Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1]


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Sec2 Chap8 Postwar Problems[1]

  1. 1. Chap 7 : End of War and Post-War Problems 1. End of War 2. Period of Uncertainty 3. Return of the British 4. Post-war Problems
  2. 2. End of War <ul><li>1. Germany’s Surrender </li></ul>
  3. 3. End of War <ul><li>2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region </li></ul>
  4. 4. End of War <ul><li>2. End of War in Asia and the Pacific Region </li></ul>Enormous atomic cloud About one hour after the bombing on 6 August 1945. Photo: the U.S. Army.
  5. 5. Victims
  6. 6. Victims
  7. 7. Victims
  8. 8. Victims
  9. 9. Period of Uncertainty <ul><li>Anxiety and Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 Aug 1945 : Japanese Emperor announced end of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 Aug 1945 announcement over radio that Japan had surrendered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rush to get rid of Japanese currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looting of shops, especially Japanese shops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenge Killings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>revenge against informers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Warning: for Mature adults only! Pls prepare puke bags! Boy suffering 70% burns over his body when the bomb explode 1.6miles from the hypocentre
  11. 11. Return of the British <ul><li>3 Sep 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British troops returned to Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12 Sep 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grand victory parade at the Padang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surrender document was signed in the City Hall between Lord Mountbatten and the Japanese Commander </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Return of the British <ul><li>British Military Administration (BMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>took charge of governing Singapore until 1 Apr 1946 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s when the British Govt took over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help to maintain law and order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-construct Singapore in the immediate post-war years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude of the people towards the British had changed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>During the Japanese occupation, many locals were alerted to the quick pace of British withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>This made them aware of not relying on others but being masters of their own fates </li></ul><ul><li>They also demanded more equal treatment, a dream which Communists “promised”. </li></ul>Post-war thoughts
  14. 14. Post-war Problems <ul><li>Shortage of food </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of Water, Electricity and Gas Supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Change of Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Health Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of Education </li></ul>
  15. 15. Shortage of Food <ul><li>Most urgent problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rice-producing countries had no extra rice to sell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War destroyed merchant ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunken ships blocked the harbour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few warehouses left </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created a severe shortage of food </li></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect : Effect - high prices </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a black market </li></ul>
  16. 16. Shortage of Food <ul><li>Solutions/Measures taken </li></ul><ul><li>1. Harbour was cleared </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wharves repaired; warehouses built </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Food rationing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Price control for essential foodstuffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy punishments for profiteering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of these measures, difficult for poor to obtain food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People’s Restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provided affordable meals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Shortage of Food <ul><li>Solutions/Measures taken </li></ul><ul><li>3. Setting up of Family Restaurants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to help the very poor who could not even afford cheap meals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opened by Social Welfare Dept in Dec 1946 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-cent meals : rice, fish, vegetables, gravy and iced water or Chinese tea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food supplies slowly increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more food produced by other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade between S’pore and other countries resumed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Despite this, starvation still occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Disruption of water, electricity and gas supplies <ul><li>Water shortage due mainly to faulty supply pipes </li></ul><ul><li>British - repair / chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Gas, electricity and phones services were disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>Situation improved when Jap POWs made to help repair the water mains and machinery in power stations </li></ul>
  19. 19. Change of currency <ul><li>Japanese currency not legal tender </li></ul><ul><li>Most did not have British currency </li></ul><ul><li>BMA issued special relief grants to people </li></ul><ul><li>ie gave money to tide over the difficult period </li></ul><ul><li>also high unemployment </li></ul>
  20. 20. Unemployment <ul><li>High unemployment after the war </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs created by Japanese disappeared with the return of the British </li></ul><ul><li>Many forced to take up odd jobs and any jobs that came along </li></ul><ul><li>SITUATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday, BMA refer many to the Labour Exchange in Havelock Road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match skills to needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long queues were a common sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60,000 found jobs with the help of the Labour Exchange within the first few months </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Many houses were destroyed during the war </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in rapid rise in rentals </li></ul><ul><li>Those who could not afford squeezed into small overcrowded buildings </li></ul><ul><li>1947 - many still living in overcrowded rooms and cubicles </li></ul><ul><li>Some moved out and became squatters </li></ul>Shortage of Housing
  22. 22. <ul><li>Solutions/Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Law on rent control </li></ul><ul><li>Government built some flats </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful at solving the housing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded and unhygienic conditions prevailed </li></ul><ul><li>Problem made worse with increase in population in the 1950s </li></ul>Shortage of Housing
  23. 23. Poor Health Conditions <ul><li>Death rate in 1945 double that in pre-war level </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals short of equipment, medicine, furniture and bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition and smallpox were common </li></ul><ul><li>Health Campaign in Oct 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free medical services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinations against infectious diseases </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Poor Health Conditions <ul><li>Unfortunately, these steps were still inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Poor health conditions made worse by overcrowded living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases like TB were widespread </li></ul><ul><li>SATA was formed to combat TB </li></ul><ul><li>still exists today </li></ul>
  25. 25. Disruption of Education <ul><li>Schools faced many problems as a result of the Japanese Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>BMA was quick to re-open schools in Oct 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Places needed for normal intake as well as over-aged children </li></ul><ul><li>Those who went back to school found a different problem </li></ul><ul><li>No proper facilities and teaching materials </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of textbooks, most desks and chairs badly damaged </li></ul>
  26. 26. Disruption of Education <ul><li>Solutions/Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Orders for teaching materials and other essentials were placed </li></ul><ul><li>BMA helped to get needy children back to school - how? </li></ul><ul><li>No school fees if parents are receiving emergency relief </li></ul><ul><li>Mar 1946 - 62,000 children attending school </li></ul>
  27. 27. CONCLUSION <ul><li>We have learnt some of the main problems people faced in post-war years </li></ul><ul><li>In spite of the efforts by the BMA, many were inadequate and ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid population growth, food shortage, unemployment and poor housing continued well into the 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Caused discontent and many became increasingly unhappy with British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Next chapter : The Communists </li></ul>