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  • 1. Running head: Professional Portfolio 1 Research Skills Crime and Punishment Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 2. Professional Portfolio 2 Crime and Punishment In American society today there are four ways that a criminal can be punished. Ifsomeone is found guilty of a crime they can be punished by retribution, deterrence,rehabilitation, and social protection. Although, it is hard to say for sure what type of punishmentdeters crime the most, most people do have an opinion on which one works the best. An evenbigger question that is going on around is do the consequences of punishment provide anybenefits for criminals and society? One type of punishment that is given to someone who commits a crime is retribution(OSullivan, 2000). Retribution is known to be the oldest justification for punishment.Retribution is used as an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the person who hascommitted a crime suffers as much as the person who the crime was committed against(OSullivan, 2000). For example if a man cuts of another man’s arm then that man’s arm mustalso be cut off so that he can feel the same pain that he victim felt. Retribution is used to keepsociety in moral order. Retribution basic thought is an eye for an eye. Although retribution isthe oldest justification there are other justifications for punishment like deterrence. Deterrence isused as a way to discourage crimes though punishment (General OneFile, 2009). Whatdeterrence is basically trying to say is if someone knows that they are going to be punished forsomething they will not do it because they know what the punishment will be. This train ofthought started in eighteenth-century where they came up with the idea that rational humans willnot break the law of the pains of punishment outweighs the pleasures of the crime. For examplesomeone is not going to steal some candy if they know they will get their hand cut off becausethe goodness of the candy is not worth the pain of getting their hand cut off. Deterrence became
  • 3. Professional Portfolio 3more accepted then retribution because people thought that retribution was too harsh (GeneralOneFile, 2009). There are two types of deterrence the first type of deterrence is specificdeterrence. Specific deterrence is when someone who has already committed a crime not tocommit a crime ever again. The second type of deterrence is general deterrence. (GeneralOneFile, 2009) General deterrence is when someone who has yet to commit crime is persuadednot too commit the crime that they are thinking about committing. Because some people did notthink that either deterrence or retribution was the answer to stopping crime someone came upwith rehabilitation. Rehabilitation became the third justification that people used for punishingsomeone. Rehabilitation is a program used to reform a criminal so he or she will not commitanother crime. Rehabilitation was first used in the nineteenth century (Hansen, 2008).Rehabilitation is supposed to motivate criminal to do the right thing or conform to the rules ofsociety. Rehabilitation wants to treat or help the person who has committed a crime (Hansen,2008) . For example if someone is found guilty of a crime they will get someone to talk to sothey can figure out why they committed the crime in the first place. The fourth justification thatis used for punishment is societal protection. Social protection renders a criminal incapable ofcommitting another crime by putting them in jail for the rest of their life in jail so they are unableto hurt anyone else. Social protection is an approach used to protect society from criminals(Hansen, 2008). Although, I am not sure if one of the crime prevention methods alone will deter crime Ithink that rehabilitation is our best chance of deterring crime. I think that rehabilitation is ourbest chance of deterring crime because it is the only justification of punishment that really offerscriminal a chance to better him or herself. I think that if the criminal can see that someonewants to help them then they might want to help his or herself. I think that rehabilitation will be
  • 4. Professional Portfolio 4more effective then retribution because retribution is simply about getting even and I think thatgetting even never works because it just makes someone else want to get even and it never stops.I also think that rehabilitation would deter crime more than deterrence because againrehabilitation whole point is to make a person learn from his or her mistakes where as deterrencemain focus is to stop someone from committing a crime by making an example out of them. I donot think that this works very well because most people do not want to be made an example ofand tend to fight back. Not only do I think that rehabilitation will deter crime better thenretribution, and deterrence I also think rehabilitation will deter crime better then societalprotection. I think that societal protection will not deter crime because even though you aregetting rid of one criminal there will also be another while rehabilitation wants to help criminalsbecome a functioning part of society. I do think that the consequence of punishment provide some benefits to both criminalsand to society. I think that one of the benefits that punishment provides to criminals is that it letsthem know that they are doing something wrong. For example when someone goes to jail orprison they not only learn that they cannot commit a crime and not be punished it also gives thema chance to think about what they did to end up in jail or prison in the first place. I think thatanother benefit that punishment provides criminals is a way to change. For examplerehabilitation allows the criminal to better him or herself by offering him or her class so that theycan be in a better place when they get out of jail or prison. Not only do I think that consequencesof punishment benefit criminals it also benefits to society. One of the benefits that consequencesof punishment provide our society is that it takes the criminals off the streets and makes oursociety a little safer. I think that punishment also offers society the benefit of helping others inneed. Although the criminals are being punished we are allowed to go and visit and offer any
  • 5. Professional Portfolio 5help that we can to them and I think that when we help others we help ourselves. The mainbenefit that I think the consequences of punishment provides is closure to the victim or to thevictim family they end up knowing that they are safe because the person who committed thecrime cannot hurt them anymore. After reading all the material I really think that in order to deter crime all four of thepunishments need to work together as one and if they don’t I do not think that we will ever beable to truly deter crime. I think that criminal need to know that if they do something wrong theyare going to get punished for the crime that they have committed and I also think that we as asociety have the right to feel safe knowing that as criminals are behind bars and we as citizensare able to walk our streets without being afraid of what will happen to them.
  • 6. Professional Portfolio 6Reference PageOSullivan, J. (July 17, 2000). A Logical and Just Practice. NationalReview, 52, 13. p.NA. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPSStrategy: Neutral approach can offer benefits. (Feb 23, 2009). InvestmentAdviser, p.NA. Retrieved June 20, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPSHanson, D. (Nov 2008). Judge for yourself; Justice minister David Hanson MP explains the stepsthe government is taking to increase public confidence in the criminal justice system.(justice). Policing Today, 14, 5. p.13(2). Retrieved June 21, 2009, from AcademicOneFile via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
  • 7. Professional Portfolio 7 Cognitive Abilities Final Paper Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 8. Professional Portfolio 8 Case ReportDiagnoses of Maria Doe: Dysthymic Disorder Background InformationMajor symptoms of Dysthymic Disorder The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (DSM-IV) says that in order forsomeone to qualify as having dysthymic disorder they have to experience two or more of thefollowing one overeating or poor appetite, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, lowself-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making hard decisions, or feelings of hopelessness.The patient also has to have a depressed mood for the most of his or her day for at least twoyears. During these two years the patient cannot go without the symptoms in criteria a and b forlonger than two months at a time. There can be no major depression episodes in the first twoyears of having dysthymic disorder. The DSM-IV also says that in order to for someone to havedysthymic disorder they cannot have experienced a manic disorder, mixed episode, or ahypomanic episode.Outline of Client’s Background The patient that I am currently working with is Maria Doe. Maria Doe is a forty- twoyear old Hispanic woman who lives in Columbia, South Carolina. Maria Doe is currentlyworking at Hartman and Hartman as an accountant. Maria Doe is currently married with twokids. Maria Doe entered our mental hospital on September 13, 2009 complaining that she is
  • 9. Professional Portfolio 9having trouble sleeping and that she feels jumpy all the time. Maria Doe also complains that shehas an inability to concentrate on her work.Interview Process I interviewed Mrs. Maria Doe on Friday September 15, 2009 at 9:00 am in the morning.When Maria Doe entered my office she was neatly dressed but she did look like she had notsleep very well the night before. Maria Doe looked like she was very nervous and was a littleshaky. I asked Maria Doe to have a seat so we can begin the interview process. The firstquestion that I asked Maria Doe is why she decided to come and see me now? Maria Doeresponded to my question by saying that the problems were not only affecting her at home but atwork and she did not feel like she could handle what was happening to her by herself anymore.She also said that she decided to get help now because she wanted to know what was happeningto her and because she felt like she was starting to feel like she was losing control of her life.The next question that I asked Maria Doe was if she felt like she was any danger to herself oranyone around her? Maria Doe said that she did not feel like she was a danger to herself or toanyone else but she was not for sure she just knew that she did not want to hurt herself or anyoneelse around her. The next question that I asked Maria was how she was feeling at this exactmoment? Maria Doe said that she was extremely tried and she felt very apprehensive. Mariaalso said she felt like she was finding it hard to concentrate on what was going on. While Mariawas telling me how she felt she would stop in the middle of her sentence as if she forgot whatshe was going to say. She also was looking around the room as if she was expecting somethingto happen so also was very fidgety. I also asked Maria is she had experienced any majorexperience in her life and she explained to me that she had just had a miscarriage and her mother
  • 10. Professional Portfolio 10had recently died. The next question that I asked of Maria is if she was taking any medicationand she said no. I also asked Maria how often she felt like she was having a hard timeconcentrating and she said that she felt this way all the time. I then proceeded to ask Maria howmany hours of sleep she thought she got a night and she said that she did not know but she felt asif she did not get any at all. I then asked her how often she had the jumpy feeling that shedescribed having and she said for more than half her day. I also asked Maria when she thoughtall of her symptoms had begun and she said that has been at least going on for the last couple ofyears but she was not for sure exactly when the symptoms started she went on to say she justwoke up one morning feeling this way. Another question that I asked Maria is if she knew if anypsychological disorders ran in her family and she said she did not think so. I wanted to know ifMaria was noticing any other changes in her day to day life like if her eating habits had changedand she informed me that she no longer felt like eating or even getting out of bed. The lastquestion that I asked Maria is what did she want to get out of coming to our clinic and she simplysaid help.Summary of Dysthymic Disorder Dysthymic is categorized by the DSM-IV as a mood disorder and should not be confusedwith major depression. The symptoms of dysthymic disorder normally show up during earlyadulthood but it can occur in children. The beginning of dysthymic disorder is very gradual so itcan be challenging to accurately pinpoint when the disorder actually begins. The DSM-IV whichis the manual of mental disorders gives several criteria that have to be met in order for someoneto be diagnosed with dysthymic disorder. The first set of criteria is in criteria A this group ofcriteria consist of having a depressed mood that is present most of the time and that persists for at
  • 11. Professional Portfolio 11least two years. The second group of requirements is located in criteria B which says that thepatient has to have the presence of two or more of the following symptoms: poor appetite orovereating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentrationor difficulty making decisions, or feelings of hopelessness. The next group of requirements is incriteria C and requires that during the two year period, the person has never been with thesymptoms for more than two months at a time. The last set of requirements is located in criteriaD and says that there can be no major depressive episode or manic episode has been presentduring the first two years of the disturbances.Biological Model Explanation of Dysthymic Disorder The biological model would explain the dysthymic disorder by describing it as a disorderthat happens because there is a malfunction within someone brain. The person from thebiological would go on to explain the disorder by saying that the neurons in the patient’s brainare not transmitting correctly. The biological model would go on to explain the dysthymicdisorder by explaining that the disorder can be caused by abnormal chemical activity in theendocrine system. Genetics is another explanation that the biological model would give toexplain the dysthymic disorder. The model would explain that disorders like dysthymicdisorders are passed down from parents to child and explain that particular characteristics andtraits like psychological disorders can run in someone family. Another explanation that thebiological model uses to explain dysthymic disorder is evolution. They would say evolutionplays a part in dysthymic disorder because their gens did not evolve correctly instead theymutated. The last explanation that the biological model would use to explain dysthymic disorderis viral infections. One way that the biological model would explain how a viral infection
  • 12. Professional Portfolio 12relates to dysthymic infection is that they would say while they person with the disorder was inthe womb he or she contacted some type of infection that stayed dormant until the symptoms ofthe disorder start to show up. Someone in the biological model is likely to uses all of thesereasons to explain why someone could have dysthymic disorder.Treatments the Biological Model Would Use to Treat Dysthymic Disorder The first thing that the biological model does when it begins treatment is that it check forany clues as to why there is a disorder for example the biological model would check to see ifthere is a background of mental disorders in the family. After the therapist in the biologicalmodel feels they have pinpointed where the disorder has come from they choose from threetreatment plans. The first type of treatment that a therapist from the biological model would useis psychotropic medications which are drugs that affect emotion and thought process. There arefour types of drugs that the biological model uses they are antianxiety, antidepressant,antibipolar, and antipsychotic drugs. The next treatment that the biological model would use iselectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) which is when two electrodes are put on the patients’ foreheadand an electrical shock is sent though them. The third type of treatment that can be used ispsychosurgery, brain surgery for mental disorders. The biological looks at each caseindividually to decided which one of these treatments will be best used for each client.Conclusion I think that the best thing for Maria Doe is to be admitted to the clinic for furtherobservation. I also think that it might be in Maria Does’ best interest of she was put on anantidepressant while she is being observed here at the clinic.
  • 13. Professional Portfolio 13Reference PageComerFunda_ch02_dummyBfhttp://psyweb.com/Mdisord/DSM_IV/jsp/dsm_iv.jspFluoxetine for dysthymic disorder in the elderly. (March 2005). PsychopharmacologyUpdate, 16, 3. p.4(1). Retrieved September 16, 2009, from General OneFile via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS
  • 14. Professional Portfolio 14 Commutation Skills Outline of Literature Findings Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 15. Professional Portfolio 15Original hypothesis: There is a direct link between teen suicide and bullying.Refined hypothesis: Severe bullying causes teenagers to commit suicide Outline I. IntroductionII. Examples of teenagers who have committed suicide because of bullying 1. Brandon Bitner age 14 2. Eric Mohat age 17 3. Seth Walsh age 13 4. Phoebe Prince age 15III. Ways teen are committing suicide 1. Cutting the wrist 2. Shooting themselves 3. Hanging themselves 4. Taking a overdose of pillsIIIII. Types of bullying 1. Physical 2. Verbal 3. Indirect 4. Social Alienation 5. Intimidation
  • 16. Professional Portfolio 16 6. Cyber Strengths and Weakness of ArticlesArticle One: Waters, K. (2011). Teenage Bullies: Might Not Right. Phi Kappa Phi Forum,91(1), 7-9. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Weakness: is that the article did not go into detail about how to notice the signs of bullying thatcan lead to a teen committing suicide.Strengths: Is that is gave a clear example of how bullying can cause someone to feel so s badabout themselves and their situation that they decided to commit suicide.Article two: OConnor, K. (2010). In Grief, a Father Goes Hunting for Answers.Encounter, 23(3), 38-41. Retrieved from EBSCOhostWeakness: The weakness of this article comes in because the writer is writing from a personalpoint of view.Strength: The strength of this article is that it is emotional and it written from a point of view ofsomeone who has witnessed how bullying affects people.Article three: The Association of Suicide and Bullying in Childhood to Young Adulthood:A Review of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Research Findings.Weakness: the weakness of this article is that it was not done for kids who are in the UnitedStatesStrength: is that the article shows that bullying and suicide is happening just about every whereArticle four: Bullying, cyber bullying, and suicideWeakness: The weakness that I see in this article is that it did not go into enough detail abouteach type of bullying.Strength: The strength of this article is that it lets us know the different types of bullying that canaffect a teenager.Article five: Bully busting. The American City & County,Weakness: the weakness of this article is that it talks mainly about how to spot bullyingStrength: the article does let us know that bullying can lead to suicideArticle six: Bullying, a deadly sinWeakness: is that the focus is on bullying and not on bullying and suicideStrength: is that is tells us that bullying is a bad experience for teenagersArticle seven: Grieving mom speaks out against cyber-bullying in wake of daughters suicide.Weakness: the weakness of this article is that it only talks about one type of bullyingStrength: the strength of this article is that it gives a example of how cyber-bullying can cause ateenager to commit suicide.Article eight: Bullying and suicide.
  • 17. Professional Portfolio 17Weakness: I did not really find a weaknessStrength: the strength of this article is that it directly linked suicide and bullyingArticle nine: How to Stop Bullying in the SchoolsWeakness: the weakness in this article is that it did not focus on how bullying can causeteenagers to commit suicideStrength: the strength in this article is that it is trying to figure out how to stop bullyingArticle ten: Cyber bullying pushes teenagers towards suicideWeakness: the weakness of this article is that it only talked about one type of bullyingStrength: the strength of this article is that it talks about how bullying can cause someone tocommit suicide. Compare and Contrast the ArticlesAll of the articles shared the fact that bullying was wrong the only difference in the articles isthat some of the articles on focused on one type of bullying while others covered all the differenttypes of bullying.
  • 18. Professional Portfolio 18 Ethics and Diversity Awareness Outreach Program Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 19. Professional Portfolio 19 In the last couple of weeks I have noticed the importance of having an outreach programfor women to use when they have nowhere else to go to receive health care. The director at theoutreach center would like for me to give her a summary of all the cases I have worked on so farshe would like for me to put an emphasis on prevention and intervention strategies that theoutreach program should include. The director wants to know why I believe that thisinformation should be included in the program. I am also going to create a program proposal topresent to the director describing how the program will provide needed services to women in thecommunity served by that agency. Case One: It is important for women to have a place where they can to get medical helpand to learn about important things like diabetes, the different cancers that affect women, andheart disease. Not only is it important for the women to have a place to go to get help but it is animportant for women to be able to talk to people who know what they are talking about. Theoutreach center will need to have doctors and staff who have experience with women issues andwho know how to deal with women one on one. Not only should the outreach over service thatdeal with women health issues but it should also deal with mental health issues and substanceabuse issues. The best place for the outreach center will be in a poor neighborhood in some typeof building that can be easily found. One idea is to have the building located next to a church. Case Two: It is also important to have an outreach program so that people who are havingtrouble with substance abuse can have some where to go and get help if they want it. Theoutreach program needs to have a program not only for the person who is suffering from thesubstance abuse problem but for the rest of the family as well. The outreach program can offer a
  • 20. Professional Portfolio 20daycare center so that families have somewhere to keep their kids safe especially if someone isabusing drugs in alcohol. A daycare is a good idea for families like Joe’s who wife Jane thatabuses alcohol to the point that she has blackouts while caring for her young children while Joeis at work. Joe and Jane’s case is a classic example as to why the outreach program should overdrug and alcohol abuse program. Case Three: It is critical that the outreach program not only teaches women aboutdifferent women health issues but also has doctor at the outreach program that can give thewomen different exam that look for things like breast cancer, cervical cancer, diabetes, heartdisease and any other health issues that affect women. It is important to have doctors to help testfor these disease because they are the top killers in women today. A lot of times these disease goundiagnosed in poor and immigrant women because they cannot afford to see a doctor and theydo not have the transportation they need to get to a doctor. Another problem with immigrantworkers is that they do not go to the doctor’s office because of commutation barriers betweenthem and their doctor. So not only does the outreach center need doctors it needs doctors andstaff to be able to communicate with patients from all different types of backgrounds. Case Four: Another reason that an outreach program is need in poor areas is becausewomen tend to get overloaded with the things that they have to do in their day to say lives. Theoutreach program needs to have counselors on staff that can help women deal with the stress thatcan come with being a working wife and mother. It is important that the women understand thatstress does affect their health. Case Five: The counselors at the outreach program also need to be trained in how tohandle rape victims and be able to teach women about rape prevention. This is an importantsubject because one out of every three women is raped.
  • 21. Professional Portfolio 21 Case Six: Domestic abuse is another subject that the outreach program needs to have itscounselors cover. It is important for everyone to remember that domestic abuse occurs in bothstraight and lesbian relationships. The outreach program needs to over programs for both theperson who is being abused and the person who is doing the abusing. They can do this byoffering intervention programs that empower the victim and help the abuser understand theiractions. An outreach program is need so that women can get the help and resources that they needbut may not be able to afford. The outreach program could be located inside of a church or in aseparate building next to a church. The outreach program should be located in a poorneighborhood because that is where it is need the most. It would not make sense to put theoutreach program in a neighborhood where the patients can already afford the care that theyneed. It is so important to have an outreach center because it teaches women about the issuesthat are important to them. Women’s health issues are one major issue that will be covered inthe outreach program. Covering women’s health issues is important because women are dyingfrom heart disease and breast cancer because they are do not know the sings of having thisdisease. Women are also not seeing doctors who can diagnose this disease because they cannotafford to go and see a doctor the outreach center would give the women the chance to see adoctor. The outreach program will offer women who are being abused by their partners help sothat they can get out of the unhealthy situation if they want to. It will also offer help to anyonewho is abusing someone they love if they want the help. The outreach program will be there forrape victims by offering counseling and rape prevention programs. The outreach program is
  • 22. Professional Portfolio 22important because it may be the only way that the people who need help with stress, domesticviolence, medical issues can get the help that is needed for them to live safe and happy lives.
  • 23. Professional Portfolio 23 The Scientist-Practitioner Model Knowledge of Applied Psychology Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 24. Professional Portfolio 24 Jack is an organization development executive who works at Techzone Communicationsis not currently considered to be a scientist-practitioner which is someone who not only practicesI/O psychology but also conducts research on I/O psychology. The reason that Jack would notbe considered to be a scientist-practitioner is because he only practices I/O psychology he hasnot done any I/O psychology research since he was studying for his PhD. The scientist-practitioner model for I/O psychologists’ advocated by the Society for Industrial andOrganizational Psychology or SIOP can be described as a way to train a graduate student thatwill focus on clinical practices the scientist practitioner modes is meant to give someone arigorous grounding in research methods and to also give them exposure to clinical psychology.The scientist practitioner model has a couple of parts to it the first part is that mainly focused onclinical practices and is geared towards someone who is trying to get a PhD. Because scientistpractitioner do research and practice I/O psychology they are able to keep up with any currentinformation in their field of study he or she can also keep up with the changing needs of differentorganization which allows him or her the ability to ensure organizations meet or surpass theexpectations of their clients and consumers. The scientist practitioner model is useful in I/O because it allows psychologist to conductresearch and practice psychology. One way that scientist practitioner model is useful in I/Opsychology is because it allows the I/O psychologist to stay current in their field of study.Another way that scientist practitioner model is important in I/O psychology is that it gives the I/O psychologist the chance to under how people work in the workplace while think of ways tohelp people in the work environment. I think that the model is also useful to I/O psychologist
  • 25. Professional Portfolio 25because it allows them to understand psychology principles and ethics better because they arealways using them. The model is also useful because it allows the psychologist to be able to seefor themselves any problems that are going on in different organizations. The model also givesthe psychologist the opportunity to come up with new ideas to help different organization withthe employees and with their consumers.Just like with anything else the scientist practitioner model does come with its share of problems.One way that the scientist practitioner model can be problematic is that it can be hard to findemployment because you really need to have a PhD to work in the field. Another problem thatcan occur with the scientist practitioner model is that the psychologist can fall into the trap offocusing too much on the research or on their practices and not evenly doing both. The scientistpractitioner model can also be a problem because it can be difficult to conduct all the researchthat needs to be conducted.The scientist practitioner model has developed a little since it was first devolved in 1949 themodel came about when Hugo Munsterberg became interested in the design of work and howpeople selected their jobs and when Walter Dill Scott became interested in studying salespeopleand the psychology of advertising. Fredrick W. Taylor an engineer also played a part in thebeginning of scientist practitioner model and I/O psychology by adding scientific principles tothe study of work behavior which helped increase efficiency and productivity. Between WorldsWar I and the 1920 the scientist practitioner model and I/O psychology was used to createintelligence tests for the United States Army. A little after the intelligence test were created forthe army psychologists came up with a screening and placement test for different industries.Then between Great Depression and World War II there was a change in the scientist practitionermodel and I/O psychology. During this time the focus was on the effects of physical work
  • 26. Professional Portfolio 26environment and worker productivity. During this time psychologist recognized the importanceof social factors and worker morale in productiveity in the workplace. Another changeoccurred in the postwar years and the modern era. At was at this time that the scientistpractitioner model and I/O psychology started to blossom and come into its own. The scientistpractitioner model and I/O psychologist began to focus on testing and selection and evaluatingemployees. Another change that took place is that the psychologist began to focus on motivationand goal setting along with job attitudes and organization stress, group process and politics andorganizational development.The good thing about I/O psychologist is that they are a value to both organizations and toworkers. I/O psychologists are of value to organizations because they provide training tomanagers so that they can understand and value their workers of different races, genders,religions and cultures. They also help by engaging in change management this is done byhelping organizations deal with loss and maximize effectiveness. They also help organizationsby creating and advising corporate structure this happens when psychologist consult withdifferent organizations to help them determine the appropriate organization structure. One of thelast ways I/O psychologist help organizations is be helping with team management this is doneby helping teams organize performances. I/O psychologists help workers by making sure theyhave their EEOC rights and make sure there is not basis in hiring and promotions. They alsohelp by making sure workers get the compensation that they deserve. They also provide workerswith programs that help balance their personal lives with their work.I/O psychologist also face some ethical issues one issue that they have to face is making sure thatthey fill out an informed consent form sometimes I/O psychologist forget to fill out the form and
  • 27. Professional Portfolio 27this is an ethical issue because of privacy reasons. Another ethical issue is human relations thisis a problem because the psychologist has to make sure that he or she treats everyone fairly.
  • 28. Professional Portfolio 28 Reference Page Riggio, Ronald E. Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology / Ronald E. Riggio; consulting editor, Lyman W. Porter.—5th ed.
  • 29. Professional Portfolio 29 Knowledge of Foundation of the Field Predictors of Performance Dommanise Driver PSY 492 XB 07-08-2011 Mary Viventi
  • 30. Professional Portfolio 30 In order to test someone personality some organizations give its perspective workerssomething called the Big Five which is basically a way to test personality on five differentdimensions. The big five model is used in hiring, promoting and coaching employees. The bigfive model is also used because it provides validity beyond how intelligence can be measured.The big five model consist of five different dimensions they are extraversion, emotionaladjustment or emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and inquisitiveness oropenness to experience. One dimension of the big five model is inquisitiveness or openness to the experience inwhich you scored moderately high. Inquisitiveness or openness to experience measurescreativity, curiosity, of someone it also looks at cultured versus practical or if someone hasnarrow interest or not. The test measures fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, and values.Someone who scores high in inquisitiveness or openness to experience are less conventional inthe way that they look at things they also think about different ideas and scrutinize things andenjoy solving puzzles. Someone who scores high in the dimension likes to read and may have adiverse collection of music and have a lot of art work around their house of work environment.Someone who scores high on the big five test in openness to experience are more open to newexperience and would be good at jobs that involve a lot of creativity and flexibility. Another dimension in the big five personality model in which you also scored moderatelyhigh is agreeableness. Agreeableness measures the extent to which people are cooperative,warm, and tests agreeableness against belligerent and also cold and disagreeable. Someone likeyou who scores high on this big five model are usually empathetic, generous and very helpful toother people. Someone who scores high in agreeableness has an optimistic way of looking atthings. If you score high in this dimension you are most likely very trustworthy you are also
  • 31. Professional Portfolio 31more likely to think about other people then your own personal self interest. Someone whoscores high in this dimension of the big five model tend to look for the positive things in asituation and also have a more emotional response. Someone who scores high in agreeablenessshould think about a job in sales or as a counselor. Conscientiousness is another one of the five dimensions in the big five personality model.The conscientiousness test is given to see how hardworking someone is and how organized theyare it also test how dependable they are. Someone like you who scores very high in thisdimension tends to very careful and self- disciplined and very organized. Someone who scoreshigh in this part of the big five model is also very reliable and hardworking to the point that theycan be called workaholics. People who are very conscientiousness people like your self are veryself motivated and tend to have less clutter around them. Someone who scores high inconscientiousness can have just about any job that he or she and be extremely good at it. Another one of the five dimensions is extraversion which test to see to what degreesomeone is gregarious, assertive and how sociable they are extraversion is also the maindimension of human personality. Someone like you who scored high in this dimension of the bigfive model will do well in jobs that deal in managerial positions or in sales. When someonescores high in this dimension of the big five model this means that he or she tends to seek outexcitement and is vey assertive. When someone scores high in extraversion they tend to thinkout loud and enjoy human interactions. If someone scores high in extraversion they tend to getbored when they have to be by themselves so they will not do well in jobs where they have towork alone. One of the last things that the big five model test is Neuroticism this test is conducted tosee how insecure, anxious and depressed someone is. This is a personality trait that shows that
  • 32. Professional Portfolio 32someone is looking at things in a negative way. You scored low in this big five modeldimension so you look at things in an more positive way. People who score high in this big fivedimension tend to be depressed and angry a lot since you scored low in this dimension it meansthat you just the opposite you tend to be happy and satisfied with your life. A person who scoreshigh in this big five model which you did not will be more satisfied in jobs where they did nothave to deal with people you on the other hand will be happier in a where you interact withpeople. The big five model can be helpful in telling if Tasha would be a good manager because ittest How cooperative she will be with the people she is working with it also test how warm andcaring she will be towards her co-workers at the same time it will show us if she will have a coldattitude towards them or not. The teat will also show us if Tasha is gregarious and assertive or ifshe is reserved and timid. Using the big five model will also let the company know if Tasha isorganized and dependable or if she is lazy and unreliable. The test will also show how creativeTasha is and will also let the company know if her interests are narrow. The test will also let theorganization know if she is insecure or anxious or not if they are going to have to be lookingover her shoulder and helping her with everything. I personally think that Tasha will be good in the manager position because she scoredvery high in conscientiousness which means that she is hardworking and organized it also showsthat she is very dependable. Tasha also scored high in agreeableness which shows the companythat she is cooperative and warm she also scored well in openness to experience which shows theorganization that she is creative which allows her to come up with idea on how to help thecompany. She also scored very low in neuroticism which says that she is not insecure which willallow her to do her job to the best of her ability.
  • 33. Professional Portfolio 33Reference PageRiggio, Ronald E. Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology / Ronald E.Riggio; consulting editor, Lyman W. Porter.—5th ed.(Riggio. Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Pearson LearningSolutions).http://myeclassonline.com/re/DotNextLaunch.
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