0
Announcements – April 13, 2010 Exam 2 one week from today (Wednesday April 20)
Energy Sources II <ul><li>Lecture Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the breakdown of fossil fuel usage in the U.S. ...
How do we consume fossil fuels in the U.S.? <ul><li>85.7% of total energy </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum (39.2%) </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>One Problem with fossil fuels   </li></ul><ul><li>~86% of energy in U.S. currently supplied by non-renewable resou...
Hydroelectric Power 2.5% of world ’s commercial energy (2.7% U.S.) River water is held behind a dam Falling water is used ...
Environmental Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Reservoir construction causes significant environmental and social damage. <u...
The Three Gorges Dam Started in 1997 Stretches 1.3 miles across the Yangtze River
The Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>Reasons for constructing: </li></ul><ul><li>Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Increased abil...
Wind U.S. Dept. of Energy rated wind power the  world ’s fastest growing energy source in the 1990s. (but currently suppli...
Environmental Impacts of Wind Power <ul><li>Can be hazardous to birds </li></ul><ul><li>Produces noise </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Solar Energy <ul><li>Daily energy from the sun is 600X greater than energy produced by all other energy sources combined. ...
Three Major Use Categories <ul><li>Passive Heating —  Sun ’s energy is converted directly to heat and used at collection s...
Photovoltaic Cells <ul><li>Unit that allows direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1...
Limitations of Solar Energy Large PV arrays require space Works only during the day Inadequate in cloudy climates. Inadequ...
Fuelwood <ul><li>In less-developed countries, fuelwood has been major energy source for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelw...
Less common sources: Tidal Power –  tides can be used to   spin an  electricity -generating turbine   limited applicabilit...
Tidal Power Generation. The Annapolis Tidal Generating Station is a pilot project to explore the potential of harnessing e...
Lake Source Cooling http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/LSC/default.htm Cornell University Ithaca, NY Uses cold water from Ca...
Lake Source Cooling http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/LSC/default.htm
History of Nuclear Development First controlled fission—Germany 1938. 1945—U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Naga...
Nuclear Power Plants in North America Illinois Number of nuclear units:  11   Braidwood 1-2, Braidwood, Ill. Byron 1-2, By...
Workings of A Nuclear Reactor Generates electricity Chain reaction produces heat Converts water to steam Turns a turbine N...
Nuclear Fuel Cycle <ul><li>As fission occurs, U 235  concentration in fuel rods decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>After about 3...
Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power <ul><li>More than 330 underground storage tanks currently exist with high-level rad...
U.S. DOE Waste Sites
Radioactive Waste Disposal <ul><li>High Level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this time, NO country has a permanent storage solu...
High-Level Waste <ul><li>In 1982, Congress called for a high-level radioactive disposal site to be selected by 1987, and t...
Low-Level Waste <ul><li>Currently, U.S. produces about 800,000 m 3  of low-level radioactive waste annually. </li></ul><ul...
Nuclear Power Concerns <ul><li>Currently, 17% of electricity consumed worldwide comes from nuclear power. </li></ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Three Mile Island—PA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 28, 1979—Partial Core Melt-Down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Chernobyl—Ukraine <ul><ul><li>April 26, 1986 </li></ul></ul>
Chernobyl — Ukraine Experiments were being conducted on one reactor <ul><ul><li>Reactor Explodes </li></ul></ul>Numerous s...
Chernobyl—Ukraine <ul><ul><li>Increases in Thyroid cancer rate by 10x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 deaths </li></ul></ul>...
Japanese Declare Crisis  at Level of Chernobyl  April 11, 2011 The Japanese government raised its assessment of the month ...
Japanese Declare Crisis  at Level of Chernobyl  April 11, 2011 Japanese officials went to lengths to say that the problem ...
http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/03/deaths-per-twh-by-energy-source.html
A comment on these alternative sources: <ul><li>Source Energy produced </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric Electricity </li></...
>95% of Transportation energy supplied by petroleum <ul><li>“ In transportation uses, in contrast, there is little fuel su...
Buenos Aires, Argentina Over 200,000 taxis use natural gas as fuel.
2009 profit: $19.3 billion The global recession cost Exxon bragging rights: It's no longer America's largest company ( tha...
Alternatives to gas-powered autos <ul><li>Electric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limited range, lack of power stations </li></ul><...
BMW sets 9 records with Hydrogen Combustion Engine. Top Speed over 300 km/h  A fundamental consideration is that the combu...
Biofuels: Green energy or grim reaper? 22 September 2006, Jeff McNeeley “ Biofuels could end up damaging the natural world...
It is a renewable energy resource if pursued properly. Ethanol burns more cleanly than oil. Can be made from a wide variet...
Grain required to fill an SUV with ethanol could feed one person for one year. Much of plant material imported from Brazil...
 
Other options? <ul><li>Conservation!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Most current energy use is highly inefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><...
What you can (easily) do conserve energy: <ul><li>Replace incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent. </li></ul><ul><li>Mak...
Points to know <ul><li>Why is there controversy surrounding drilling in ANWR? What are the issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Know ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

22 energy2

592

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
592
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "22 energy2"

  1. 1. Announcements – April 13, 2010 Exam 2 one week from today (Wednesday April 20)
  2. 2. Energy Sources II <ul><li>Lecture Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the breakdown of fossil fuel usage in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about pros and cons of alternative energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the benefits and risks of nuclear energy </li></ul><ul><li>Learn easy ways to conserve fossil fuel use </li></ul>
  3. 3. How do we consume fossil fuels in the U.S.? <ul><li>85.7% of total energy </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum (39.2%) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation 67% </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Power 3% </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial 24% </li></ul><ul><li>Residential/Commercial 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas (23.7%) Total by Area </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation 0.1% Transportation 26.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Power 35% Electrical Power 30.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial 43.6% Industrial 21.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Residential/Commercial 21.2% Residential/commercial 7.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Coal (22.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation NA </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Power 90.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial 9% </li></ul><ul><li>Residential/Commercial 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Source: www.eia.doe.gov </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>One Problem with fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>~86% of energy in U.S. currently supplied by non-renewable resources, which will run out at some point in the future!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative sources of energy, preferably from renewable resources. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hydroelectric Power 2.5% of world ’s commercial energy (2.7% U.S.) River water is held behind a dam Falling water is used to spin the turbine to generate electricity
  6. 6. Environmental Impacts of Hydroelectric Power Reservoir construction causes significant environmental and social damage. <ul><ul><li>Loss of farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community relocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of nutrient-rich silt leading to loss of wetlands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to the hydrology of the river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts aquatic animals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Three Gorges Dam Started in 1997 Stretches 1.3 miles across the Yangtze River
  8. 8. The Three Gorges Dam <ul><li>Reasons for constructing: </li></ul><ul><li>Power Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ability for navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Flood control </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on coal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and Social Impacts : </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Wildlife (Chinese alligator, river dolphin) </li></ul><ul><li>Massive relocation of people </li></ul><ul><li>Flooded archeological sites and scenic canyons </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wind U.S. Dept. of Energy rated wind power the world ’s fastest growing energy source in the 1990s. (but currently supplies <0.1% of U.S. energy needs Cost for electricity generation becoming competitive with fossil fuel sources. Steady, dependable wind source is critical
  10. 10. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power <ul><li>Can be hazardous to birds </li></ul><ul><li>Produces noise </li></ul><ul><li>Considered “visual pollution” by some </li></ul>
  11. 11. Solar Energy <ul><li>Daily energy from the sun is 600X greater than energy produced by all other energy sources combined. </li></ul><ul><li>Major problem as an energy source is its intermittent nature. </li></ul>Beverly, Massachusetts photovoltaic (PV) array
  12. 12. Three Major Use Categories <ul><li>Passive Heating — Sun ’s energy is converted directly to heat and used at collection site. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Heating — Sun ’s energy is converted into heat, but transported elsewhere to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Generation — Solar energy is transformed into electrical energy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Photovoltaic Cells <ul><li>Unit that allows direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1954 by Bell Laboratories essentially as a novelty. </li></ul><ul><li>By mid 1980s, more than 60 million solar calculators produced annually. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Limitations of Solar Energy Large PV arrays require space Works only during the day Inadequate in cloudy climates. Inadequate in many colder climates as sole heating source (need conventional back-up) Currently provides less than 1% of world ’s energy
  15. 15. Fuelwood <ul><li>In less-developed countries, fuelwood has been major energy source for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood is primary energy source for nearly half world ’s population. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 1.3 billion people cannot get enough, or are using it faster than rate of regeneration. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of air pollution and fly ash </li></ul><ul><li>Not really a viable alternative energy source for US </li></ul>
  16. 16. Less common sources: Tidal Power – tides can be used to spin an electricity -generating turbine limited applicability La Rance Tidal Power Station
  17. 17. Tidal Power Generation. The Annapolis Tidal Generating Station is a pilot project to explore the potential of harnessing energy from the sea. Annapolis Tidal utilizes the sea water of the Bay of Fundy. Tides, which can sometimes reach 21 feet in height, rise and fall every 12 hours and 25 minutes in harmony with the gravitational forces of the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon.
  18. 18. Lake Source Cooling http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/LSC/default.htm Cornell University Ithaca, NY Uses cold water from Cayuga Lake to cool University Buildings 80% energy savings over conventional chillers
  19. 19. Lake Source Cooling http://www.utilities.cornell.edu/LSC/default.htm
  20. 20. History of Nuclear Development First controlled fission—Germany 1938. 1945—U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. U.S. built world ’s first nuclear power plant in 1951 Currently, 8.4% of U.S. energy from nuclear power
  21. 21. Nuclear Power Plants in North America Illinois Number of nuclear units: 11 Braidwood 1-2, Braidwood, Ill. Byron 1-2, Byron, Ill. Clinton, Clinton, Ill. Dresden 2-3, Morris, Ill. LaSalle 1-2, Seneca, Ill. Quad Cities 1-2, Cordova, Ill.
  22. 22. Workings of A Nuclear Reactor Generates electricity Chain reaction produces heat Converts water to steam Turns a turbine Nuclear Reactor — Device that permits a controlled fission chain reaction.
  23. 23. Nuclear Fuel Cycle <ul><li>As fission occurs, U 235 concentration in fuel rods decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>After about 3 years, fuel rods don ’t have enough radioactive material left to sustain a chain reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Spent fuel rods are replaced by new ones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do with the spent fuel rods? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power <ul><li>More than 330 underground storage tanks currently exist with high-level radioactive waste. </li></ul><ul><li>5,700 sites have wastes moving through soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up will take years and cost tens of billions of dollars. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental clean up single largest item in DOE budget. </li></ul></ul>Nuclear Wastes
  25. 25. U.S. DOE Waste Sites
  26. 26. Radioactive Waste Disposal <ul><li>High Level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At this time, NO country has a permanent storage solution for high-level waste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics of disposal are as crucial as disposal method. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Carlsbad, NM began accepting waste in March, 1999. </li></ul></ul>Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power
  27. 27. High-Level Waste <ul><li>In 1982, Congress called for a high-level radioactive disposal site to be selected by 1987, and to be completed by 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Final Site Selection Occurred in 1989. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yucca Mountain, Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be completed before 2015. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By that time, waste produced by nuclear power plants will exceed the storage capacity of the site. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Low-Level Waste <ul><li>Currently, U.S. produces about 800,000 m 3 of low-level radioactive waste annually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presently buried in various scattered disposal sites. </li></ul></ul>Includes cooling water from nuclear reactors, material from decommissioned reactors, protective clothing, etc. Prior to 1970, U.S. alone placed 50,000 barrels of low-level radioactive waste on the ocean floor. Banned in 1983.
  29. 29. Nuclear Power Concerns <ul><li>Currently, 17% of electricity consumed worldwide comes from nuclear power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination and disposal problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents raised questions about safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy of reactors originally only 20 years, now extended to 40-60 years </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Three Mile Island—PA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>March 28, 1979—Partial Core Melt-Down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pump and valve malfunction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compounded by false readout and operator error </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Deaths </li></ul></ul>Very Little Radiation Vented Public Relations Disaster
  31. 31. Chernobyl—Ukraine <ul><ul><li>April 26, 1986 </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Chernobyl — Ukraine Experiments were being conducted on one reactor <ul><ul><li>Reactor Explodes </li></ul></ul>Numerous safety violations
  33. 33. Chernobyl—Ukraine <ul><ul><li>Increases in Thyroid cancer rate by 10x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 deaths </li></ul></ul>116,000 people evacuated 24,000 evacuees received high doses of radiation Fallout in Scandinavia and Europe
  34. 34. Japanese Declare Crisis at Level of Chernobyl April 11, 2011 The Japanese government raised its assessment of the month long crisis at its Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to the highest severity level by international standards—a rating only conferred so far upon the Chernobyl accident (which struck almost exactly 25 years ago, on April 26, 1986.). Japan's nuclear regulators said the plant has likely released so much radiation into the environment that it must boost the accident's severity rating on the International Nuclear Event scale to a 7 from 5 currently.
  35. 35. Japanese Declare Crisis at Level of Chernobyl April 11, 2011 Japanese officials went to lengths to say that the problem they are struggling to contain isn't anywhere near the disaster of Chernobyl. &quot;First, the amount of released radiation is about a tenth of Chernobyl,&quot; he said, adding that while there were 29 deaths resulting from short-term exposure to high doses of radiation at Chernobyl, there were no such deaths at Fukushima. &quot;At Chernobyl, the nuclear reactor itself exploded,&quot; he said, adding that at the Fukushima plant, the pressure vessel and the containment vessel were largely intact.
  36. 36. http://nextbigfuture.com/2011/03/deaths-per-twh-by-energy-source.html
  37. 37. A comment on these alternative sources: <ul><li>Source Energy produced </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Electricity, Direct Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Source Cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>But current fossil fuel use is: </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation 26.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity 30.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial 21.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Residential/Commercial 7.5% </li></ul>Can we decrease use of fossil fuels for transportation and industrial fuel use?
  38. 38. >95% of Transportation energy supplied by petroleum <ul><li>“ In transportation uses, in contrast, there is little fuel substitution possible in the short term and only limited potential in the longer term, given current technology” – Oil Market Basics, www.eia.doe.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Vast majority of automobiles & trucks run on gasoline or diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Major infrastructure of gas stations not easily converted to other fuels </li></ul>
  39. 39. Buenos Aires, Argentina Over 200,000 taxis use natural gas as fuel.
  40. 40. 2009 profit: $19.3 billion The global recession cost Exxon bragging rights: It's no longer America's largest company ( that title now goes to Wal-Mart) and it isn't posting record profits. Indeed, earnings got cut in half as sales dropped by more than a third in 2009. But Exxon remains unlike any company on our list. Consider that the oil giant spent a record $27 billion during the year on exploration projects, yet it still earned more than the gross domestic product of Macedonia.
  41. 41. Alternatives to gas-powered autos <ul><li>Electric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limited range, lack of power stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid electric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>greatly increased MPG, becoming more popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still uses gas, can use existing infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methanol/Ethanol (biofuels) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass conversion (organic wastes, crops) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still uses gas; food shortages, more habitat loss? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only produces water, heat, electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>takes more energy to produce </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. BMW sets 9 records with Hydrogen Combustion Engine. Top Speed over 300 km/h A fundamental consideration is that the combustion properties of hydrogen are quite different from those of gasoline or diesel: While hydrogen burns faster than conventional fuels under normal air pressure, the combustion temperature is slightly lower than in the case of gasoline. Hydrogen cars…. Only waste is water! But, where will we get pure hydrogen (H2)? - still need to burn fossil fuels to produce H2!
  43. 43. Biofuels: Green energy or grim reaper? 22 September 2006, Jeff McNeeley “ Biofuels could end up damaging the natural world rather than saving it from global warming. Better policies, better science and genetic modification call contribute to a greener biofuels revolution.” Biofuels = “deforestation diesel”??
  44. 44. It is a renewable energy resource if pursued properly. Ethanol burns more cleanly than oil. Can be made from a wide variety of “crops” Arguments for biofuels
  45. 45. Grain required to fill an SUV with ethanol could feed one person for one year. Much of plant material imported from Brazil where deforestation continues. Ethanol from maize in U.S. require fossil fuels at every stage in production process. cultivation, fertilizers, tractors, processing, transportation Up to 30% more energy spent than gained. Arguments against biofuels
  46. 47. Other options? <ul><li>Conservation!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Most current energy use is highly inefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobbying against regulated increases in automobile efficiency (MPG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little development of mass transit and railroad transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most construction done with “cheaper,” energy inefficient materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial machines and practices are energy inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$$ given as reason, but are we/they really saving money in the long run?? </li></ul>
  47. 48. What you can (easily) do conserve energy: <ul><li>Replace incandescent light bulbs with fluorescent. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure car tires at proper air pressure and use recommended grade of gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider biking, walking, carpooling, taking bus or train. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy energy efficient appliances, insulate house, replace windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider buying hybrid electric vehicle or one with higher MPG. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Points to know <ul><li>Why is there controversy surrounding drilling in ANWR? What are the issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Know the major uses of oil, natural gas, and coal. What current proportion of energy in the U.S. is supplied by fossil fuels, and how does that break down by area? </li></ul><ul><li>Know the pros and cons of hydroelectric, wind, solar, and nuclear power. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the main problem with most alternative sources of energy in regards to lowering our dependence on fossil fuels? </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is more difficult to use alternative energy sources for transportation? What alternatives are there? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some easy ways to conserve energy? </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×