Chapter 3 Birth Of Civilisations

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chp 3 birth of civilisations

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  • 1. Chapter Three Birth of Civilisations Chapter 3 Slide 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • What are ‘civilisations’, ‘kingdoms’ and ‘empires’?
    • What were the factors that led to the rise of civilisations?
    • What are the features of a civilisation?
    Chapter 3 Slide 2
  • 3. This picture shows how people lived thousands of years ago. How are their lives different from ours? Chapter 3 Slide 3
  • 4. How civilisations began… Chapter 3 Slide 4
  • 5. Early people roamed around to hunt for animals and gather food. Chapter 3 Slide 5
  • 6. Later, people began to live in small groups after learning how to grow crops and rear animals. When these groups of people come together and develop a way of life, they are said to share the same culture . Chapter 3 Slide 6
  • 7. When a culture has developed over a long time and becomes advanced, we call it a civilisation . Chapter 3 Slide 7
  • 8. RECAP!! What is a civilisation?
    • From the Latin word civilis
    • Has to do with people who live in cities
    • People sharing a common culture
    Chapter 3 Slide 8
  • 9. Cradle of Civilisation The cradle of a civilisation refers to the place where a civilisation first began . What do you think were the conditions that led to the rise of civilisations? Chapter 3 Slide 9
  • 10. What Is a Kingdom? Chapter 3 Slide 10 Ordinary people and lands Chiefs Kings
  • 11. What Is an Empire? Chapter 3 Slide 11 Emperor Ordinary people and lands Kings Chiefs
  • 12. RECAP!! What is the difference between a kingdom and an empire? Chapter 3 Slide 12
  • 13. Civilisation in India
    • Origins
    • Features
    • Decline
    • Arrival of the Aryans
    The Indus Valley Civilisation Chapter 3 Slide 13
  • 14. Origins
    • Began around 3000 BCE
    • Dravidians settled in the Indus plains
    • Built cities e.g. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
    Chapter 3 Slide 14 A map showing the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation
  • 15. What were the features of the Indus Valley Civilisation? Chapter 3 Slide 15
  • 16. Government Architectural evidence — well-planned streets, a drainage system, public buildings and a citadel Chapter 3 Slide 16 The ruins of a street in Mohenjo-daro
  • 17. Variety of Occupations Chapter 3 Slide 17
    • Farmers, craftsmen and traders
    • King-priests who conducted religious
    • ceremonies
  • 18.
    • Indus seals–probably used by traders for identifying goods
    Writing Chapter 3 Slide 18
    • Not deciphered yet
    A seal depicting a bull
  • 19. Why Did the Indus Valley Civilisation Decline?
    • Invasion by another people
    • — the Aryans
    Chapter 3 Slide 19 Probable causes :
    • Severe floods killed many
    • and forced others to leave
  • 20. The Aryans
    • Nomads, came from the western part of Asia
    • Entered India in
    • small groups, fought with Dravidians, but
    • settled down
    • Gradually moved
    • eastwards into Ganges valley
    • Cultures of Dravidians and Aryans gradually mixed, as seen in Hinduism
    Chapter 3 Slide 20 Movement of Aryans into Ganges Valley
  • 21. Civilisation in China
    • Origins
    • Features
    • Decline
    Chapter 3 Slide 21 The Shang dynasty A map showing the extent of the Shang dynasty
  • 22.
    • Longshan (2200 BCE)
    • People reared
    • animals and farmed
    • Lived in walled communities
    • Made pottery from potters’ wheels
    • Yangshao (3000 BCE)
    • People
    • hunted,
    • reared
    • animals
    • and farmed
    Chapter 3 Slide 22 The Yangshao and Longshan villages Origins
  • 23. What were the features of the Shang Civilisation? Chapter 3 Slide 23
  • 24.
    • Ruled by kings from
    • same family line
    Government Chapter 3 Slide 24
    • Lived in capital
    • city,ruled surrounding
    • villages and smaller
    • cities
    • Temples, palaces
    • storehouses in capital city
    Picture of the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi) of the Shang dynasty
  • 25.
    • Merchants
    • Craftsmen
    • Priests
    • Farmers
    Chapter 3 Slide 25 Variety of Occupations
  • 26.
    • Pictograms
    • Found on oracle bones
    • Over 3 000 characters
    • The basis of modern
    • Chinese script
    Chapter 3 Slide 26 Writing
  • 27. End of the Shang Dynasty Chapter 3 Slide 27 Last Shang king assassinated in 1100 BCE Successive dynasties 1644–1912 CE Qin 1368–1644 CE Ming 1279–1368 CE Yuan 960–1279 CE Song 618–907 CE Tang 581–617 CE Sui 202 BCE–220 CE Han 221–206 BCE Qin 1027–221 BCE Eastern Zhou 1523–1027 BCE Western Zhou
  • 28. Civilisations in Southeast Asia
    • Growth
    • Features
    Chapter 3 Slide 28 A map of Southeast Asia
  • 29.
    • Consists of present-day Vietnam, Thailand and Myanmar
    • Rivers that flow through these areas include the Irrawady River and the Mekong River
    Mainland Southeast Asia Chapter 3 Slide 29
  • 30. Island Southeast Asia
    • Made up of thousands of islands
    • separated by seas
    • Much of it is now made up by
    • present-day Indonesia and Philippines
    Chapter 3 Slide 30 An illustration of an Illanun pirate boat. Piracy was common in island Southeast Asia.
  • 31. Birth of Civilisations
    • Began around 6000 BCE in villages
    • near rivers and seas
    • People were hunters and fishermen
    • By 200 BCE, Indian and Chinese traders
    • came to Southeast Asia and the
    • villages served as resting points.
    • Some grew into port cities, e.g. Oc-eo
    Chapter 3 Slide 31
  • 32. Oc-eo (1st–6th century CE)
    • First major port city
    • Capital of Funan
    • Grew because of trade
    • and its strategic location
    • Became less important
    • with the rise of Palembang
    Chapter 3 Slide 32 The extent of Funan
  • 33. Palembang (7th–13th century CE)
    • Located in present-day Sumatra
    • Capital of Srivijaya
    • Grew because of trade and its strategic location
    Chapter 3 Slide 33
    • Declined in importance
    • after 13th century CE,
    • when traders went directly
    • to East Java to trade
    The extent of Srivijaya
  • 34.
    • What were the features of Southeast Asian civilisations?
    Chapter 3 Slide 34
  • 35. Government
    • Ruled by kings
    • Assisted by officials
    Chapter 3 Slide 35 A Malay sultan (king)
  • 36. Variety of Occupations
    • Traders
    • Farmers
    • Priests
    • Craftsmen
    • Officials
    Chapter 3 Slide 36 A 15th century tin coin used by traders in Melaka
  • 37. Writing Chapter 3 Slide 37
    • Adopted Sanskrit
    • from traders
    Sanskrit poems from India. Southeast Asian rulers and officials adopted this script for records.
    • Developed own
    • scripts, e.g. Jawi
    The Jawi alphabet
  • 38. Cosmopolitan Various cultures and religions Chapter 3 Slide 38 Kampong Kling mosque, Melaka Buddhist temple in Pagan, Myanmar Angkor Wat in Angkor, Cambodia
  • 39. Some Powerful Southeast Asian Kingdoms  Funan (1st–6th century CE)  Srivijaya (7th–13th century CE)  Majapahit (800–1432 CE)  Melaka (1403–1511 CE) Chapter 3 Slide 39
  • 40. Learning Outcomes
    • A ‘civilisation’ is...
    • A ‘kingdom’ is...
    • An 'empire' is...
    • 2.  The factors that led to the rise of civilisations were...
    • 3.  The features of a civilisation are...
    Chapter 3 Slide 40