On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Audiotaped dialogue journal-Schill, M., & Swanson, D. (1993).
PROPOSAL PROCESS PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH
Professionals’ Judgments of Ethical/Unethical Scenarios Rose L. Allen, PhD, CCC-SLP/A East Carolina University Greenville, NC November, 2008
ASHA Code of Ethics (2003)
The preservation of the highest standards of integrity and ethical principles is vital to the responsible discharge of obligations by speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and speech, language, and hearing scientists.
This Code of Ethics sets forth the fundamental principles and rules considered essential to this purpose.
Sanctions for Violations
Withhold, suspend, or revoke membership and/or Certificate of Clinical Competence
(Irwin et al., 2007, p.88)
Other measures determined by the Board of Ethics at its discretion
A cease and desist order may become part of any action.
Code of Ethics (ASHA, 2003)
Four Principles of Ethics
Form the underlying moral basis for the Code of Ethics.
74 Rules of Ethics
Specific statements of minimally acceptable professional conduct or of prohibitions and are applicable to all individuals
Principles of Ethics
Patient welfare in clinical, research, or scholarly activities. Also, animals used in research….
Achieve and maintain highest level of professional competence….
Promote public understanding of the profession…accurate information in all communications…
Relationships with colleagues, students, and members of the allied health professions…maintain harmonious relationships….
Importance of Ethics
ASHA has placed more emphasis on ethics, and the ethical behavior of professionals in speech-language pathology and audiology.
Evidence of this has been documented through a series of articles in The ASHA Leader over the last few years.
Many issues are controversial, such as acceptance of manufacturer gifts, provision of services to HIV/AIDs patients.
Specific Rules that have Served for Basis of Complaints (Diefendorf, 2008)
Principle I, Rules A,B,G, K, M
Provision of services
Evaluate effectiveness of services
Maintenance of records
Not charge for services not rendered
Principle II, Rules, A, B, E
Hold appropriate CCC or be supervised by an individual who holds appropriate CCC
Engage in aspects of the professions within their scope of competence
Staff will not provide services for which they are not trained
Specific Rules that have Served for Basis of Complaints (Diefendorf, 2008)
Principle III, Rules B, D, E, F
Not participate in activities that constitute a conflict of interest
Not misrepresent DX information, services rendered…or engage in any scheme to defraud..
Statements to the public shall provide accurate information
Use professional standards in advertising and marketing
Principle IV, Rules B, F, G, J
Shall not engage in dishonesty, fraud, deceit, misrepresentation, sexual harassment…
Statements to colleagues….shall contain no misrepresentations
Shall not provide professional services without exercising independent professional judgment…
Comply fully with the policies of the Board of Ethics…
Previous Research Allen & Rastatter (2005)
Investigated how well undergraduate SLP students with no formal ethics training, and graduate SLP students, with formal ethics training, could judge ethical/unethical situations
Survey instrument utilizing 74 scenarios
For unethical scenarios, graduate students had slightly better scores than undergraduates for all four Principles
For ethical scenarios, undergraduates had just as good or better judgments on scenarios related to Principles I (patient welfare) and Principle III (public understanding of the profession)
For ethical scenarios, graduate students had better judgments for scenarios relating to Principle II (professional competence), than the other Principles
Investigate professionals’ (speech-language pathologists and audiologists) judgments of ethical/unethical scenarios
Do experienced SLPs and audiologists (those holding the CCC) make similar judgments of ethical/unethical scenarios?
Does length of time in profession make a difference?
How do judgments by professionals compare to judgments by students?
Proposed Research: Methods
The 900 members of ASHA Special Interest Division 11 (Administration and Supervision) will be participants.
The survey, consisting of 74 ethical/unethical scenarios, will be mailed with pre-addressed postage paid envelopes.
A reminder card will be sent to non-respondents four weeks after initial mailing.
Proposed Research: Methods
Data will be entered into SPSS for analysis.
Compare SLPs to Audiologists
Compare length of time in profession
Compare to previous student data
Ethical decision making is usually a complicated process that a clinician most likely faces several times during a career (Irwin et al., 2007, p.89)
Need ethics training modules for students as research shows that graduate students do need in-depth training in ethical decision making
Please fill out a survey! Thank you!
Allen, R., & Rastatter, M. (2005) Student judgments of ethical/unethical scenarios. Perspectives on Administration and Supervision, 15 (2), 12-14.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (ASHA). (2003). Code of ethics (Revised). ASHA Supplement, 23 , 13-15.
Diefendorf, A. O. (2008). The ASHA Board of Ethics: An update on roles, responsibilities, and educational resources. Perspectives on Administration and Supervision, 18 (1), 4-9.
Irwin, D., Pannbacker, M., Powell, T. W. , & Vekovius, G. (2007). Ethics for speech-language pathologists and audiologists: An illustrative casebook. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Supervision of Graduate Students In University Clinics: Professional Preparation Pamela Klick, M.A., CCC-SLP/L Maureen Schmitt, M.S., CCC-SLP/L Saint Xavier University Chicago, Illinois ASHA Convention November, 2008
Preparation for supervision
Continuing education concurrent with supervising students in the university setting
Institutional support for clinical supervisors
Strategies employed by supervisors to facilitate students’ clinical performance
1,000 surveys distributed to 100 randomly selected graduate programs accredited by Council on Academic Accreditation
Items included open-ended questions, forced-choice items, and checklists
176 out of 1,000 surveys returned:
(17% Rate of Return)
A variety of academic and clinical positions including both full-time, part-time and adjuncts
Experience ranged from 1 through 40 years
Number of students in graduate programs varied from 10 to 150+
73% indicated no affiliation with Division 11
Definition of Clinical Supervision
Clinical Supervision, also called clinical teaching or clinical education, is a distinct area of practice in speech language pathology and it is an essential component in the education of students and the continual professional growth of speech language pathologists
ASHA Position Statement, 2008
Clinical competence occurs on a continuum from dependence to independence based on:
The overall amount of the students’ clinical experience and level of competence
The amount of experience with specific disorders and ages
Various practicum placements
Clinical supervision is a distinct area of practice (ASHA Position Statement, 2008)
Training as an SLP is not equivalent to training in supervision
Supervisory Training Received Prior To Supervision in the University Setting
Additional Means of Learning to Be a Clinical Supervisor
“ On-the-Job” training
Supervision of students in other settings
(schools, hospitals, private clinics)
Supervision of CF’s
Administrative roles in the field (Other SLP’s)
Administrative roles outside the field
Reading the Supervisors’ Manual
Continuing Education in Supervision
Methods of Continuing Education in Clinical Supervision
Additional Activities for Continuing Education in Clinical Supervision
Collaboration with other colleagues who supervise
Reading articles on supervision from SLP journals
Formal CEU experiences, such as classes, workshops, conference presentations
Scheduled meetings with clinical faculty
Formal Training in Clinical Supervision Offered by Institutions
Mentoring Programs for Clinical Supervisors Provided by Universities or Departments
Persons Responsible for Mentoring Clinical Supervisors
Strategies That Supervisors Ranked Most Valuable in Clinical Education of Students
Amount of Professional Development Funds
Means of Institutional Support for Clinical Supervisors
Offering workshops, seminars & courses specific to clinical supervision
Initial & ongoing training for supervision at individual sites
Regular meetings for clinical supervisors to exchange ideas and discuss issues
Provide a mentoring program
Journal and/or book club on supervision
Other Possible Supports
Better financial support for attendance at conferences and workshops
Financial support for membership in Division 11
Periodic review and feedback by the Clinic Director/Coordinator
Collaboration with supervisors at other institutions
Increased value of clinical supervision
Agreement with Certification of Clinical Supervisors
Additional Comments on Certification of Supervisors
Concern about losing off-campus supervisors for external practica
Concern about losing part-time on-campus supervisors
Too demanding of time and money
Need more information on the requirements
Distinction noted between mandated continuing education and certification
A majority of supervisors (76%) received professional preparation through interactions or experiences with a former supervisor.
A majority of current supervisors (86%) participate in formal and/or informal continuing education activities relative to supervision.
A majority of supervisors (72%) receive some financial support for continuing education activities that may or may not include education specifically in supervision.
Approximately 59% of the supervisors supported certification of clinical supervision at some level.
SUPERVISORY PRACTICES IN SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY GRADUATE TRAINING PROGRAMS Daniel E. Phillips Auburn University ASHA 2008 Chicago
Supervised experience in treating individuals with communication problems is necessary for students to learn the skills to become clinical providers (McAllister & Lincoln, 2004).
The goal of supervision is to provide the type of supervisory practice that is appropriate to the “student’s level of knowledge, experience, and competence” according to ASHA (ASHA, 2005).
The purpose of supervision is to lead the student clinician to levels of competency and independence (McCrea & Brasseur, 2003).
Determining Supervision Type
The supervisor must first know the student’s level of functioning (Perkins & Mercaitis, 1995).
Early models of supervision employed assessment of clinical, academic, personal attributes, and confidence levels to determine the competency level of student clinicians (Anderson, 1988).
The type of supervision was then determined by the results of the assessment (Shriberg et al., 1975; Anderson, 1988; Mawdsley & Scudder, 1989).
A formal assessment may not be conducted routinely (Smith and Anderson, 1982; Dowling, 2001; McCrea & Brasseur, 2003; Brasseur, McCrea, & Mendel, 2005; Zylla-Jones, 2006).
The purpose of this study was to explore current practices of supervision in speech-language pathology graduate training programs in Alabama.
The study was guided by the following questions:
How do supervisors determine the level of clinical independence of student clinicians before clinic practicum begins?
How do supervisors determine the type of supervision used with each student clinician?
Does the level of supervisory satisfaction vary based on the level of supervisor training?
A qualitative research methodology was used
A standardized open-ended interview process was used to gather the data.
Interviews were conducted with a total of 11 supervisors at each of the 5 Speech-Language Pathology graduate training programs in Alabama
Each supervisor completed an informed consent form prior to the interview.
Each interview was audio recorded and verbatim transcriptions were completed.
The interviews determined:
The method of supervision used by clinical educators
How the level of independence of the student clinician is determined
How clinical educators determine the level and type of supervision
The level of satisfaction with current supervisory methods of clinical educators
Full-time clinical educators with a Master’s degree and CCC in Speech-Language Pathology
All had at least 3 years experience as a clinical supervisor in a university setting (the range was 3 to 34 years with an average of 12 years).
All had worked as clinicians before becoming a supervisor ( the range was 5 to 17 years with an average of 10 years).
Data was collected primarily in the areas of:
Understanding the supervisory process
Styles or Types of supervision
Interpersonal skills of students
Anxiety of students
Use of Goals and Objectives
Planning the supervisory and clinical process
Pre-practicum assessment of student clinicians
Inductive content analysis was used to “determine consistencies and meaning from the data.” (Patton, 2002)
The data was coded, categorized, classified, and labeled to determine themes and patterns.
Finding the patterns and themes within the data helped answer the research questions.
The pre-practicum assessment occurs through individual conferences.
Clinical educators do not supervise all students the same.
Supervisory type changes as students progress.
The pre-practicum assessment occurs through individual conferences.
Three types of conferences:
presentation of the client by the clinician
presentation of the clinician to the supervisor
a pre-practicum assessment using a form
Level of clinical independence determined primarily by
Primary consideration was placed on the clinical information provided by the student
The level of clinical independence was determined primarily by
Behaviors and Abilities of the supervisee that may affect supervision
Self awareness and self-assessment
Recognized as important but were not assessed
Pre-practicum clinical independence level
Only two of the eleven clinical educators interviewed used a formal assessment before clinic.
All eleven of those interviewed stated it was important or very important.
Create and pilot a pre-practicum assessment guideline form
Contain elements important to supervisors and those found in literature review
Important information should be included but time efficiency is critical
Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Behaviors
A formative assessment to systematically and proactively lead by self-assessment and self awareness.
Clinical educators, with and without training, do not supervise all students the same
Supervisory type focused on the “individual needs” or ”the individual skill level” of the student.
Supervisors use different styles
With different student clinicians
determining the differences between two students at the same point in graduate training and supervising the two differently.
For different levels of clinical independence
supervising the same clinician who performed at two different levels of clinical independence with two separate clients
Supervisory style changes as students progress
Beginning of practicum-The supervisor determines the level of clinical independence.
Based on that estimation the level and type of supervision is determined.
The first one or two sessions of therapy are observed.
The clinical level and type of supervision are either confirmed or modified based on the student’s performance.
If the student is unable to adequately conduct the therapy session then supervision will be modified
If the student demonstrates greater independence than estimated and is able to accurately analyze and explain treatment results and goals then…
Supervisors were more direct with students that are in the beginning levels of clinic training.
The supervisors are also likely to demonstrate therapy for those clinicians who
Have had no previous clinical experience
Have high anxiety toward conducting therapy
Demonstrate a low level of clinical competence.
The supervisors explained that as the students progress during the semester they generally
provide less direct instruction
direct style changes to a collaborative style
begin asking questions aimed to
increase problem solving and
critical thinking skills
The supervisors described using a consultation method for students
performing at an independent level of clinical skill
about to begin an off-campus internship
Supervisors change over time
Supervisors described a more direct style of supervision when they first began supervising
The first few years the style of supervision was more direct and observations were more critical
After one to three years the style became less direct and comments more positive.
A pre-practicum assessment occurs by a conference with the student, with criteria.
Clinical independence level is estimated based on the manner, organization, accuracy, and completeness of the presentation.
Supervisors do not supervise all clinicians the same but base it on the needs of the student.
Supervisors do not use the same type of supervision the entire semester but change or modify the style
Supervisors need more training in methods of supervision
Why did these supervisors not fit the description of the literature?
Clinical experience & Progress of
Training-Education in supervision
Developing a needs assessment for clinical educators
Develop a guideline pre-practicum assessment
Closing the gap (class to clinic)
Develop newer models of clinical education
Infusing Research into Clinical Practice By Jacqueline Kotas, M.A., CCC-SLP Deanna M. Hughes, Ph.D., CCC-SLP San Diego State University Communications Clinic
The Job: Clinical education must provide the skills needed to evaluate and implement therapeutic techniques which are based on sound theoretical research (Brinton & Fujiki, 2003; Gillam & Gillam, 2006).
Graduate students begin their programs with varying levels of competence in their ability to evaluate and apply research to clinical practice.
Academic faculty cannot assume all of the educational burden for providing instruction in research-based clinical practices
The scope of clinical practice continues to broaden, and new technologies are introduced making it difficult for academic programs to provide adequate education (Golper, 2007).
Given these challenges, how can we develop the knowledge base which will allow our students to be efficient consumers of research?
The First Step
Meet the “Researcher of the Month”
Researcher and article selected by the supervisors
Articles from peer-reviewed journals represented a variety of disorders and age ranges
Theoretical as well as clinical articles were selected
Discuss the article during one staffing each month
Supervisors were encouraged to use the Gillam and Gillam, 2006, PICO method as a framework for the discussion
Discussions were not “micromanaged” as each supervisor had the freedom to draw their own conclusions/interpretations
Graduate students were given a brief survey about their participation in the project which contained nine questions separated into three distinct areas to evaluate a) the articles b) the discussions held by the supervisors and c) personal reflection of learning by the students.
A majority of the students agreed that the articles did review evidence-based practices applicable for differing populations.
Discussion held by supervisors were positive for facilitating research into clinical education
Gillam and Gillam article was the most helpful in bridging the EBP to the clinical realm. Perhaps, because it was an additional reading of an article presented in an academic course
“ Brainstorm ideas for my current clients”
“ Nice mix of articles”
“ Great to talk about the articles in staffing”
“ Only pick one article”
“ Should be tailored to my current client”
“ Concerned with the time commitment”
“ Supervisors assume we learn specific therapy techniques in class and faculty assume we learn them in clinic”
“ Great to read articles out of my comfort zone”
“ Led to spontaneous discussions about specific clinical techniques”
“ Challenging to include supervisors that have primary work sites in the community equally in the project”
Replicate for an additional semester
Allow students to choose the articles
Tailor articles to specific supervisors for the age range
Supervisors will continue to share conclusions/discussions
More involvement with academic faculty
Articles and Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the graduate students, supervisors, academic faculty, clinic director, and clients and families
Austermann, S. (2007). Current directions in treatment for apraxia of speech: Principles of motor learning. Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders , 3-6.
Gillam, S.L., & Gillam, R.B. (2006). Making evidence-based decisions about children language intervention in schools. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 37 , 304-315.
Gillam, R.B., Loeb, D.F., Hoffman, LM., Bohman, T., Champlin, C.A., Thibodeau, L., et al. (2008). The efficacy of Fast ForWard language intervention in school-age children with language impairment: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 97-119.
Meinzer, M., Djundja, D., Barthel, G., Elbert, T., & Rockstroh, B. (2005). Long-term stability of improved language functions in chronic aphasia after constraint-induced aphasia therapy . Stroke , 1462-1466
Turkstra, L. (2005). Looking while listening and speaking: Eye-to-face gaze in adolescents with and without traumatic brain injury. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 1429-1441.
Yavas, M., & Goldstein, B. (1998). Phonological assessment and treatment of bilingual speakers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7(2), 49-60.
WORKING ALLIANCE, SUPERVISORY STYLES/ROLE AND SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION OF SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGISTS DURING THEIR FIRST YEAR OF PROFESSIONAL SERVICE JENNIFER A. OSTERGREN, Ph.D. California State University, Long Beach A dissertation submitted to Claremont Graduate University. Funded in part by a grant from ASHA Special Interest Division 11 (Administration and Supervision)
New SLPs participate in supervised practice immediately following graduate training
Required Professional Experience (RPE) for California licensure
Clinical Fellowship (CF) for ASHA certification
According to Ramos-Sanchez et al (2002) negative supervision experiences and decreased satisfaction with supervision can influence:
Majority of studies on supervision in speech-language pathology are more than 20 years old (McCrea & Brasseur, 2003; Ostergren, 2006)
The field has changed greatly over the past 20 years (McAllister, 2005a; McAllister, 2005b; McCrea & Brasseur, 2003)
Little empirical research exists addressing supervision during this first year of professional service
Past research primarily addresses graduate students (McCrea & Brasseur, 2003; Ostergren, 2006)
Nature and type of supervision differs for graduate students vs. those completing CFs/RPEs (ASHA, 2007f; California Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Board, 2007)
Current study utilized the key themes of past research relative to:
Supervisory Role (Anderson, 1988; ASHA, 1985, 2008a, 2008c; Clemente, 2006; McCrea and Brasseur, 2003)
Applied to the first year of professional service
To describe the supervision experiences of individuals engaged in their first year of professional service, given
Working alliance with their supervisor
Supervisory styles and predominant role assumed by their supervisor
Satisfaction with supervision
To describe how key variables and demographic factors (supervisor, setting, and supervisee) influence above
262 Individuals Surveyed
Randomly selected from 524 SLPs in California completing a Required Professional Experience (RPE)
50% Response Rate (133/262)
18 returned surveys not analyzed, given:
11 blank surveys
7 completing RPE only in audiology (not speech-language pathology)
Total of 115 surveys analyzed
Results – Participants
Average age of was 30
64% between the ages of 24-28
All were completing RPE (as required by the California SLPAB)
93% were also completing an ASHA CF
Average of 6.70 months at RPE
Total months at RPE, ranged from 2-12 months
Average “Clinical” Self-Efficacy (on a scale of 1-4) was 3.24 (sd = .65)
Based on responses to a modified version of the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 2007).
Results - Ethnicity
Results - Similarity with Supervisor
76% were similar in ethnicity to their supervisor
88% were similar in gender to their supervisor
77% were different in age from their supervisor
Of these, 72% had supervisors that were older
Results – Perceptions About Supervisor’s Evaluation If your RPE supervisor were to rate your clinical performance to date, he/she would likely rate your clinical skills as: 1 2 3 4 Minimal/ Emerging Adequate with Support Independent Not Begun
Results – Agreement with Evaluation Would you agree that the above evaluation of your clinical skill is accurate given your clinical performance during your RPE thus far: 1 2 3 4 Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
Results - Mentor Status
Would you describe your RPE supervisor as a mentor to you? No Yes
KEY FINDINGS Supervisory Role and Styles Working Alliance Satisfaction with Supervision Most and Least Valuable Aspects of Supervision
SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION
Satisfaction - Defined
Would you recommend your RPE supervisor to someone interested in completing an RPE in the future?
Yes or No
4-point Satisfaction Scale
1 = very dissatisfied
4 = very satisfied
Overall how satisfied are you with your RPE in general?
Overall how satisfied are you with your RPE supervisor?
Results – Satisfaction
Participants largely satisfied with their supervisor
Scale of 1-4, average = 3.31 (sd = .76)
Participants largely satisfied with their RPE in general
Scale of 1-4, average = 3.30 (sd = 0.84)
86% would recommend their supervisor to someone else interested in a RPE
Demographic variables not significantly and strongly related to satisfaction with supervision (including mentor status)
Results – Satisfaction Measures
BOTH working alliance (Efstation, Patton & Kardeth, 1990) and supervisory style (Friedlander & Ward, 1984) significantly and positively correlated with satisfaction measures
Anderson (1998) roles (direct/active, collaborative, and consultative) not significantly and strongly correlated with satisfaction measures
Supervisory Role & Supervisory Styles
Role and Styles - Defined
Anderson’s Continuum Model of Supervision (Anderson, 1988)
Direct/Active, Collaborative, and Consultative Roles
3-point Frequency Rating
1 = Most frequently utilized by my supervisor
3 = Least frequently utilized by my supervisor
Given responses to a modified version of the Supervisory Styles Inventory (SSI) (Friedlander & Ward, 1984)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007f). Membership and certification handbook of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (For Speech-Language Pathology). Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.asha.org/about/membershipcertification/handbooks/slp/slp_standards.htm .
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2008a). Clinical supervision in
speech-language pathology [Technical Report] . Available at http://www.asha.org/policy .
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Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MD: Allyn & Bacon.
California Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Board (2007). Laws and
regulations relating to the practices of speech-language pathology and audiology . Retrieved June 10, 2008, from http://www.slpab.ca.gov/board_activity/laws_regs/index.shtml .
Clemente, C. (2006). The relationship between perceived supervisory roles, styles and working alliance and students’ self-efficacy in speech-language pathology practicum experiences . Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Microfilm.
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Culatta, R., & Seltzer, H. (1977). Content and sequence analysis of the supervisory session: A report of clinical use. Asha, 523-526.
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pathology clinical education. The Clinical Supervisor, 17 (2), 141-155.
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McAllister, L. (2005a). Issues and innovations in clinical education. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 7 (3), 138-148.
McAllister, L. (2005b). Issues, innovations, and calls to action in clinical education: A response to Kathard, Lincoln and McCabe, Rose, Cruice, Pickering, Van Dort, and Stansfield. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 7 (3), 177-180.
McCrea, E., & Brasseur, J. (2003). The supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology , Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Ostergren, J. (2006). Clinical supervision in speech-language pathology: Profiles and
perceptions . Unpublished paper.
Patton, M., & Kivlinghan, D. (1997). Relevance of the supervisory alliance to the counseling alliance and to treatment adherence in counselor training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44 (1) 108-115.
Ramos-Sanchez, L., Esnil, E., Riggs, S., Wright, L., Goodwin, A., Touster, L., et al.(2002). Negative supervisory events: Effects on supervision satisfaction and supervisory alliance. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33 (2), 197-202.
Roberts, J. E., & Smith, K. J. (1982). Supervisor-supervisee role differences and consistency of behavior in supervisory conferences. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 25 , 428-434.
For questions regarding this study, please contact:
Jennifer A. Ostergren, PhD
Department of Communicative Disorders
California State University, Long Beach
1250 Bellflower Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90840
Development and Validation of a Professionalism Scale for Speech Language Pathology Students Pam Mitchell, Ph.D. CCC-SLP 1 Erin Redle, Ph.D. CCC-SLP 2,1 Kate Krival, Ph.D.CCC-SLP 1 Lisa Audet, Ph.D. CCC-SLP 1 Kent State University 1 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center 2
This work is supported by
a grant from SID 11
Professionalism is a critical component of practice in speech language pathology
Difficult to establish an agreed upon definition (Wear & Kuczewski, 2004)
Now a required measure for ASHA certification; no agreed upon measure of professionalism
Challenge for students and supervisors
1. Develop a scale to assess aspects of personal dispositions and professional behavior in speech language pathology graduate students
2. Design and conduct a validation study on the scale developed
1. What are key aspects of professional behavior and personal dispositions in students majoring in speech language pathology?
2. What valid and reliable indicators can be utilized as a Professionalism Scale for preservice programs in speech language pathology to assess student dispositions and professional behavior relevant to acquisition of ASHA certification competencies?
Overview of the Scale Development Professionalism Scale Phase 1: Defining Professionalism Phase 2: Expert Review Phase 3: Field Testing