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14 water 14 water Presentation Transcript

  • Announcements – March 14, 2011 The Program in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Dr. Ashwini Chhatre Department of Geography, UIUC " Patterns and drivers of joint distribution of multiple ecosystem services from human-dominated forests " Wednesday, March 16, 2011 4:00 P.M. B102 CLSL Auditorium
  • Water
    • Lecture Objectives:
    • Why should we care about water usage?
    • How do we use water?
    • How is water polluted?
    • How is ground water polluted?
    • Examine history of water legislation in the U.S.
  • Why care about water?
    • Essential for life - every cell is at least 60% water
    • Can survive weeks without food, only days without water
    • Universal solvent - carries substances
      • Nutrients
      • Wastes
  • Why care about water?
    • Freshwater is scarce
      • 2.4% of all water
      • Most of this is tied up in ice or glaciers
    • Potable water is scarce
      • 25% of the world ’ s population has limited access to it
  • Water is critically scarce in parts of the world
  • Freshwater Resources
    • For most human uses and some commercial & industrial uses, water must be high quality:
    • little dissolved salts, wastes, bacteria, chemicals, etc.
    • Groundwater — water within the soil
  • The Mahomet Aquifer
  • The Mahomet Aquifer
    • Buried 100 to 200 feet below the surface
    • Water consumption from the aquifer now averages over 100 million gallons per day
    • Sustainable yield thought to be 400 million gallons per day, but well levels have dropped 50 ft. since 1950
  • How do we use water?
    • Domestic
    • Agricultural
    • Industrial
    • In-stream
    • (non-consumptive, non-polluting)
  • Domestic Water Use
    • Average person in US uses 80-100 gallons of water per day.
    • All of it is suitable for drinking
  • http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/embedded-water/
  • How do we use water?
    • Domestic use: 90% supplied by municipal water systems
      • water is filtered
      • chemically treated
      • disinfected
    • Both groundwater and surface water are used
    • Public attitude has been major force working against water conservation.
      • As long as water is considered to be a limitless, inexpensive resource, few conservation measures will be taken.
  • How do we use water?
    • Agricultural use:
    • 37% comes from groundwater, the rest comes from surface water
      • Irrigation for crops and livestock- often from far away
      • Primarily consumptive
  • How do we use water?
    • Industrial water use: accounts for nearly 50% of all water withdrawal in U.S
    • 90% of water used by industry is for cooling, and is returned to the source.
      • Very little actually consumed.
      • Most processes involve heat exchange.
    • Water used to dissipate and transport waste.
      • Stream and lake degradation.
  • How do we misuse water?
    • Water pollution occurs when something enters the water that changes the natural ecosystem and/or interferes with water use by humans
  • Water Pollution
    • Sources of pollution are either:
      • Point sources : definite source and place where pollution enters water
        • E.g., pipes
    mostly surface water pollution
  • Water Pollution
    • Sources of pollution are either:
      • 2. Nonpoint source : diffuse pollutants without distinct source
        • E.g., agricultural runoff
  • Non-point source pollution
    • Major non-point source pollutants include:
      • nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, etc.
    • Majority of pollution in U.S. waters today is from non-point sources
    • Leads to surface & groundwater pollution
    • Largely unregulated
  • Dilution was thought to be the best solution for wastes Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal reversed the flow of the Chicago River Chicago originally pumped its raw sewage into Lake Michigan Before 1900, many deaths from typhoid fever and cholera
  • Mon March 10, 2008 Prescription drugs found in drinking water across U.S. (AP) -- A vast array of pharmaceuticals -- including antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers and sex hormones -- have been found in the drinking water supplies of at least 41 million Americans, an Associated Press investigation shows. Officials in Philadelphia say testing there discovered 56 pharmaceuticals or byproducts in treated drinking water. To be sure, the concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are tiny, measured in quantities of parts per billion or trillion, far below the levels of a medical dose. Also, utilities insist their water is safe.
  • Industrial Water Pollution
    • Pollutants include:
      • organic matter
      • petroleum products
      • metals
      • acids
      • toxic compounds
      • nutrients
      • particulates
    • Industry usually required to remove metals, toxics, acids
    • Point sources more likely to be subject to regulation than non-point sources…
  • Agricultural Water Pollution
    • Major source of water pollution
      • Nutrients: N, P
      • Pesticides: contaminate streams, lakes, groundwater
      • Erosion: sedimentation
    • Solutions?
      • Buffer strips of vegetation
      • conservation tillage
      • reduced fertilizer & pesticide applications
  • Marine Oil Pollution
    • Tanker accidents are spectacular, but not the largest source of oil pollution
    • 1992—New oil tankers must be double-hulled.
      • Currently 15% of all tankers double-hulled.
  • Marine Oil Pollution
    • More oil is released as a result of small, regular releases.
    • 2/3 of all human-caused marine oil from:
        • Street run-off
        • Improper disposal of lubricating oil
        • Oil discharges during tanker loading and unloading
  • Groundwater Pollution
    • Extremely difficult to clean up
    • Better to prevent in the first place
  • Groundwater Pollution
      • Agricultural products
        • mainly pesticides (73 detected in North America)
      • Underground storage tanks
            • hazardous substances stored underground (e.g., gasoline)
          • 1 gallon of gas can contaminate water supply for 50,000 people
  • Groundwater Pollution
      • Landfills
        • 90% in NA don ’t protect groundwater from leaching material
        • few restrictions on material, few inspections
  • Water Legislation in U.S.
    • Clean Water Act
    • Safe Drinking Water Act
    • Federal Coastal Zone Management Act
    • Federal Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
  • Clean Water Act - History
    • Refuse Act (1899)
      • Passed to keep water open for navigation
      • Banned depositing refuse into navigable rivers
      • Refuse interpreted to include pollution
      • First effective legal weapon against pollution
  • Clean Water Act (1977)
    • Run by EPA
    • To achieve swimmable, fishable waters
    • Establishes national effluent limitations for point-source pollution
    • Includes civil and criminal penalties
    • Mechanism for citizen enforcement
    • Does not apply to non-point sources
    • Does not apply to groundwater
  • Federal Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968)
    • Established system to protect wild and scenic rivers from development.
        • All federal agencies must take these areas into consideration when planning and implementing procedures.
    Middle Fork Vermilion River , IL
  • Water Diversions
    • Water diversion : transferring water from one place to another
    • Can lead to political/social conflicts
  • Death of a Sea
    • Aral Sea: on border between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan in former U.S.S.R.
    • Previously, world ’s 4th largest lake
    Starting in 1920 ’s water started being diverted for agricultural irrigation
    • Since 1960 ’s: lake lost 75% of volume, 50% surface area
      • Main fishing center now 20 miles from water
      • Former lake area now dry, salty wasteland
      • 20 of 24 fish species gone
      • Loss of 60,000 fishing jobs
  • Colorado River
  • How much water do you use every day? Simple steps for domestic water conservation
  • Precipitation in coastal San Diego Co. averages 216-240 mm/year (9-10 inches/yr). A typical household in San Diego uses an average of 1220 mm (49 inches) of water /year for outdoor use/irrigation. San Diego County Water Authority
  • Orange officials sue couple who removed their lawn March 02, 2010|By Amina Khan City codes require that live landscaping cover 40% of the yard. Quan and Angelina Ha say their water use has dropped 80% since they replaced the grass with wood chips and drought-tolerant plants. Some Southern California cities fine residents for watering their lawns too much during droughts. But in Orange, officials are locked in a legal battle with a couple accused of violating city ordinances for removing their lawn in an attempt to save water.
  • Points to Know
    • Why should we care about water use?
    • How much of the total water on the earth is good and available for human use?
    • 3) Know the three categories of what happens when water is “used”
    • 4) What is the main use of water for agricultural purposes? What categories of “use” does it have?
    • 5) Why is industrial water use important? For what is it mostly used and what categories of “use” does it have?
    • 6) What are the two sources of water pollution? What water does each pollute?
    • 7) How does groundwater get polluted? Why is this important? What is the best way to combat groundwater pollution?
    • 8) Know what each water legislation acts seek to accomplish
    • 9) What is water diversion? Why does it lead to political and social conflicts?