Development of renewable energy and its impact on Business Environment By Sarada Prasanna (10810055) Sourav Thakur (10810059) Sujan Mondal (10810062) Vema Jagadish (10810071) MBA 1 st Year,DoMS IIT Roorkee
1. Need of Renewable Energy and Energy consumption status in India
Energy is very important for people everywhere in the world
Many nations currently rely on non-renewable fossil and nuclear fuels to meet most of their energy demands.
Interest in renewable energy sources is growing because fossil fuels are running out and because people are worried about the way burning fossil fuels damages the environment e.g. the greenhouse effect and acid rain
The greenhouse effect is caused by an increase in the concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) in the earth’s atmosphere.
A temperature rise of just one or two degrees Celsius can cause flooding, drought, crop failures and stormy weather
Gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx) are released when fossil fuels are burned. They react with rain drops to form acid rain. Acid rain can damage crops and forests, it can make lakes and rivers acidic which can harm fish and aquatic life. It can also damage buildings.
The electricity intensity of the Indian economy—the percentage growth of electricity consumption that correlates with 1% of economic growth—fell from approximately 3.14% in the 1950s to 0.97% in the 1990s.
Today, for each 1% of economic growth, India needs around 0.75% of additional energy.
For GDP annual growth of 8%, the Planning Commission estimates that the commercial energy supply would have to increase at the very least by three to four times by 2031–2032 and the electricity generation capacity by five to six times over 2003–2004 levels.
Sector wise division Between 1980 and 2009, energy consumption increased by almost seven times from 85,334 GWh to 596,943 GWh, which corresponds to an average annual growth rate of approximately 7.1%. The strongest increase was the consumption by private households, which increased by almost 14 times since 1980 at an average annual growth rate of 10%.
Power Generation Capacity The total power generation capacity in India in March 2010 was 159 GW. Of this, 64.3% was fossil-fuel-fired power plants (coal, gas, and diesel), 23.1% hydropower, 2.9% nuclear power, and 9.7% renewable energy.
Percentage of public and private sector power generation capacity by energy source ( 2010)
India has over 17 GW of installed renewable power generating capacity. Installed wind capacity is the largest share at over 12 GW, followed by small hydro at 2.8 GW. The remainder is dominated by bio energy, with solar contributing only 15 MW.
The wind industry has achieved the greatest success in India with an installed capacity of 12,009 MW at the end of June 2010. India has also installed 2,767 MW of small hydro plants (with sizes of less than 25 MW each), 1,412 MW of grid-connected cogeneration from bagasse, and 901 MW of biomass-based power from agro residues. Waste-to-energy projects have an installed capacity of 72 MW.
As of June 2010, solar PV plants in India had reached a cumulative generation capacity of approximately 15.2 MW.
70% of electricity from wind projects is produced for direct consumption by large industrial facilities to mitigate the effect of frequent shortages of electricity from the national grid.
solar cooling has been a buzzword in the industry.
The October 2010 Commonwealth Games in New Delhi are showcasing renewable energy for transportation and other uses including the utilization of at least 1,000 solar rickshaws, which use PV-powered motors for transporting athletes at the games.
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy(MNRE’s).
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency(IREDA).
Incentives to banks / micro financing institutions to support installation of solar home lighting and other small solar systems through loans in the country
Solar Thermal Energy Demonstration Programme
Promotion of Solar Thermal Systems for air heating/steam generating applications, Solar Buildings and Akshay Urja Shops
Accelerated development and deployment of solar water heating systems in domestic, industrial and commercial sectors
Technology Evaluation Projects on Large Area Solar Disk Concentrator (Arun-160) for Industrial Process Heat Systems,
Programme on “Off-grid and Decentralized Solar Applications” for first phase of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) Programme on “Rooftop PV & Small Solar Power Generation Programme” (RPSSGP) for first phase of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)
Programme on Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste
Programme on Recovery of Energy from Industrial Wastes
Implementation of the programme on “Development of Solar Cities”
Scheme on Energy Efficiency Solar/Green Buildings
6.Remote Village Electrification (RVE)
Remote Village Electrification Programme
7.New Technology Group
New Technology Programmes/Schemes
Programme for Implementation of Alternate Fuels for Surface Transportation Programme (AFSTP) for the remaining period of 11th Plan
Sector Programme 8.Planning, R&D, Technology Information Forecasting, Assessment and Databank
Non-Conventional Energy Technology Commercialization Fund (NETCOF)
Technology Information Forecasting, Assessment and Databank
Planning & Coordination
Research & Development Co-ordination
Research & Development in Bio-Energy
HRD Programme in New and Renewable Energy
National Solar Science Fellowship Programme
Sector Programme 9.Information and Public Awareness
Implementation of Special Area Demonstration Project Scheme
Seminars and Symposia Programme in New and Rene wable Energy
Information & Public Awareness
10.National Institute of Renewable Energy (NIRE)
Bio Energy Development Programme
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) Towards Building SOLAR INDIA
“ Our vision is to make India’s economic development energy-efficient. Over a period of time, we must pioneer a graduated shift from economic activity based on fossil fuels to one based on non-fossil fuels and from reliance on non-renewable and depleting sources of energy to renewable sources of energy. In this strategy, the sun occupies centre-stage, as it should, being literally the original source of all energy. We will pool our scientific, technical and managerial talents, with sufficient financial resources, to develop solar energy as a source of abundant energy to power our economy and to transform the lives of our people. Our success in this endeavour will change the face of India. It would also enable India to help change the destinies of people around the world.”
The objective of the Mission is to create a policy and regulatory environment which provides a predictable incentive structure that enables rapid and large-scale capital investment in solar energy applications and encourages technical innovation and lowering of costs.
7. Research and Development:
This Mission will launch a major R&D programme in Solar Energy, which will focus on improving efficiency in existing applications, reducing costs of Balance of Systems, testing hybrid co-generation and addressing constraints of variability, space-intensity and lack of convenient and cost-effective storage.
8. Human Resource Development:
The rapid and large-scale diffusion of Solar Energy will require a concomitant increase in technically qualified manpower of international standard.
9. Institutional Arrangements for implementing the Mission:
This Mission will be implemented by an autonomous Solar Energy Authority and or an autonomous and enabled Solar Mission, embedded within the existing structure of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.
10. International Collaboration:
Strategic international collaborations and partnerships aimed at meeting the priorities set out under the Mission would be developed, along with effective technology transfer mechanisms and strong IPR protection.
11. Financing the Mission activities:
The fund requirements for the Mission would be met from the following sources or combinations:
i) Budgetary support for the activities under the National Solar Mission
established under the MNRE;
ii) International Funds under the UNFCCC framework, which would enable up scaling of Mission targets ;
Onsite 66/11 kV outdoor Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) EHT Substation
Very low lighting power density compared to conventional buildings
1 MW of solar power generation from roof mounted PV modules and power generated from this shall be supplied to state grid at preferential tariff
Energy efficient Super T8 lamps for space lighting with digital dimmable ballasts
Task Lighting in Office workstations with LED lamps, linked to proximity sensors
Separate Ventilation of Electronic Ballasts without adding to space air conditioning load
Centralized green data centre
In-built redundancy for all services infrastructure
Demand comparison Conventional Building GreenSpaces Air-conditioning Cooling Load 150 SFT/TR 600 SFT/TR Electrical Demand Load 10 WATT/SFT 4 WATT/SFT Lighting Power Density - office area 2 WATT/SFT < 0.6 WATT/SFT Lighting Power Density – retail area 4 WATT/SFT < 1 WATT/SFT Lighting Power Density – parking area 1 WATT/SFT < 0.15 WATT/SFT Potable Water Demand 45 Liters per day per person 20 Liters per day per person
The global energy consumption has grown at a CAGR of 2.5% since 1999, reaching 11 billion tons of oil equivalent in 2008.
Since 2000, the global renewable energy capacity has increased by approximately five times to reach 146,073 MW in 2008. This growth has primarily been driven by the wind and solar power segment.
During the period 2000–08, wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity grew at a CAGR of 27% and 44%, respectively.
The US now has the largest wind power capacity (25.2 GW, 20.7% of the total world capacity), followed by Germany (23.9 GW, 19.6% share).
Solar power, another key RE focus area globally, recorded a 69% y-o-y growth in generating capacity in 2008. Spain (2.7 GW) and Germany (1.5 GW), which together accounted for more than 75% of the growth.
The leading global players in the renewable energy sector are Suzlon Energy, Solaris, SolFocus Inc., Stion Corporation, BP Solar, Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc and Brookfield Renewable Power Inc, Enercon GMBH, Roaring 40s, Nordex Black Durre.
India has emerged as the fifth-largest producer of wind energy in the world, with a current installed wind capacity of 10,243 MW.
The solar PV manufacturing capacities has been put India on the world map as the seventh largest producer of solar PV cell worldwide, with an installed manufacturing capacity of 110MW in 2008.
Renewable energy sources include small hydro projects (2,604.92 MW), biomass gasifier and biomass power (2,167.73 MW), urban and industrial water power and solar (101.01 MW) and wind energy (10,647.45 MW).
A total of 34 projects were commissioned during 2009-10 with a total capacity of 9,585 MW. These include 31 thermal power plants with a total capacity of 9,106 MW, one hydro power plant with a capacity 39 MW, and two nuclear power plants with a combined capacity of 440 MW.
18 power plants were commissioned in 2008-09 with a total capacity of 3,453.7 MW which included 10 thermal power plants with a capacity of 2,484.7 MW and eight hydro power plants with a capacity of 969 MW.
Indian power sector: a key contributor to the economic growth
The Eleventh Five Year Plan envisaged an additional capacity of 78,700 MW of which 19.9 per cent was hydro, 75.8 per cent thermal and the rest was nuclear. As of December 31, 2009, 43,282 MW was under construction.
Public sector power major National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is planning to scale up its capacity from the present 30,000 MW to 75,000 MW by 2017.
India has launched its ambitious solar energy mission which aims to generate 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022.
The power sector has attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) worth USD 1.34 billion during April to February 2009-10.
The cumulative FDI received by the power sector between April 2000 and February 2010 was USD 4.53 billion.
India Power Sector Growth Potential India Power Sector Investment Scenario
The Electricity Act,2003 and National Action Plan Climate Change - roadmap for increasing the share of renewable in the total generation capacity in the country.
The Electricity Act,2003 : It provides for increased competition in the sector by facilitating open access (permission to use the existing power transfer facilities) for transmission and distribution, power trading, and also allows setting up of captive power plants without any restriction.
Main technological players- Wind, Small Hydro, biomass and bagasse based co-generation and solar .
Factors for development: 1) massive gap between demand and supply.
2) Lower cost due to technology.
3) Rapid development of domestic manufacturer.
Indian perspective of Renewable energy RE-Technology Estimated Potential (MW) Status as on 31.10.2009 (MW) Wind 45,195 10891 Small hydro (upto 25 MW) 15,000 2520 Grid connected Solar Thermal & Off-grid Solar PV & thermal 6000 Million Gwh per Annum 6 Biomass 16,248 817 Co-generation (Bagasse) 3,500 1241
Generation Based Incentive (GBI) development model can augment the present development.
GBI : Ministry of New and Renewable Energy announced generation
based incentive scheme for grid connected wind power project in
which 50 paisa/unit for electricity is fed into the grid.
Ministry of New Renewable Energy(MNRE) has also announced the GBI scheme for grid connected wind power projects up to an aggregate capacity of 4000 MW up to the end of Xith plan period (31 st March,2012).
“ Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission”
Twin objectives : Contribute to India’s long term energy security as well as its ecological security.
Potential resource ( The annual radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kwh/m², which is comparable with radiation received in the tropical and sub-tropical regions ); Generation of electricity from all resources in 2008-09 was 0.7 million,
The State Governments in the key states of Rajasthan and Gujarat have also proactively initiated several infrastructure development measures including acquisition of ‘land banks’ in advance, Acquisition of transmission corridors, creation of transport infrastructure etc.
National Solar Mission(NSM) : moved away from GBI based framework to one that relies on cheap coal based power with more expensive solar power .
- NVVN(NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd.): The objectives also include to plan, promote, develop and establish an efficient and reliable power trading system and system for transfer/wheeling of power from the power producers, generating and transmission companies within India and abroad and supply within India and abroad
Potentials of various states in Wind Power: Sl.No States Potential (MW) Available (MW) 1 Andhra Pradesh 8968 127 2 Gujarat 10645 1255 3 Karnataka 11531 1030 4 Kerala 1171 11 5 Madhya Pradesh 1091 126 6 Maharashtra 4584 1756 7 Rajasthan 4858 542 8 Tamil Nadu 5530 3848 Total 48378 8695
Development of Grid-connected Renewable Power in India (in MW) Achieved In Process Anticipated Targets Five-year Plan By the End of the 9th Plan 10th Plan Anticipated in the 11th Plan By the End of the 11th Plan By the End of the 13th Plan Years Through 2002 2002–2007 2007–2012 Through 2012 Through 2022 Wind 1,667 5,415 10,500 17,582 40,000 Small Hydro 1,438 520 1,400 3,358 6,500 Biomass 368 750 2,100 3,218 7,500 Solar 2 1 1,000 1,003 20,000 Total 3,475 6,686 15,000 25,161 74,000
Potential capacity, installed capacity of renewable energy sources, by state as of fiscal year 2009-2010
According to estimates, 7,852 MW of renewable energy potential exists in the state and the total renewable.
Energy generated in the state during 2007- 08 was 2,584 MkWh.
Maharashtra Energy Development Agency (MEDA) in Dhule district develops Asia’s single-largest wind farm with an installed capacity of 545 MW.
The state also ranks second in India for its installed wind capacity. Private wind power projects of nearly 1,820 MW have been installed in the state at 17 sites until October 2008.
Maharashtra climate supports the Solar energy generation. The State has a capacity to generate 1.5 Million units/MW/year through solar photovoltaic systems & up to 2.5 Million units/MW/ year through solar thermal systems.
The state has opened up the energy sector to renewable power alternatives, which reflects its commitment towards sustainable and eco-friendly power generation.