Rivalry between the Dutch and the British Main issue: Trading monopoly in SEA > control of trade routes and ports Dutch had Java and Melaka > others only to trade in Batavia > high fees and taxes British had Bencoolen and Penang > unsuitable for China and India trade > too far Therefore, Raffles saw the need of another port south of Melaka to challenge the Dutch and protect British ships. Singapore was the answer!!!!
On the 28th of Jan 1819, Raffles with his British fleet reached St. John’s Island.
On the 29th of Jan 1819, Raffles and Farquhar reached Singapore. They went to see the Temenggong, the chief of this island. Raffles asked permission from the Temenggong to setup a British settlement here.
The Temenggong was willing but he did not have the power. Raffles had to seek the permission from the Sultan of Johor (Malaya). Craftily, he sought Tengku Hussein’s help.
On the 6th of Feb 1819, Raffles set up a tent at the Padang and made Tengku Hussein the new Sultan of Johor. The Sultan and Temenggong signed a treaty with British, which allowed British to setup a settlement on the island, and in return, both Sultan and Temenggong would receive a big sum of money from the British every year.
The short flag-raising ceremony marked the founding of the modern Singapore.
The treaty that signed away their lives… Stamps commemorating the founding of Singapore
It allowed the British to set up a trading settlement in Singapore, which eventually led to the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty that saw Singapore becoming a full colony under the British together with Penang and Melaka.
Problems that Farquhar encountered and the solutions for them:
Problem: Not many people knew about the settlement in Singapore. Farquhar had to get the traders from the places nearby to come to Singapore and trade.
Solution: He invited the immigrants from Malacca to come and trade and stationed an office at St. John’s Island to inform the trading ships passing by about the settlement in Singapore.