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Domino security

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Lock down security exposures in your Domino web applications

Lock down security exposures in your Domino web applications

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    Domino security Domino security Presentation Transcript

    • Lock down security exposures in your Domino web applications Rob Kirkland Certified Lotus Instructor Consultant Author of “Domino System Administration”
    • Agenda
      • Authentication - 5 options
      • ACL settings
      • Securing views
      • Securing forms and documents
      • Vulnerability in Domino URLs
      • Securing Agents
      • Important server document fields
    • Authentication: Anonymous access
      • No user authentication required
      • Useful for commercial Web sites with information intended for public consumption
      • Dangerous for restricted Web sites
    • Basic authentication: Name and password access
      • User submits name and password, which Domino compares to Person document in a Domino directory or to a record in an LDAP directory
      • Easy to set up and administer. Just create Person and Group documents.
      • Problem: Name and password cross network as plain text with every URL the user submits
    • Session authentication
      • As with basic authentication, user submits name and password in plain text
        • But only submits them once.
      • User submits cookie after initial authentication
      • With each reply, server sends user an updated cookie
        • Maintains transaction state this way
      • Supports single sign-on too
        • One login recognized by multiple Domino and Websphere servers
    • Authentication: Server-side SSL
      • Server submits certificate with public key to user
      • If user trusts certifier, creates, sends a session key to server, encrypted with server’s public key
      • All further transmissions of information between user and server are encrypted and validated (signed) with session key
      • User can authenticate using any method
    • Server-side SSL (cont’d)
      • Solves problem of user name and password crossing network in plain text. Good!
      • Increases demand on resources: processor, memory, I/O.
        • Therefore, should use SSL only when necessary. (Set property in each database.)
      • Relatively costly to set up and maintain.
    • Authentication: Client-side SSL
      • User submits certificate with public key to server
      • If server trusts certifier, compares user’s public key to that stored in Person document in Domino or LDAP directory.
      • If public keys match, user is authenticated.
    • Client-side SSL (cont’d)
      • This is the most secure user authentication because a hacker must steal user’s certificate (and know the password) in order to pose as user
      • Costly and cumbersome to set up and maintain because user must obtain an X.509 certificate from some Certificate Authority and merge it into user’s browser.
      • Can’t use with session authentication. Bummer!
    • ACLs: Basics
      • In general: Set ACLs to lowest possible levels
        • Anonymous: No Access or Reader. Never Author.
        • Registration DB: Set Anonymous to Depositor.
      • Set -Default- or Anonymous entries in ACLs of all databases
        • If there is no Anonymous entry, -Default- is used on the Web
        • If Anonymous is set, -Default- is ignored on the Web
        • Use -Default- for Notes clients, and Anonymous for Web browsers
    • ACLs: Privileges
      • Create documents and Delete documents
        • Don’t activate if not needed. Don’t get lazy!
      • Create personal agents, Create folders/views, Create agents
        • Available to Notes users only, not Web users
      • Read/Write public documents
        • Consider using to restrict access to selected database elements.
    • ACLs: Roles
      • Use ACL roles to refine access to database elements.
      • You can use roles with the following DB elements:
      • Framesets
      • Views
      • Sections
      • Outlines
      • Forms
      • Readers/Authors fields
    • ACLs: Considerations
      • Set Maximum Internet Name and Password field (in Advanced)
      • Create default ACL entries in design templates
        • Use brackets, e.g.: [Anonymous]
      • Create File Protection documents to set No Access, Read Only, Read/Write for elements in the Domino file system.
        • Then create Realm documents to head off user frustration
    • Securing views
      • Hide views from Web users
        • Use Hide from Web browsers in Design Document Properties.
        • Use parentheses to hide view names
      • Hide views from specific users:
        • Use Read Access lists
      • Prevent Web users from guessing view names (by using hard-to-guess names!)
    • Securing views (cont’d)
      • Use single-category views to limit what portions of a view Web users can see
        • Embed view in a form or page
        • Use a formula to define which category of items will display to the Web user
    • Securing views (cont’d)
      • Block direct (manually entered URL) to views
        • Use $$ViewTemplate for [viewname] and $$ViewTemplateDefault forms that have no embedded view or $$Viewname field.
        • When user requests the view, Domino will deliver the form, not the view!
      • And don’t forget to redirect $DefaultNav and ?ReadViewEntries URLs
    • Securing forms and documents
      • Use form and document Read Access lists
      • Use form Compose Access lists
      • Use Authors fields
        • Remember, an ACL author can only edit a document if his/her name appears in an Authors field on the document
      • Use Readers fields
        • Great security feature!
    • Securing forms and documents (cont’d)
      • Use Form formulas in views
        • Defines what form Domino will use to display documents in view
        • But remember, users can open documents directly if they know a doc’s UNID
          • Then the Form field controls, not the Form formula
      • Use Controlled Access sections
        • To control edit access to items in section
    • Securing forms and document (cont’d)
      • Use Hide-whens liberally
        • Hides data from users but not from the server
        • Especially, hide password fields from unauthorized users
      • Don’t rely on field encryption
        • It doesn’t restrict Web users from seeing contents of fields.
    • Lock out unauthorized Domino URLs
      • Web users who know Domino URL syntax can hack your Web site.
      • Use redirection to thwart this
      • Problem areas include:
        • Certain special identifiers
        • Certain URL commands
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • http://….nsf/$DefaultView
        • Retrieves a database’s default view
      • http://….nsf/$DefaultForm
        • Retrieves a database’s default form
      • How to thwart:
        • Don’t designate a default form or view
        • Or create a default view or form that displays a warning message .
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • http://….nsf/$DefaultNav
        • Retrieves a list of a database’s views
      • How to thwart:
        • Create a Redirection document in Domino Directory
        • Incoming URL path: /*.nsf/$DefaultNav
        • Redirect to hacker warning.
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • http://…/$SearchForm
        • Retrieves default search form
        • If DB is FT-indexed, user can search it
      • How to thwart:
        • Create a $$Search form or $$SearchTemplateDefault form with a warning or error message
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • $Help and $About
        • These retrieve the Help and About documents.
        • Use hide-whens to hide selected content from Web users, if necessary.
        • Or don’t create these docs
        • Or put warning messages on them.
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • http://…?OpenServer
        • Lists all Notes databases in the server’s file system
        • This may be okay for an intranet Web server, but is usually not okay for an Internet Web server.
        • To block this command, disable in Server document. Set “Allow HTTP clients to browse databases” to “No”.
    • Domino URLs (cont’d)
      • http://…?ReadViewEntries
        • Retrieves view in XML format
          • Permits user to export view contents to a database.
        • How to thwart:
          • Create a Redirection document in Domino Directory
          • Incoming URL path: /*.nsf/*?ReadView*
    • Secure agents
      • Agents can be invoked from a browser
        • http://…/agentname?OpenAgent
      • Browser-invoked agents run with the rights of the agent signer
        • But invoker must have Reader access to the items on which the agent acts
      • You can override this
        • Set agent property “Run Agent as Web user”
        • You can also hide the agent from Web users
    • Secure agents (cont’d)
      • If a Web user invokes an agent directly (by entering its URL manually), the HTTP_Referer CGI variable returned with the URL will be blank
        • Therefore, to prevent Web users invoking agents directly, test for a blank HTTP_Referer variable.
        • See example code, next slide
    • Secure agents (cont’d)
      • LotusScript Example to Check HTTP_Referer:
      • If Not(Instr(1, Ucase(docContext.HTTP_Referer(0)),
      • Ucase(docContext.Server_Name(0))) > 0) And Not(Instr(1,
      • Ucase(docContext.HTTP_Referer(0)),
      • Ucase(docContext.HTTP_HOST(0))) > 0) Then
      • Print{<HTML><HEAD><TITLE>Error</TITLE></HEAD><BODY>}
      • Print {<H1>Error</H1>Unauthorized Exception<P><HR>}
      • Print {</BODY></HTML>}
      • Exit Sub
      • End If
      Slide used courtesy of The View. Copyright 2000 The View. All rights reserved.
    • Some important server document fields
      • Security tab
        • Administer the server from a browser
        • Agent and Java/COM restriction fields
      • Ports, Internet Ports, Web tab
        • Authentication options fields
      • Internet Protocols tabs
        • DNS lookup
          • Domino logs host name, not just IP address
        • Allow HTTP clients to browse databases
        • Web logging fields
          • Enable one or none, not both
    • Thank you
      • Any questions?