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Slide 1 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear ...

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Slide 1 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear ... Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Bear: Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain 3e Chapter 01: Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Future
  • 2. Introduction
    • Various aspects of human nature
      • Curiosity, pain, pleasure, movement, reasoning, learning, memory, emotion, and madness
    • Neuroscience
      • Study of the brain
    • The Society for Neuroscience
  • 3. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Prehistoric ancestors
      • Brain vital to life
    • Skull surgeries
      • Evidence: Trepanation
      • Skulls show signs of healing
    • Views of ancient Egypt
      • Heart: Seat of soul and memory (not the head)
  • 4. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: Ancient Greece
      • Correlation between structure and function
      • Hippocrates
        • Brain: Involved in sensation; Seat of intelligence
  • 5. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: The Roman Empire
      • Views of Greek physician Galen
        • Cerebrum
        • Cerebellum
        • Ventricles
  • 6. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: The Renaissance
      • The brain as a machine
  • 7. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: The Renaissance
      • Fluid-mechanical theory of brain function
      • Philosophical mind-brain problem
  • 8. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
      • Gray matter and white matter
  • 9. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century
      • Network of nerves throughout the body
      • Gyri, sulci, and fissures
  • 10. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Views of the Brain: The Nineteenth Century
      • Nerve as wires, understanding of electrical phenomena, brain can generate electricity
  • 11. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Localization of Function in the Brain
      • Spinal roots carry functional information
      • Charles Bell
        • Cerebellum: Origin of the motor fibers
        • Cerebrum: Destination of sensory fibers
  • 12. The Origins of Neuroscience
      • Phrenology
      • Experimental ablation method
        • Used by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens
    • Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d)
  • 13. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d)
      • Paul Broca
        • Discrete regions of the human cerebrum for speech
  • 14. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Localization of Function in the Brain (Cont’d)
      • Cerebral localization in animals
  • 15. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • Evolution of the Nervous System
      • Natural selection
      • Nervous systems of different species may share common mechanisms
  • 16. The Origins of Neuroscience
    • The Neuron: The Basic Functional Unit of the Brain
      • Cell theory
      • Cells
      • Nerve cells
  • 17. Neuroscience Today
    • Reductionist approach
      • Levels of analysis
        • Molecular
        • Cellular
        • Systems
        • Behavioral
        • Cognitive
  • 18. Neuroscience Today
    • The Neuroscientist
      • Education, Training, Research experience
      • Clinical vs. Experimental research
  • 19. Neuroscience Today
    • Scientific Process
      • Observation
      • Replication
      • Interpretation
      • Verification
  • 20. Neuroscience Today
    • The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research
      • Animals: Renewable natural resources
      • The more basic the process under investigation, the more distant the evolutionary relationship with humans
        • Examples (from simple to more complex) - nematodes, insects, snails, squid, rodents, monkeys, etc.
  • 21. Neuroscience Today
    • The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research (Cont’d)
      • Role of animal welfare societies
      • Neuroscientists accept certain moral responsibilities
        • Ensure that experiments are worthwhile and well planned
        • Eliminate or minimize pain and distress to the animal
        • All possible alternatives must be considered first
  • 22. Neuroscience Today
    • The Use of Animals in Neuroscience Research (Cont’d)
      • Animal rights
        • Philosophy
        • Abolition of animal use
        • Animal rights activists
  • 23. Neuroscience Today
    • The Cost of Ignorance: Nervous System Disorders
  • 24. Neuroscience Today
    • The Cost of Ignorance: Nervous System Disorders (Cont’d)
      • Disorders that affect the nervous system
        • Parkinson’s disease
        • Alzheimer’s disease
        • Depression
        • Schizophrenia
        • Stroke
        • Alcohol and drug addiction
  • 25. Concluding Remarks
    • Goal of neuroscience
      • To learn how the nervous system functions
    • Brain’s activity reflected in behavior
    • Computer-assisted imaging techniques
    • New treatments for nervous system disorders
    • Non-invasive methods
    • Experiments in live tissue still fundamental
  • 26. End of Presentation