In 1829, Sir Robert Peel introduced the Metropolitan Act, passed by the parliament of England in the same year, which led to the creation of Metropolitan Police Force of London, which is viewed as the first organized uniformed police force. This police force was later on named as the Scotland Yard . Being the originator and the first head of such police organization, Sir Robert Peel has earned the title “ Father of Modern Policing System”
What are the fundamental theories of police service?
Continental Theory – Police officers are considered servants of the higher authorities and the people have little or no share at all in their duties, nor any direct connection with them. This theory prevail among continental countries, like France, Italy, Spain, where the governmental structure follows the centralized pattern.
Home-Rule Theory – Police officers are considered as servants of the community who depend for the effectiveness of their functions upon the express wishes of the people. In this theory, police officers are civil employees whose primary duty is the preservation of public peace and security. This is practiced in England and in United States of America, where the governmental structure is decentralized.
What are the fundamental concepts of police service?
Old Concept – police service is looked upon the police as merely as repressive machinery. This old philosophy means throwing more people in jail rather than keeping them out of jail. Under this concept, punishment is the sole instrument of crime control. The yardstick of efficiency of the police is more arrest .
Modern Concept – police service considers the police as an organ of crime prevention. Police service today has broadened its activities to include certain aspects of social service and has for its objective the welfare of the individual as well as that of the society. Under this philosophy, the yardstick of efficiency of the police is the absence of crime.
What is the organizational structure of the PNP?
Line and Staff Organization
Is a combination of the line and functional types . It combines staff specialists such as the criminalist, the training officer, the research and development specialist etc. Channels of responsibility is to “think and provide expertise” for the line units. The line supervisor must remember that he obtains advice from the staff specialists.
Line functions – are the backbone of the police department which include patrol, investigation and traffic control which is performed by “line members” including patrol officer, sergeant and the chief of police
Staff functions – are those operations assigned to support the line functions, staff members are necessarily advisors who are typically assigned to planning, research, legal advice and budgeting . Staff members are often civilians with specialized training. The main function is to study police policies and practices and to offer proposals to the chief executive of the department.
What are the fundamental principles of police organization?
The Guardrilleros – This was body of rural police organized in each town and established by the Royal Decree of January 8, 1836. This Act provided that 5% of the able-bodied male inhabitants of each province were to be enlisted in this police organization for 3 years.
Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – This was organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying out the regulations of the department of state. It was armed with carbines . In 1781, it was given the special commission of government custodian of the tobacco monopoly. By Royal Decree on December 20, 1842, it was organized and called CUERPO DE CARABINEROS DE SEGURIDAD PUBLICA, hence, its duties become police like and more general.
The Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal decree issued by the Crown on February 12, 1852 to partially relieve the Spanish Peninsular troops of their work in policing towns. It was composed mostly of Filipinos.
November 30, 1980 – creation of Insular Police Force
July 18, 1901 – creation of Insular Constabulary by Virtue of Act # 175
July 31, 1901 – Manila Police Department was organized by virtue of Act # 183
October 3, 1901 – Insular Constabulary was changed to Philippine Constabulary by virtue of Act # 255
January 2, 1942 – first element of the Japanese Imperial Army entered manila called KEMPETAI . It is on this date that Manila Police department was renamed Metropolitan Constabulary under the Bureau of Constabulary
February 7, 1945 – General Macarthur returned to the Philippines and the Battle of Manila ended. Manila Police Department was reconstituted.
Republic Act # 4864 (Police Act of 1966 ) – it was enacted on September 8, 1966 which created the Office of Police Commission which was later called NAPOLCOM .
Presidential Decree # 765 – it was enacted on August 8, 1975 which created the Integrated National Police and provides for the NAPOLCOM to be under the Office of Ministry of National Defense
Republic Act #6040 (Tolentino Law ) – empowering the Police Commission to give appropriate examinations to officers and members of police force aimed at professionalizing police services .
Republic Act #6975 ( Department of Interior and Local Government Act of 1990 ) – establishing the Philippine National Police. Enacted December 13, 1990 which abolished the PC-INP and created agencies under the DILG (PNP, BFP, BJMP & PPSC).
Republic Act #8551 ( PNP Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998 ) – created on February 25, 1998 which provides for the reformation and professionalization of the PNP.
The PNP shall be headed by A Chief, with a rank of Director General, who shall be assisted by two Deputy Chiefs: One for Administration, who happens to be the second in command; and one for Operation who is third in command with a rank of Deputy Director General.
The head of the Directorial Staff with the rank of Deputy Director General is known as Chief of the Directorial Staff of the PNP.
The PNP organizational structure is composed of a National Office, Regional Offices, Provincial Offices, district Offices, and City/municipal offices.
On the average nationwide, the manning levels of the PNP shall be approximately in accordance with a police-to-population ration of one policeman to every 500 persons . The actual strength of the city or municipal police stations shall depend on the state of peace and order, population density and actual demands of the service in the particular area. Provided, that the minimum police-to-population ratio shall not be less than one policeman to every 1000 persons.
What are the different ranks in the PNP and their equivalence in the military?
How is waiver for initial appointment affected in the PNP?
The age, height and weight and educational requirements for initial appointment to the PNP may be waived only when the number of qualified applicants falls below the minimum annual quota.
The NAPOLCOM may grant waiver of age, height, weight or educational requirements.
Waiver of age may be granted provided the applicant should not be less than 20 or over 35 years of age.
Waiver of the height requirement may be granted to male applicant who is at least 1.57m and 1.52m for female applicants; provided that the NAPOLCOM may set a lower height requirement for applicants who belong to cultural minorities duly certified by the Office of Muslim Affairs of the Appropriate Government Entity . Provided, further, that the NAPOLCOM may require said applicant to submit their membership in a certain cultural minority.
An applicant who is granted a weight requirement shall be given reasonable time but not exceeding 6 months within which to comply with said requirements.
Waiver of educational requirements may be granted to an applicant who has finished second year college or has earned at least 72 collegiate units leading to a bachelor’s degree. Provided that any person who will enter the service without a baccalaureate degree shall be given a maximum of four years to obtain the required educational requirements.
In general, all original appointment for Commissioned Officers (CO) shall commenced with the rank of Inspector , such as dentist, optometrist, nurses, engineers, and graduates of forensic sciences. Doctors of Medicine, members of the Bar and Chaplains shall be appointed to the Rank of Senior Inspector in their particular technical services. Graduates of the PNPA shall be automatically appointed to the initial rank of Inspector . Licensed Criminologist may be appointed to the rank of Inspector to fill up any vacancy.
Appraisal refers to the process of measuring the performance of PNP members. It is also known as “ Performance Evaluation System”. The Performance Evaluation in the PNP is focused on two areas: administrative (40%), and operational (60 %) . It is conducted once every 6 months or twice a year.
Promotion by Virtue of Exhibited Acts (Special Promotion)
Promotion by Virtue of Position
Any PNP member designated to any key position whose rank is lower than which is required for such position shall, after 6 months of occupying the same, be entitled to a promotion, subject to the availability of vacant positions. Provided, that the member shall not be reassigned to a position calling for a higher rank until after two years form the date of such promotion. Provided further, that any member designated to the position who does not possess the established minimum qualifications thereof shall occupy the same for not more than 6 months without extension
Attrition by Attainment of Maximum tenure of PNP members holding key positions as prescribed herein: Position Maximum Tenure PNP Chief 4 Years PNP Dep. Director 4 Years Director for Staff Service 4 Years Regional Directors 6 Years Provincial/City Director 9 Years Attrition by Relief – A PNP uniformed personnel who has been relieved for just cause and has not been given an assignment within 2 years after such relief shall be retired or separated.
Attrition by Demotion in Position or Rank - Any PNP personnel, civilian or uniformed, who is relieved and assigned to a position lower than what is established for his or her grade in the PNP Staffing Pattern and who shall not be assigned to a position commensurate to his or her grade within 18 months after such demotion in position shall be retired or separated.
Attrition by Non-promotion – Any PNP personnel who has not been promoted for a continuous period of 10 years shall be retired or separated.
Any personnel of the PNP who is dismissed pursuant to attrition shall be retired if he or she has rendered at least 20 years of service and separated if he or she has rendered less than 20 years unless the personnel is disqualified by law to receive such benefits.
The uniformed members of the PNP are considered employees of the National Government and draw their salaries there from. They have the same salary grade that of a public school teacher , PNP member assigned in Metropolitan Manila, Chartered Cities and first class municipalities may be paid financial incentives by the local government unit concerned subject to the availability of funds
Incentives and Awards – The DILG shall promulgate standards on incentives and award system in the PNP administered by the Board of Incentives and Awards. Awards may be in the form of decorations, service medals and citation badges or in monetary considerations.
Authorized decorations are :
Police Medal of Valor
Police Medal of Merit
Wounded Police Medal
Police Efficiency Medal
Police Service Medal
Police Unit Citation badge
Posthumous Award – in case an individual who distinguish himself dies before the granting of the awards.
Longevity Pay and Allowances – Under RA 6975, PNP personnel are entitled to longevity pay of 10% of their basic monthly salaries for every five years of service but the totality of such longevity pay does not exceed 50% of the basic pay. However, they also continue to enjoy the:
Cost of living allowance
Retirement Benefits – There is a monthly retirement pay of 50% of the base pay and longevity pay of the retired grade in case of 20 years of active service, increasing by 2.5% for every year of active service and rendered beyond 20 years to maximum of 90% for 36 years of service and over. Payment of the retirement benefit in lump sum is made within 6 months from effectivity date of retirement and/or completion. Retirement pay of PNP members is subject of adjustment based on prevailing scale of base pay of Police personnel in the active service.
Permanent Physical Disability – A PNP member who is permanently and totally disabled as a result of injuries suffered or sickness contracted in the performance of duty as certified by the NAPOLCOM, upon finding and certification of a medical officer, that the extent of disability or sickness render such member unfit or unable to further perform the duties of his/her position, is entitled to a gratuity pay equivalent to a one years salary and to a lifetime pension equivalent to 80% of his/her last salary , in addition to other benefits as provided by existing laws.
Early retirement Benefit – A PNP member at his or her own request and with the approval of the NAPOLCOM, retire from the police service and he paid separation benefits corresponding to a position 2 ranks higher than hi/her present rank , whether temporary or permanent subject to conditions:
What are the nature of complaints against PNP members?
Citizen’s Complaint – Any complaint by a natural or juridical person against any PNP member shall be brought before the following:
Chiefs of Police – where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period not exceeding 15 days ;
Mayors of cities and municipalities – where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period of not less than 16 days but not exceeding 30 days;
People’s Law Enforcement Board (PLEB) - where the offense is punishable by withholding of privileges, restriction to specified limits, suspension or forfeiture of salary, or any combination thereof, for a period exceeding 30 days or dismissal.
Breach of Internal Discipline – refers to any offense committed by a PNP member affecting order and discipline within the police organization.
Chiefs of Police or equivalent supervisor may summarily impose the administrative penalties in all cases provided that it does not exceed 15 days .
Provincial Director or equivalent supervisor may summarily impose the administrative penalties in all cases provided that it does not exceed 30 days .
The Regional Director or equivalent supervisor may summarily impose the administrative penalties in all cases provided that it does not exceed 60 days .
The Chief PNP or equivalent supervisor may summarily impose the administrative penalty of dismissal from service. He may also impose the penalty of admonition or reprimand, restrictive custody, withholding of privileges, suspension or forfeiture of salary, demotion, or any combination thereof for a period not exceeding 180 days.
A “ minor offense ” shall refer to any act or omission not involving moral turpitude, but affecting internal discipline which include but not limited to the following
a. Simple misconduct or negligence
c. Frequent absences or tardiness
d. Habitual Drunkenness
e. Gambling prohibited by law.
“ Forum shopping ” or multiple filing complaints – When an administrative case is filed with a police disciplinary authority, no other case involving the same cause of action shall be filed with any other disciplinary authority.