : 1948 to 1960
  15. 15. Communist guerillas training in the jungles of Malaya
  16. 16. THE COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN (1948-49) CAMPAIGN : A series of military operations undertaken to achieve a large scale objective in war; an organized operation to accomplish a purpose
  17. 17. <ul><li>The British government declared a state of Emergency in Malaya and Singapore in June 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>EMERGENCY : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt banned the MCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced measures to control the communists from getting the people’s support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased number of policemen, soldiers and guards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce identification card to control movement of communists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communists were not successful in Malaya; looked towards Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>By mid-50s, emergency laws were relaxed in Singapore </li></ul>THE EMERGENCY : 1948 to 1960
  18. 18. THE EMERGENCY : 1948 to 1960 Government troops searching for communist guerillas.
  19. 19. <ul><li>As the MCP was banned in Singapore, communists infiltrated into the trade unions </li></ul><ul><li>One important person was LIM CHIN SIONG </li></ul>STRIKES AND RIOTS IN THE 1950s
  20. 20. STRIKES AND RIOTS IN THE 1950s
  21. 21. <ul><li>Besides the TUs, Lim also concentrated on getting the support of students from Chinese-medium schools </li></ul><ul><li>Situation in Chinese-medium schools </li></ul><ul><li>Why were the students unhappy? </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1950s, anti-British among the students grew stronger </li></ul><ul><li>They started strikes and supported many strikes organised by workers </li></ul>STRIKES AND RIOTS IN THE 1950s
  22. 22. <ul><li>A good example of how the communists stirred up anti-government feelings among Chinese-educated students </li></ul><ul><li>May 1954 : Chinese students demonstrated against the British government’s decision to make young men aged 18 to 20 do part-time national service </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many were above 20 as their education had been disrupted by the war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not willing to defend a government they were trying to drive out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Demonstration led to rioting and police had to put down the riots </li></ul>1954 ANTI-NATIONAL SERVICE RIOT
  23. 23. 1954 ANTI-NATIONAL SERVICE RIOT
  24. 24. <ul><li>1955 : 275 strikes in all </li></ul><ul><li>One strike that turned violent was the Hock Lee Bus strike </li></ul>1955 HOCK LEE BUS RIOTS
  25. 25. 1955 HOCK LEE BUS RIOTS
  26. 26. <ul><li>Oct 1956 : riot by Chinese-educated students </li></ul><ul><li>Closing down of SCMSSU by the government because of its communists activities </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested 4 students leaders from Chinese High School and Chung Cheng High School </li></ul><ul><li>Expelled 142 others for taking part in communist activities </li></ul>1956 SINGAPORE CHINESE MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS’ UNION RIOTS
  27. 27. 1956 SINGAPORE CHINESE MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTS’ UNION RIOTS
  28. 28. RECENT STRIKES IN SEOUL & HK
  29. 29. RECENT STRIKES IN SEOUL & HK
  30. 30. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Riots broke out between 11 and 13 Dec 1950 over a 13-year old Eurasian girl named MARIA BERTHA HERTOGH </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1937 to Dutch parents in Java </li></ul><ul><li>Parents captured by Japanese during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>A Malay woman, CHE AMINAH , and her husband looked after Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Brought her up as a Muslim and named her NADRA </li></ul><ul><li>Moved from Java to Trengganu in Malaya </li></ul>
  31. 31. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>With the defeat of Japan, Maria’s mother, ADELAINE HERTOGH , was released </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to locate her daughter in Java </li></ul><ul><li>Finally found Maria in 1949 and wanted to claim her back </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Consul-General requested Maria to be put under the care of the Social Welfare Dept in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Maria’s case was brought to the legal court in Singapore </li></ul>
  32. 32. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>May 1950 : Court ruled that Maria be returned to her natural parents </li></ul><ul><li>Che Aminah opposed and sent in an appeal </li></ul><ul><li>2 months later, the court returned Maria to Che Aminah </li></ul>
  33. 33. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>When Maria was 13 years old and under Che Aminah’s care, she married a Malay teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1950 : Judge did not recognised the marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Returned Maria to her Dutch parents who put her in a RC convent </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim community was upset ; felt that Muslim law was not respected </li></ul>
  34. 34. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Next two months : many newspaper articles on Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred up feelings of anger among the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Che Aminah appealed again in Dec 1950 but was turned down </li></ul>
  35. 35. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Many Singapore Muslims felt betrayed by what they saw as the British taking the side of the Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>The court order was seen as a direct attack on Islam by a court under Christian control </li></ul><ul><li>After the verdict was announced on 11 Dec 1950, a large crowd of mainly Malays outside the Padang starting rioting </li></ul>
  36. 36. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950)
  37. 37. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Many Europeans were attacked. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Many vehicles burned </li></ul><ul><li>A sign of growing unhappiness with British rule in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Also a sign of British failure of British to be sensitive to the feelings of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>2nd day : Curfew imposed; military police called in </li></ul><ul><li>3rd day : Situation under control </li></ul>
  38. 38. MARIA HERTOGH RIOTS (1950) <ul><li>Compensation claims : $20,848 (Straits Dollars) - a huge sum of money at that time </li></ul><ul><li>Govt had to spend more money to repair many of the public facilities that were damaged </li></ul>
  39. 39. LESSONS LEARNT <ul><li>Whole country can be affected by strikes, disorder and riots </li></ul><ul><li>People’s lives are upset; business disrupted; economy suffers </li></ul><ul><li>Today, 40 years after it faded into history, the Maria Hertogh provides us with timely reminder of how easily a society can be torn apart by the unwise handling of sensitive issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Hertogh Riots show us how important it is to know, learn and appreciate the culture and customs of other races </li></ul>
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