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Eses%20200%20water 1
Eses%20200%20water 1
Eses%20200%20water 1
Eses%20200%20water 1
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Eses%20200%20water 1
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Eses%20200%20water 1

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  • 1. ESE 200 Water in the Earth System
  • 2. Learning goals <ul><li>Know where the water is systematically and globally </li></ul><ul><li>Understand groundwater’s role in the hydrologic cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water table, aquifer, stocks versus flows, sustainability, renewability, contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be able to describe the major water users in developed and developing countries, and how these patterns might change in the future. </li></ul>
  • 3. Numbers <ul><li>One gallon (G) is ~4 liters (L)… </li></ul><ul><li>One cubic meter is 1000 liters </li></ul><ul><li>One cubic kilometer is 10 12 liters </li></ul>
  • 4. Where’s all the water stored ?
  • 5. Where’s all the water moving ?
  • 6. Individual water use <ul><li>What are the biggest ways that you directly use water each day (e.g. drink it from faucet)? </li></ul><ul><li>List your top three </li></ul>
  • 7. Nevada e.g.
  • 8. <ul><li>Which sectors of society are big users of water? </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Which sectors of society are big users of water? </li></ul><ul><li>Who uses the most? </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>One view… </li></ul>
  • 11.  
  • 12. Most water use is agricultural
  • 13. World trend <ul><li>Note size of green wedge </li></ul>
  • 14. US trend is different
  • 15. Indirect water use by individuals <ul><li>So most water use in US is indirect </li></ul><ul><li>What are the biggest indirect uses of water in your daily life? </li></ul>
  • 16. Imbedded water
  • 17. Imbedded water Small coffee of the day = 50 gallons of water!
  • 18. Small coffee of the day = 50 gallons of water! ¼ pounder patty = 500 gallons of water Imbedded water
  • 19. <ul><li>Who has the water, globally? </li></ul>
  • 20. Proportion of water resources Size of country represents size of water resource
  • 21. Proportion of water use Size of country represents use of water
  • 22. <ul><li>Which countries/regions are water stressed? </li></ul>water resource water use <ul><li>Who has the water, globally? </li></ul><ul><li>List regions that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water stressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water rich </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. <ul><li>Which countries/regions are water stressed? </li></ul>water resource water use <ul><li>Who has the water, globally? </li></ul><ul><li>List regions that are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water stressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water rich </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Water use in Punjab <ul><li>Watch the video </li></ul><ul><li>What is the central issue/problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the policy failure that is contributing to the problem? </li></ul>
  • 25. Groundwater and the Water Table 2% to 25% of rainfall
  • 26. Digging a well for water <ul><li>What are some things to keep in mind? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is a good place? Or a bad place? </li></ul><ul><li>What influences the success of the well? </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with some ideas! </li></ul>
  • 27.  
  • 28. The Water Table <ul><li>Water percolates into the earth because of gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper rocks are not very permeable, so water only percolates to a depth of 5 to 10 km </li></ul><ul><li>The water table marks the surface of this underground trapped water </li></ul>
  • 29. The Water Table <ul><li>Below the water table the rock is saturated with water (i.e. the pores are completely filled) </li></ul>
  • 30. The Water Table <ul><li>Below the water table the rock is saturated with water (i.e. the pores are completely filled) </li></ul>Lakes mark the water table
  • 31. Ground water movement <ul><li>Water moves slowly through the ground, in response to pressure and elevation </li></ul><ul><li>The water always flows in the direction of the slope of the water table </li></ul>
  • 32. Streams and Ground Water <ul><li>Streams can either gain or lose water to ground water sources </li></ul>
  • 33. Impact of groundwater withdrawal <ul><li>Southern India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would increases in the number of boreholes decrease the flow of the river in summer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a policy failure? </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Aquifers <ul><li>Aquifers are regions of saturated rock in which water can move easily (i.e. are permeable) </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent sites for wells </li></ul>Generally sedimentary permeable, igneous not.
  • 35. Aquifers Igneous can be permeable if it has the right pattern of cracks for the water to flow through <ul><li>Aquifers are regions of saturated rock in which water can move easily (i.e. are permeable) </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent sites for wells </li></ul>
  • 36. Groundwater <ul><li>Should we consider groundwater a renewable resource? </li></ul>tps
  • 37. Groundwater <ul><li>Should we consider groundwater a renewable resource? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continually recharged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use can exceed rate of recharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be contaminated </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. Groundwater: recharge rates differ by depth Millennia Centuries Decades Years Days Flow lines Confining beds Wells Water table Discharge area Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifers
  • 39. Water use in Spain <ul><li>Watch this </li></ul><ul><li>And consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What sector is the biggest user of Spanish water? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a Tragedy of the Commons problem here? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the policies concerning water use, and are they making the problem better or worse? </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Closest to surface </li></ul>
  • 41. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Within 500 ft of surface </li></ul>
  • 42. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Deeper than 500 ft from surface </li></ul>
  • 43. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Sand and gravel wells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why no bedrock wells in Champaign? </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Sustainable? </li></ul>
  • 45. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater recharge is arguably one of the least understood and quantified components of the hydrologic cycle. It cannot be measured directly, is highly variable in space and time, and must be inferred… </li></ul><ul><li>Illinois State Water Survey </li></ul>
  • 46. Aquifers in Illinois <ul><li>Sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater recharge is arguably one of the least understood and quantified components of the hydrologic cycle. It cannot be measured directly, is highly variable in space and time, and must be inferred… </li></ul><ul><li>Illinois State Water Survey </li></ul>Illinois uses over one billion gallons of ground water (per day)… Illinois aquifers have an estimated combined potential yield of approximately 7 billion gallons per day…
  • 47. Ground Water Contamination Water table is raised under a landfill (higher surface and permeable trash)
  • 48. Ground Water Contamination Water table is raised under a landfill (higher surface and permeable trash) Soluble pollution moves in the same direction as the groundwater flow
  • 49. Wells <ul><li>As wells pump water, they locally lower the water table </li></ul>
  • 50. Groundwater Contamination <ul><li>Pumping wells can “attract” pollution by changing the surface gradient of the water table </li></ul>
  • 51. <ul><li>Pumping wells can “attract” pollution by changing the surface gradient of the water table </li></ul>Groundwater Contamination
  • 52. Beyond society: why else is water important? <ul><li>Indian waterways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List all the ways in which human activities/policies are degrading the rivers as habitat for the reptiles discusses by the presenter. </li></ul></ul>Western Ghats
  • 53. Future needs? Is this extra water available? UN
  • 54. Predicted water availability UN projection
  • 55. Predicted water availability UN projection Currently, US uses ~4000 cubic meters/person/year
  • 56. Predicted water scarcity
  • 57. Predicted water scarcity Each group: come up with one policy (large or small) that would minimize the impact of water scarcity on one of the red areas. Simply estimate the major cost and benefit(s).
  • 58. Virtual Water <ul><li>Which is harder to transport? </li></ul><ul><li>3,400 cubic meters of water </li></ul><ul><li>1 metric tonne of rice </li></ul>
  • 59. Virtual Water <ul><li>Which is harder to transport? </li></ul><ul><li>3,400 cubic meters of water </li></ul><ul><li>1 metric tonne of rice </li></ul>3,400 tonnes in weight! 3,400 kilos of water needed for each kilo of rice produced
  • 60. Virtual Water <ul><li>Water rich areas can trade water intensive products to water poor areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water itself is too bulky to trade </li></ul></ul>Science media center
  • 61. Virtual Water: caveat <ul><li>Treats all freshwater as the same, but not so in reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rainwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lake water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recycled water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treated municipal water… </li></ul></ul>e.g. 140 litres of harvested water (well, rain, dam, etc.) and 0.25 litres of tap water
  • 62. Virtual Water trading <ul><li>Water rich areas can trade water intensive products to water poor areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water itself is too bulky to trade </li></ul></ul>
  • 63. Virtual Water trading <ul><li>Which countries import and export virtual water? </li></ul>tps
  • 64. Virtual Water trading <ul><li>Which countries import and export virtual water? </li></ul>&quot;Among the biggest net exporter countries of virtual water are the U.S., Canada, Thailand, Argentina, India, Vietnam, France and Brazil. Some of the largest net import countries are Sri Lanka, Japan, the Netherlands, South Korea, China, Spain, Egypt, Germany and Italy.&quot; Daniel Zimmer, World Water Council, 2003
  • 65. Virtual Water trade Doesn’t quite match, this data from 1997
  • 66. Virtual Water trade Doesn’t quite match, this data from 1997 Yemen
  • 67. Yemen A county with problems: semi civil-war, undemocratic, poor: 154 out of 180 Corruption Perceptions Index Transparency International 140 out of 182 Human Development Index United Nations Development Programme 119 out of 144 Global Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace Ranking Survey Organization
  • 68. Poor countries, poor policies <ul><li>Yemen: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receives 200 cubic m/person/yr, below the international water poverty line of 1,000 cubic m/person/yr </li></ul></ul>
  • 69. Yemeni Policies <ul><li>Prime Ag. sites used for Qat, a chewed drug </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imports 80% of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000’s of illegal wells </li></ul></ul>'You know it's ready to harvest when the top stalk has two buds' ... Yemen's Nabil Ali Rafik, 17, shows off his qat plants in Wadi Dahr. Photograph: Hugh Macleod, Guardian
  • 70. Yemeni Policies <ul><li>Yemeni government subsidizes diesel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel is used to power well pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unintended consequence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-extraction </li></ul></ul>
  • 71. Yemeni Aquifers <ul><li>4 gallons withdrawn from main aquifer for every gallon replenished </li></ul><ul><li>Some wells have been completely contaminated by sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated sewage and oil contamination are also problems </li></ul>
  • 72. Yemeni Society <ul><ul><li>Capital, Sana'a, 7%/yr pop. growth, will run out of water by 2017 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 of pop. lives on less than $2 a day </li></ul></ul>Already has to import clean water
  • 73. Summary <ul><li>Most global water use is agricultural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future shortage is agricultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade can satisfy local demand: “virtual water” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most individual water use is indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater is an important part of supply </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater is dropping in many places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing water costs, decreasing sustainability/renewability, contamination threat </li></ul></ul>

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