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  • 1. Slide 1 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Bear: Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain 3e Chapter 01: Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future
  • 2. Slide 2 Introduction Various aspects of human nature Curiosity, pain, pleasure, movement, reasoning, learning, memory, emotion, and madness Neuroscience Study of the brain The Society for Neuroscience
  • 3. Slide 3 The Origins of Neuroscience Prehistoric ancestors Brain vital to life Skull surgeries Evidence: Trepanation Skulls show signs of healing Views of ancient Egypt Heart: Seat of soul and memory (not the head)
  • 4. Slide 4 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: Ancient Greece Correlation between structure and function Hippocrates Brain: Involved in sensation; Seat of intelligence
  • 5. Slide 5 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: The Roman Empire Views of Greek physician Galen Cerebrum Cerebellum Ventricles
  • 6. Slide 6 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: The Renaissance The brain as a machine
  • 7. Slide 7 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: The Renaissance Fluid-mechanical theory of brain function Philosophical mind-brain problem
  • 8. Slide 8 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Gray matter and white matter
  • 9. Slide 9 The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century Network of nerves throughout the body Gyri, sulci, and fissures
  • 10. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Views of the Brain: The Nineteenth Century Nerve as wires, understanding of electrical phenomena, brain can generate electricity
  • 11. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Localization of Function in the Brain Spinal roots carry functional information Charles Bell Cerebellum: Origin of the motor fibers Cerebrum: Destination of sensory fibers
  • 12. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Phrenology Experimental ablation method Used by Marie- Jean-Pierre Flourens Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d)
  • 13. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d) Paul Broca Discrete regions of the human cerebrum for speech
  • 14. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d) Cerebral localization in animals
  • 15. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience Evolution of the Nervous System Natural selection Nervous systems of different species may share common mechanisms
  • 16. Slide The Origins of Neuroscience The Neuron: The Basic Functional Unit of the Brain Cell theory Cells Nerve cells
  • 17. Slide Neuroscience Today Reductionist approach Levels of analysis Molecular Cellular Systems Behavioral Cognitive
  • 18. Slide Neuroscience Today The Neuroscientist Education, Training, Research experience Clinical vs. Experimental research
  • 19. Slide Neuroscience Today Scientific Process Observation Replication Interpretation Verification
  • 20. Slide Neuroscience Today The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research Animals: Renewable natural resources The more basic the process under investigation, the more distant the evolutionary relationship with humans Examples (from simple to more complex) - nematodes, insects, snails, squid, rodents, monkeys, etc.
  • 21. Slide Neuroscience Today The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research (Cont’d) Role of animal welfare societies Neuroscientists accept certain moral responsibilities Ensure that experiments are worthwhile and well planned Eliminate or minimize pain and distress to the animal All possible alternatives must be considered first
  • 22. Slide Neuroscience Today The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research (Cont’d) Animal rights Philosophy Abolition of animal use Animal rights activists
  • 23. Slide Neuroscience Today The Cost of Ignorance: Nervous System Disorders
  • 24. Slide Neuroscience Today The Cost of Ignorance: Nervous System Disorders (Cont’d) Disorders that affect the nervous system Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Depression Schizophrenia Stroke Alcohol and drug addiction
  • 25. Slide Concluding Remarks Goal of neuroscience To learn how the nervous system functions Brain’s activity reflected in behavior Computer-assisted imaging techniques New treatments for nervous system disorders Non-invasive methods Experiments in live tissue still fundamental
  • 26. Slide 26 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins End of Presentation