Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1]
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Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1] Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chap 7 : End of War and Post-War Problems 1. End of War 2. Period of Uncertainty 3. Return of the British 4. Post-war Problems
  • 2. End of War
    • 1. Germany’s Surrender
  • 3. End of War
    • 2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region
  • 4. End of War
    • 2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region
    Enormous atomic cloud About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945. Photo: the U.S. Army.
  • 5. Victims
  • 6. Victims
  • 7. Victims
  • 8. Victims
  • 9. Period of Uncertainty
    • Anxiety and Uncertainty
      • 15 Aug 1945 : Japanese Emperor announced end of war
      • 17 Aug 1945 announcement over radio that Japan had surrendered
      • rush to get rid of Japanese currency
      • Looting of shops, especially Japanese shops
    • Revenge Killings
      • revenge against informers
  • 10. Warning: for Mature adults only! Pls prepare puke bags! Boy suffering 70% burns over his body when the bomb explode 1.6miles from the hypocentre
  • 11. Return of the British
    • 3 Sep 1945
      • British troops returned to Singapore
    • 12 Sep 1945
      • grand victory parade at the Padang
      • surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander
  • 12. Return of the British
    • British Military Administration (BMA)
      • took charge of governing Singapore until 1 Apr 1946
      • That’s when the British Govt took over
      • help to maintain law and order
      • Re-construct Singapore in the immediate post-war years
      • Many problems
      • Attitude of the people towards the British had changed
  • 13.
    • During the Japanese occupation, many locals were alerted to the quick pace of British withdrawal
    • This made them aware of not relying on others but being masters of their own fates
    • They also demanded more equal treatment, a dream which Communists “promised”.
    Post-war thoughts
  • 14. Post-war Problems
    • Shortage of food
    • Disruption of Water, Electricity and Gas Supplies
    • Change of Currency
    • Unemployment
    • Shortage of Housing
    • Poor Health Conditions
    • Disruption of Education
  • 15. Shortage of Food
    • Most urgent problem
      • rice-producing countries had no extra rice to sell
      • War destroyed merchant ships
      • Sunken ships blocked the harbour
      • few warehouses left
    • Created a severe shortage of food
    • Cause & Effect : Effect - high prices
    • Creation of a black market
  • 16. Shortage of Food
    • Solutions/Measures taken
    • 1. Harbour was cleared
        • Wharves repaired; warehouses built
    • 2. Food rationing
        • Price control for essential foodstuffs
        • Heavy punishments for profiteering
        • Because of these measures, difficult for poor to obtain food
        • People’s Restaurants
        • provided affordable meals
  • 17. Shortage of Food
    • Solutions/Measures taken
    • 3. Setting up of Family Restaurants
        • to help the very poor who could not even afford cheap meals
        • Opened by Social Welfare Dept in Dec 1946
        • 8-cent meals : rice, fish, vegetables, gravy and iced water or Chinese tea
    • Food supplies slowly increased
      • more food produced by other countries
      • trade between S’pore and other countries resumed
    • Despite this, starvation still occurred
    • Improvisation
  • 18. Disruption of water, electricity and gas supplies
    • Water shortage due mainly to faulty supply pipes
    • British - repair / chlorine
    • Gas, electricity and phones services were disrupted
    • Situation improved when Jap POWs made to help repair the water mains and machinery in power stations
  • 19. Change of currency
    • Japanese currency not legal tender
    • Most did not have British currency
    • BMA issued special relief grants to people
    • ie gave money to tide over the difficult period
    • also high unemployment
  • 20. Unemployment
    • High unemployment after the war
    • Jobs created by Japanese disappeared with the return of the British
    • Many forced to take up odd jobs and any jobs that came along
    • SITUATION
      • Everyday, BMA refer many to the Labour Exchange in Havelock Road
      • Match skills to needs
      • Long queues were a common sight
      • 60,000 found jobs with the help of the Labour Exchange within the first few months
  • 21.
    • Many houses were destroyed during the war
    • Resulted in rapid rise in rentals
    • Those who could not afford squeezed into small overcrowded buildings
    • 1947 - many still living in overcrowded rooms and cubicles
    • Some moved out and became squatters
    Shortage of Housing
  • 22.
    • Solutions/Measures
    • Law on rent control
    • Government built some flats
    • Unsuccessful at solving the housing problem
    • Overcrowded and unhygienic conditions prevailed
    • Problem made worse with increase in population in the 1950s
    Shortage of Housing
  • 23. Poor Health Conditions
    • Death rate in 1945 double that in pre-war level
    • Hospitals short of equipment, medicine, furniture and bedding
    • Malnutrition and smallpox were common
    • Health Campaign in Oct 1945
      • Free medical services
      • Vaccinations against infectious diseases
  • 24. Poor Health Conditions
    • Unfortunately, these steps were still inadequate
    • Poor health conditions made worse by overcrowded living conditions
    • Diseases like TB were widespread
    • SATA was formed to combat TB
    • still exists today
  • 25. Disruption of Education
    • Schools faced many problems as a result of the Japanese Occupation
    • BMA was quick to re-open schools in Oct 1945
    • Places needed for normal intake as well as over-aged children
    • Those who went back to school found a different problem
    • No proper facilities and teaching materials
    • Shortage of textbooks, most desks and chairs badly damaged
  • 26. Disruption of Education
    • Solutions/Measures
    • Orders for teaching materials and other essentials were placed
    • BMA helped to get needy children back to school - how?
    • No school fees if parents are receiving emergency relief
    • Mar 1946 - 62,000 children attending school
  • 27. CONCLUSION
    • We have learnt some of the main problems people faced in post-war years
    • In spite of the efforts by the BMA, many were inadequate and ineffective
    • Rapid population growth, food shortage, unemployment and poor housing continued well into the 1950s
    • Caused discontent and many became increasingly unhappy with British rule
    • Next chapter : The Communists