Transactions Among Early Reading
Development and Individual and
Environmental Conditions:
Marnie C. Ginsberg
NRC 2007
A Ca...
“[R]eading disability may be approached from the
perspective of the neurophysiologist interested in
brain processes; from ...
transactional perspective,
“in which is asserted the right to see
together, extensionally and
durationally, much that is t...
Research Question #1
For a struggling first-grade reader, what
are the transactions among
– a child’s reading instructiona...
Research Question #2
Do the transactions vary over time within
the context of the Targeted Reading
Intervention (TRI)?
Transactional Model of Early
Reading Development
Theories Under Girding the Transactional
Model of Early Reading Development
Cognition:
Share’s Self-
Teaching
Hypothesis
E...
Design
• Case study
• March-May 2006
• One first-teacher
• One first-grade struggling reader
• Part of an on-going study o...
Design
• Child assessments
• Teacher questionnaires
• Teacher and child interviews
– 3 times across the study
• Observatio...
Context
• A rural, southeastern, low-wealth school
• Mrs. McBride
• Cierra
• Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI)
TRI framework
Re-Reading for Fluency
(~2+ minutes)
Word Work
(~8+ minutes)
Guided Oral Reading
(~5+ minutes)
TRI Extensions
Analysis
• Followed the theoretical propositions
• Two modes of analysis:
– Time series analysis
– Explanation building (Y...
Example Data Analysis Word Table—Time Point 3
Reading Sub-
Process
Reading
Cognition
Reading
Motivations
Behavior Teacher-...
Findings
Transactions Over Time
Early March: Dysfunctional system of
transactions
• Cierra as a reader
– Pre-primer instructional level (QRI-III)
– Low ph...
Early March: Dysfunctional system of
transactions
Cierra as a student
– Unable to succeed with classroom reading
activitie...
Early March: Dysfunctional system of
transactions
Instructional and Emotional Support
– Whole-class instruction, above Cie...
Mid-March: Self-Correcting System of
Transactions
• Input of individual tutoring at instructional match
• Dramatic rise in...
Phonemic awareness improvements
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
3/10/2006 3/24/2006 4/7/2006 4/21/2006
Phoneme Segmentation Fluency No...
Phonics knowledge improvements
Numbercorrect
Oral reading fluency
improvements
Instructional reading level
Improvements
• March 10
– Pre-primer reading instructional level (94%
accuracy)
• April 11
– F...
Self-selected reading practice
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 1-20 Mar 21- Apr
24
TestsTakenperDay*
1...
April: Self-Sustaining System of
Transactions
• Continued reading engagement
• Continued growth in reading instructional l...
Conclusions
Early evidence of the complex
transactions that exist among multiple
child and instructional domains related
t...
Conclusions—in the Child
System
• Proximal Transactions
– Notably reading sub-processes, reading
level, reading motivation...
Reading and Motivation Sub-
System
Conclusions—in the Child System
• Proximal Transactions
– Notably reading sub-processes, reading
level, reading motivation...
Conclusions—Across the Child &
Instructional Systems
• Proximal Transactions
– Individual instruction matched to student’s...
Implications for Practice
Children will learn…
– If we teach them at their instructional
match
what the child brings + wha...
Implications for Research
• Theorize of early reading development
more broadly
• Tricky to observe transactions at the
ind...
Limitations
• Narrow scope (no home, community,
pre-school variables)
• Choices of measures and their timing
Transactional Model of Early
Reading Development
I welcome your comments and
questions:
Marnie C. Ginsberg
mginsber@email.unc.edu
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  • A transactional perspective acknowledges the need to understand the dynamic relationships among factors internal and external to the child as she develops into an independent reader. It also might help researchers and practitioners “move away from ‘the search for pathology’ (Sarason & Doris, 1979) and toward the specification of the conditions under which a student can and will learn” (Wixson & Lipson, 1994, p. 561).
  • The purpose of this case study of one first-grade struggling reader and her teacher is to examine over time the transactions among the first-grader’s reading abilities, reading-related cognitions, reading motivation, classroom behavior, and her individual and classroom reading instruction in the context of a one-on-one reading intervention.
    With an eye scanning the multiple, dynamic interrelationships among child and teacher factors, we may garner a more holistic depiction of the conditions under which a struggling student can and will learn.
  • Dewey and Bentley’s transactional perspective, “in which is asserted the right to see together, extensionally and durationally, much that is talked about conventionally as if it were composed of irreconcilable separates” (1949; p. 120)
    Dewey and Bentley’s transactional view has rippled across numerous fields of discourse, from anthropology to sociology, including Rosenblatt’s transactional literary theory (1969). The manifestation of the term “transaction” that I adhere to for the present study is better exemplified by Sameroff and Chandler (1975) and extended by Sameroff and Fiese (2000). These authors argue for a lens on the “development of the child [that] is seen as a product of the continuous dynamic interactions of the child and the experience provided by his or her family and social context” (Sameroff & Fiese, 2000, p. 142) Sameroff & Chandler and also Sameroff and Fiese argue that “development of the child [that] is seen as a product of the continuous dynamic interactions of the child and the experience provided by his or her family and social context”
  • Dewey and Bentley quote: “
    For our theoretical framework, we adopt a Transactional Model of Early Reading Development (Author, 2006) that interprets a young child’s reading level as the developing product of the dynamic interplay between internal (child) and external (teacher instruction) factors. The Transactional Model of Early Reading Development springboards from the model of reading as a sociocognitive interactive process by Ruddell and Unrau (2004) by integrating contemporary theories and research of early reading processes and development. In keeping with Dewey and Bentley’s (1949) admonition to “see together” things and events, we integrate four research-based reading theories that usually skim past one another to describe how child and instructional factors would be expected to transact with one another.
  • Following Yin’s advice
    Teacher and student in a RELI experimental school
  • Assessments: some child assessments were given in Dec.; several assessments were done by me periodically from early March through early May
    Teacher RELI questionnaires (child behavior; teacher-student relationship) were given in Jan.
    Teacher and child interviews were done by me three times across the study
    Individual instruction, which was the Targeted Reading Intervention instructional time, was observed twice a week from early March to early May
    I also observed the classroom instruction three times from march to may
  • Study of the effectiveness of a K-1 professional development intervention in rural schools targeting literacy, teacher-student relationships, and struggling learners.
    I served as a TRI consultant to the 1st grade teachers for the 2005-2006 school year
  • Explain framework
    Highlight TRI extensions—won’t discuss further
    Matrix of extension activities to reinforce the three main components
  • Time Series Analysis:
    Word tables for each data collection time point
    Summary findings of transactions for each word table
    Compared word tables and findings over time
    Explanation Building
    Using word tables, created working hypotheses of possible transactions among the variables
    Re-read data through the lenses of these hypotheses
    Considered rival hypotheses through this same cyclical process
    Early working hypotheses led to networks of the transactions
  • Reduced assessment, interview, observation data to one table
  • Not reading-related cognitions
  • This individual instruction matched to the student’s needs was observed as instructional and emotional support. This is the teacher-student relationship in a nutshell.
  • Rogoff – guide students’ participation in their own learning
  • Dewey and Bentley’s transactional perspective, “in which is asserted the right to see together, extensionally and durationally, much that is talked about conventionally as if it were composed of irreconcilable separates” (1949; p. 120)
    Sameroff & Chandler and also Sameroff and Fiese argue that “development of the child [that] is seen as a product of the continuous dynamic interactions of the child and the experience provided by his or her family and social context”
  • Transactions Among Early Reading Development and Individual ...

    1. 1. Transactions Among Early Reading Development and Individual and Environmental Conditions: Marnie C. Ginsberg NRC 2007 A Case Study
    2. 2. “[R]eading disability may be approached from the perspective of the neurophysiologist interested in brain processes; from the perspective of the cognitive psychologist interested in isolating information-processing functions that explain reading ability; and from the perspective of the social-constructivist theorist interested in how social structures define, support, and suppress certain literacy acts based on the social value assigned to various activities. The issue of contention is whether the views deriving from the different perspectives can be integrated” (Stanovich, 1999, pp. vii-viii). Rationale
    3. 3. transactional perspective, “in which is asserted the right to see together, extensionally and durationally, much that is talked about conventionally as if it were composed of irreconcilable separates” (p. 120). Dewey and Bentley (1949) popularized the importance of the
    4. 4. Research Question #1 For a struggling first-grade reader, what are the transactions among – a child’s reading instructional level, – selected reading sub-processes, – selected reading-related cognitions, – reading motivation, and – classroom behavior; – and – individual and classroom reading instruction?
    5. 5. Research Question #2 Do the transactions vary over time within the context of the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI)?
    6. 6. Transactional Model of Early Reading Development
    7. 7. Theories Under Girding the Transactional Model of Early Reading Development Cognition: Share’s Self- Teaching Hypothesis Explaining Cumulative Effects: Stanovich’s Matthew Effects Motivation: Guthrie’s Reading as Engagement The Relational: Literacy via the teacher-child relationship (Pianta) Child Teacher
    8. 8. Design • Case study • March-May 2006 • One first-teacher • One first-grade struggling reader • Part of an on-going study of the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), an I.E.S. funded 5-year project – Rural schools – Literacy – K-1 Struggling readers – Professional development
    9. 9. Design • Child assessments • Teacher questionnaires • Teacher and child interviews – 3 times across the study • Observations of individual and classroom instruction – 11 observations of TRI sessions over time – 3 observation of classroom literacy instruction across the study
    10. 10. Context • A rural, southeastern, low-wealth school • Mrs. McBride • Cierra • Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI)
    11. 11. TRI framework Re-Reading for Fluency (~2+ minutes) Word Work (~8+ minutes) Guided Oral Reading (~5+ minutes) TRI Extensions
    12. 12. Analysis • Followed the theoretical propositions • Two modes of analysis: – Time series analysis – Explanation building (Yin, 2003)
    13. 13. Example Data Analysis Word Table—Time Point 3 Reading Sub- Process Reading Cognition Reading Motivations Behavior Teacher- Student Relation Individual Instruction Classroom Instruction Phonological and Orthographic Development T-BEST Phonological Awareness CTOPP* Rapid Naming CTOPP* Reading Involvement Interview Distractibility ESTC Teacher Conflict with Child ESTC Instructional Match Observations Instructional Match Observations Phoneme Segmentation DIBELS Observations Observations Teacher Closeness with Child ESTC Instructional Support Observations Instructional Support Observations Hostility ESTC Individual Observations Emotional Support Observations Emotional Support Observations Phonological Decoding DIBELS Vocabulary Knowledge PPVT – III* Reading Self- Efficacy Interview Observations TRI Fidelity Observations Comprehensive Literacy Instruction ObservationsIndependence ESTC Fluency DIBELS Observations Observations Class Observations Other Observations Other Observations Phonics Knowledge Sight-Word Reading Language Comprehension Observations Reading Importance Interview Observations Considerateness ESTC Observations Observations Other Motivation Observations Other Behaviors Observations * CTOPP & PPVT-III measured prior to initiation of study.
    14. 14. Findings Transactions Over Time
    15. 15. Early March: Dysfunctional system of transactions • Cierra as a reader – Pre-primer instructional level (QRI-III) – Low phonological awareness – Moderately low phonics knowledge – Poor at phonologically decoding – High sight word knowledge – Low vocabulary knowledge – Little reading practice – Low reading self-efficacy
    16. 16. Early March: Dysfunctional system of transactions Cierra as a student – Unable to succeed with classroom reading activities – Distractible, hyperactive – Behavior challenge for teacher -- “I don’t know what to do with her” (Interview, March 9) – “She was truly a challenge. She and I struggled as far as a relationship….I did not know at what moment when she came in the classroom what that day was going to be like. And if she was just going to snap and…lose it—what she was going to do? She was very unpredictable and very unstable with her emotions and her relationship with me” (Interview, July 6).
    17. 17. Early March: Dysfunctional system of transactions Instructional and Emotional Support – Whole-class instruction, above Cierra’s reading performance – Top third of class frequently supply answers – Few positive teacher-child instructional or emotional exchanges – Mostly reprimands for mis-behavior – “She was not independent at all. She…was very frustrated. She did not attempt the work that she did not know. She did not want to try” (Interview, July 6)
    18. 18. Mid-March: Self-Correcting System of Transactions • Input of individual tutoring at instructional match • Dramatic rise in positive teacher-child interactions; both during individual and classroom instruction • Reading sub-processes rose • Then reading instructional level and motivation and engagement rose • Instruction grew more challenging in keeping with child’s reading development • “She’s gotten extra attention…and she enjoys the success so she’s really changed—much more motivated now. And this is with only some extra attention….She’s still making such rapid progress” (Interview, March 26)
    19. 19. Phonemic awareness improvements 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 3/10/2006 3/24/2006 4/7/2006 4/21/2006 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Nonsense Word Fluency
    20. 20. Phonics knowledge improvements Numbercorrect
    21. 21. Oral reading fluency improvements
    22. 22. Instructional reading level Improvements • March 10 – Pre-primer reading instructional level (94% accuracy) • April 11 – First-grade reading instructional level (90% accuracy)
    23. 23. Self-selected reading practice 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 1-20 Mar 21- Apr 24 TestsTakenperDay* 11/05 12/05 1/06 2/06 3/1-3/20 3/21-4/24
    24. 24. April: Self-Sustaining System of Transactions • Continued reading engagement • Continued growth in reading instructional levels • Less radical changes • “After working with her probably three times a week, for a few minutes each day, she seemed to just come out. I….It built confidence. It also built a relationship with the two of us. She seemed to start coming to me, hugging me, sharing things with me, sharing those emotions, those feelings. And she just seemed to come alive; she just seemed to come out of that shell. And the resentment that she seemed to have towards me turned into more, like, a love, a nurturing. I could nurture her. I could hug her; I could approach her, whereas before she was so unapproachable. I was…I was afraid to touch her, or I was afraid to to get involved in her personal feelings. But she just opened toward that, and it was just…her behavior changed. There were still days where we struggled, but it was such an improvement, and she actually became one of my better students….So, I saw just a well-rounded child. I saw the whole child developed” (Interview, July 6).
    25. 25. Conclusions Early evidence of the complex transactions that exist among multiple child and instructional domains related to early reading development – Transactions within the Child “System” – Transactions across the Child and Instructional “Systems”
    26. 26. Conclusions—in the Child System • Proximal Transactions – Notably reading sub-processes, reading level, reading motivation, and reading practice
    27. 27. Reading and Motivation Sub- System
    28. 28. Conclusions—in the Child System • Proximal Transactions – Notably reading sub-processes, reading level, reading motivation, and reading practice • Share’s (1995) self-teaching hypothesis • Reading as engagement (Guthrie & Anderson, 1999) • Stanovich’s (1986) Matthew effect • Distal Transactions – Classroom behavior and the reading/motivation sub-system
    29. 29. Conclusions—Across the Child & Instructional Systems • Proximal Transactions – Individual instruction matched to student’s need transacted with the child system • Instructional and emotional support • Distal Transactions – Classroom instruction transacted with individual instruction and the child system
    30. 30. Implications for Practice Children will learn… – If we teach them at their instructional match what the child brings + what the teacher offers = reading achievement (abilities, motivation, (instruction & emotional) behavior) support
    31. 31. Implications for Research • Theorize of early reading development more broadly • Tricky to observe transactions at the individual level in no-growth environments
    32. 32. Limitations • Narrow scope (no home, community, pre-school variables) • Choices of measures and their timing
    33. 33. Transactional Model of Early Reading Development
    34. 34. I welcome your comments and questions: Marnie C. Ginsberg mginsber@email.unc.edu
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