Sec2 Chap7 Syonan[1]
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    Sec2 Chap7 Syonan[1] Sec2 Chap7 Syonan[1] Presentation Transcript

    • THE FALL OF SINGAPORE World War II
      • Major areas of attack : Tengah Airfield, Kranji, Bukit Timah, City areas
      • Surrender of the British
      • 15 Feb 1942 – "Black Sunday"
    • NAVAL BASE SURRENDER PERIMETER MANDAI/NEE SOON BUKIT TIMAH PASIR PANJANG 15 FEB 1942 TENGAH SELETAR SEMBAWANG 2 1 3 4
    • 15 FEB 1942 bLACK sUNDAY
    • THE SYONAN YEARS
      • Coming under New Masters
      • Meeting Their Fates
      • Living the Days of Darkness
      • Fighting against the Japanese
      • Lessons from the Japanese Occupation
      SINGAPORE DURING THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION
    • COMING UNDER NEW MASTERS
      • Singapore – Renamed ‘Syonan-To’
      • Syonan = Light of the South
      • People suffered great hardships
      • Lived in constant fear of the Japanese
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • The Allied POWs
      • The Local Civilians
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • The Allied POWs
        • British, Australian and Allied Europeans, including women and children, were imprisoned
        • became POWs
        • Changi Prison, Selarang Barracks
        • numbered more than 50,000
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • The Allied POWs
        • Indians soldiers and Gurkhas
        • asked to pledge loyalty to Japan
        • asked to join the Indian National Army (INA)
        • set up by CPT Mohan Singh, a surrendered officer from the British Indian Army
        • those who refused were tortured, imprisoned or killed
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • The Local Civilians
        • Japanese took action to place locals under control
        • determined to wipe out those who might threaten their rule
        • The Chinese became the main target
        • Wipe out all those considered to be anti-Japanese
        • Operation Sook Ching
    •  
    • Singapore Under Japanese Rule
    • Singapore Under Japanese Rule
    • Japanese soldiers using a prisoner as a live target to practise bayonet fighting A Japanese soldier torturing a prisoner
    • THE PRICE OF PEACE
    • THE WATER TREATMENT “… ..our captors beat us up, subject us to electric shocks and pumped us up with water as part of the interrogation routine. The feeling of having one’s belly pumped full of water and then seeing the water gushing out of the body was hardly bearable.”
    • ELECTRIC SHOCKS “… ..when my interrogators could not get information out of me, they dragged my husband from Outram Prison, tied him up and made him kneel beside me. Then, in his full view, they stripped me to the waist and applied electric currents to me.”
    • ELECTRIC SHOCKS “… ..the electric shocks sent my whole body into spasms; my tears and mucus flowed uncontrollably. The pain was indescribable, but it must have been thousands of times worse for my husband who had to see me being tortured.” “ A Shameful Past in Human Memory : A Verbal Account by Elizabeth Choy” by Jane Thum Soon Kun in The Price of Peace
    • MEETING THEIR FATES The Japanese regarded the Chinese as their arch enemies. Why? 1. Strong Chinese resistance during Japanese invasion of China 2. Chinese in S’pore actively helped China in its fight against Japan’s attack 3. In the Battle of Bukit Timah, the Chinese volunteers put up a fierce resistance against the invading Japanese troops
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • Mass Screening
      • All Chinese men 18-50 years old
      • report to Mass screening centres
      • Questioned by Japanese or singled out by hooded local informers
      • More fortunate ones allowed to go home
        • “ EXAMINED” stamped on a small piece of paper
        • sometimes stamped onto shirts or arms
      • Those accused of being anti-Japanese were brought to remote areas of Singapore and killed
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • Eurasians
      • suffered - related to Europeans
      • Japanese thought the Eurasians saw themselves as superior to the Asians
      • Many belonged to the Singapore Volunteer Corps and fought against the Japanese
      • Those suspected of helping the British were shot
      • Others were imprisoned
    • MEETING THEIR FATES
      • Malays and Indians
      • Japanese did not see them as a threat
      • Tried to win the support of the Malays and convince them that Japan would free them from Japanese rule
      • Persuaded Indians that Japan would free India from Britain
      • Both races not entirely spared though, esp if they did not obey Japanese orders
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • FEAR
      • Harsh action taken to establish control
      • Looters were shot and beheaded, public display of heads
      • Barbed wires to form road blocks
      • Bowing as a sign of respect
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • FEAR
      • Close watch over the people
      • Documents - work badges, vehicle and radio passes
      • Families had to be registered
      • Surprise checks
    • THE KEMPEITAI
      • Most feared of all Japanese
      • Spies all over the island
      • encouraged people to supply them with info by giving rewards and privileges
      • Anti-Jap suspects beaten and tortured until they reveal the info the Japs wanted
      • Nobody knew whom to trust
      • Anti-Japanese suspects were tortured to make them confess or to extract information from them
      • Often people were punished for crimes they did not commit
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • Hardship and Suffering
      • Life of POWs in prison camps
      • Death Railway
    • DEATH RAILWAY
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • Hardship and Suffering
      • Local civilians - serious shortage of food and other goods
      • Essential foodstuffs like rice, salt and sugar were controlled
      • Ration cards : Limit amount of food for each person
      • Coping with shortages : Simple diets; substitutes; improvise
      • Malnutrition and diseases
      • Shortage of medicine
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • Black Market
      • Not only basic necessities but all sorts of goods
      • Because of shortages
      • Banana notes - worthless
    • BANABA NOTES
    • LIVING THE DAYS OF DARKNESS
      • Propaganda
      • To influence the minds of the people to show loyalty to Japan
        • 1. Learn the Japanese language
        • 2. Influence school children
        • 3. Controlled radio stations and radio sets
        • 4. Only Japanese movies and propaganda shown in cinemas
        • 5. Chinese and English newspapers controlled strictly by Japanese
    • ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
      • MPAJA : Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army
        • sudden attacks on Japanese troops
        • Hid in the Malayan jungles
        • Life was hard there
        • tried to stir up anti-Japanese feelings among the people by distributing newspapers
    • ANTI-JAPANESE GROUPS
      • Force 136
        • Secret British organisation to organise sabotage activities
        • locals were also recruited
        • trained secretly in India and sent to Malaya to help MPAJA
        • Lim Bo Seng was one of the leaders
        • Captured in Mar 1944 and tortured to death
    • LESSONS
      • Defeat of the British
        • poor preparations for war
        • underestimation of enemy
        • always be prepared to defend one’s country
      • Respect for British dipped after the war
      • People’s suffering
        • need to rid Singapore of foreign masters
    • LEE KUAN YEW “ M y colleagues and I are of that generation of young men who went through the Second World War and the Japanese Occupation and became determined that no one - neither the Japanese nor the British - had the right to push and kick us around. We were determined that we could govern ourselves and bring up our children in a country where we can be a self-respecting people.”
    • CHANGI PRISON CHAPEL
    • CHANGI MURALS
    •