Rivalry between the Dutch and the British Main issue: Trading monopoly in SEA > control of trade routes and ports Dutch had Java and Melaka > others only to trade in Batavia > high fees and taxes British had Bencoolen and Penang > unsuitable for China and India trade > too far Therefore, Raffles saw the need of another port south of Melaka to challenge the Dutch and protect British ships. Singapore was the answer!!!!
Raffles chose Singapore because: <ul><li>She had lots of fresh drinking water. > suitable for setting up of new settlement </li></ul><ul><li>She lay on the main trade route between China and India Europe. > challenge Dutch monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>She had a natural deep harbour appropriate for big ships to anchor. > safe and had adequate features to protect British ships </li></ul>
How Singapore Came Under British Rule <ul><li>On the 28th of Jan 1819, Raffles with his British fleet reached St. John’s Island. </li></ul><ul><li>On the 29th of Jan 1819, Raffles and Farquhar reached Singapore. They went to see the Temenggong, the chief of this island. Raffles asked permission from the Temenggong to setup a British settlement here. </li></ul><ul><li>The Temenggong was willing but he did not have the power. Raffles had to seek the permission from the Sultan of Johor (Malaya). Craftily, he sought Tengku Hussein’s help. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>On the 6th of Feb 1819, Raffles set up a tent at the Padang and made Tengku Hussein the new Sultan of Johor. The Sultan and Temenggong signed a treaty with British, which allowed British to setup a settlement on the island, and in return, both Sultan and Temenggong would receive a big sum of money from the British every year. </li></ul><ul><li>The short flag-raising ceremony marked the founding of the modern Singapore. </li></ul>
The treaty that signed away their lives… Stamps commemorating the founding of Singapore
Why was the treaty important to the British? <ul><li>It allowed the British to set up a trading settlement in Singapore, which eventually led to the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty that saw Singapore becoming a full colony under the British together with Penang and Melaka. </li></ul>
Problems that Farquhar encountered and the solutions for them: <ul><li>Problem: Not many people knew about the settlement in Singapore. Farquhar had to get the traders from the places nearby to come to Singapore and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: He invited the immigrants from Malacca to come and trade and stationed an office at St. John’s Island to inform the trading ships passing by about the settlement in Singapore. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Problem: The island was short of building materials, food, tools and other necessities. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Farquhar ordered his men to go to Malacca and bring some food back. The traders in Singapore also brought some of the necessities here. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: There were pests like centipedes and rats all over the island. These pests hurt some people. The rats also destroyed the food supplies. Tigers were also a threat to the people here. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Rewards were given to those people who killed these pests. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Problem: Crimes like robbing and fighting often occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Farquhar set up a small police force but the problem cannot be solved. </li></ul>
Who really founded Singapore? <ul><li>Raffles? </li></ul><ul><li>Farquhar? </li></ul><ul><li>Crawfurd? </li></ul><ul><li>The pioneers? </li></ul><ul><li>ALL? </li></ul>
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