DE 50 Dominique, Deanna, Yan, Nina, Grecia, Maria
What is… … .Forensic science is the use of scientific methods of gathering and examining evidence to investigate and solve crimes as well as help resolve legal issues in a court of law. *Fingerprints *Tooth bite prints *Palm prints *Blood *Footprints *Hair and fiber
Background & History 66 A.D. Lollia Paulina’s body identified. In 1849, Dental Identification evidence first admitted in U.S. court system. Dr. Paul Revere identified body of Dr. Joseph Warren who was in the revolutionary war in 1775- using the bridge made of silver and ivory that he made two year previous.
Forensics in Dentistry … Forensic Odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues.
Odontologist (career in dentistry) … Who are they?? They are highly experienced dentists who are specially trained in the field, who use their expertise to help in identify unknown remains to a specific individual in certain cases. Work same hours as a regular dentist May be “on-call” for crime or disaster scene analysis
Why do we need it? Used For… Individual Identification Mass Disaster Identification Bite mark analysis Dental Malpractice
What do they do? The procedure: The process of identification may start at… scene of a crime, natural disaster, archeological site, or an autopsy. Investigation of any existing dentition begins… record the presence or absence of teeth and their condition Anomalies Antemortem (before death) dental treatments and conditions X-rays
Procedure continued… Once the dentition of the unknown individual has been analyzed it is compared with the records and X-rays (that where available) of any potential individuals that might be associated with the crime.
Procedure Continued… The forensic dentist (Odontologists) then writes a report that outlines the information gathered from visual examinations, x-rays, and other evidence tests. This information can be used by law enforcement to help with an investigation, and the Odontologists may appear as expert witnesses in a court case.
Procedure continued… If bite mark analysis is involved … Take measurements of each individual bite mark and record it. Collect trace of salivary evidence from bite mark (piece of gum, victims body, food)
Future forensics In the past direct bite mark comparisons where made by comparing a model of the teeth to a life size photograph of the actual bite mark. … .Indirect methods involve the use of transparent overlays to record a suspect’s biting edges 2D Polyline - 2 dimensions 3D Polyline -3 dimensions
Bite mark analysis If bite mark analysis needs to be involved there are a few steps to follow…… 1) Taking DNA Samples Silvia which contains white blood cells Cells of the inner lining of the cheek and lips 2) Hard Models Determine unique features <ul><li>… Things to look for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size (mouth and teeth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arch width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Factors that may affect the bite mark: </li></ul><ul><li>Time (deteriorating skin) </li></ul><ul><li>Where bite was found </li></ul><ul><li>Impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of dentition </li></ul>
Case studies >> In 1775, Paul Revere made a set of dentures for his friend Dr. Joseph Warren. Dr. Warren was later killed in battle and was buried in a mass grave. Warrens family wanted the body for a private burial and Paul Revere was able to identify Dr. Warrens remains through the dentures he had made for him.
Case studies In the year 2000, the Alaska Airlines Flight 261 crashed in California and 88 passengers and crew members died. … . Forensic dentists used the left behind jawbones and compared them to full ante-mortem(before death) dental charts and were able to identify 22 of the deceased victims.
Case studies On September 11, 2001 on the day of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks… … half of the 2,749 victims were identified through DNA, jewelry and dental remains of the victims
Case studies In 1945,Adolph Hitler’s remains were identified through the discovery of his jaws and teeth. The Russian’s were the ones who recovered the remains. Took radiographs and compared them to the 1944 antemortem films taken 9 months earlier- claimed it was a positive match. Actual photos of remains
Case studies In the 1954 case Doyle Vs. State of Texas, bite marks were used for the first time and helped incarcerate a thief who left his bite marks on a lump of cheese at the scene. In 1978, Ted Bundy a violent serial killer was convicted thanks to the bite marks he left on the buttocks of his victim.
How to become an Odontologist? Educational Requirements? How long will it take? How much will it cost? $$$ What schools provide certain programs? Certification?
Education requirements Aspiring Forensic Odontologists must f irst earn a… Doctor of Dental Science (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD) at an accredited American Dental Association dental school. As of Jan. 2011, there are 39 dental schools in the united states , in 24 different states. While some schools stand alone, many major universities such as UCLA, Harvard and University of North Carolina offer dental programs .
Step 2… Is to complete a Fellowship program in Forensic Odontology. The Fellowship is designed for those actively working in the field who wish to achieve ABFO (American Board of Forensic Odontology) certification The only U.S. school offering a forensic dental program is the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.
Fellowship program The fellowship offers a full range of instruction in the core forensic dentistry curriculum including bite mark analysis, recognizing and managing cases of abuse, forensic autopsy, identifying remains and courses designed to prepare the student to eventually serve as an expert witness in court proceedings. The program requires 330 hours of instruction, completed during weekends over a 22-month period.
How much??? As of January 2011… the program costs $14,500
Certification Upon completion of a forensic dentistry program, a student must contact the American Board of Forensic Odentology and present materials certifying completion of the program and other experience requirements for board certification. 25 cases, accumulate 350 qualification points and pass a qualifying exam. Once all the materials are confirmed, a student is given two years to complete oral and written examinations, the final step to certification. The student is awarded the title of Diplomat. Recertification is required every five years.
Job Outlook… <ul><li>The average salary range for this specialized dental position is estimated to be between… </li></ul><ul><li>$150,000-$185,000 </li></ul><ul><li>… depending on experience and location </li></ul>