0
Neuroscience:Neuroscience:
The future in treating and preventingThe future in treating and preventing
brain and mind disor...
Brain and Mind Working GroupBrain and Mind Working Group
Dr Leanna Read CEO, TGR BioSciences Pty Ltd
Prof Fred Mendelsohn ...
Aims of This PresentationAims of This Presentation
 To demonstrate:To demonstrate:
• The impact of brain & mind disorders...
Causes of DisabilityCauses of Disability
Australia, 1996Australia, 1996
0 100 200 300 400 500
Other
Digestive
Diabetes
Inj...
Psychiatric & Neurological DisordersPsychiatric & Neurological Disorders
Depression and Addiction Afflict Our Young,Depres...
In any one year, overIn any one year, over
3 million3 million AustraliansAustralians
experience one or moreexperience one ...
Counting the CostCounting the Cost
Brain and Mind Disorders Impose HighBrain and Mind Disorders Impose High
Health Costs a...
Increasing Costs of DementiaIncreasing Costs of Dementia
2001/02
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
$ Billion
Health
Busin...
What If We CouldWhat If We Could
PreventPrevent
These Disorders orThese Disorders or
ControlControl ThemThem
Cost-effectiv...
 Eliminating Alzheimer’s disease by 2042Eliminating Alzheimer’s disease by 2042
would save overwould save over $20 billio...
Neuroscience researchNeuroscience research
offers a real opportunityoffers a real opportunity
to achieveto achieve
impress...
CurrentCurrent
treatmentstreatments
Improved Health Care Alone isImproved Health Care Alone is
Not the AnswerNot the Answe...
1. Sequencing the Human Genome1. Sequencing the Human Genome
 Greatest single advanceGreatest single advance
for neurosci...
2.2. Cellular and molecular neuroscienceCellular and molecular neuroscience
3. Multidisciplinary Approaches3. Multidisciplinary Approaches
Early Changes Detected in the BrainEarly Changes Detected i...
4.Stem Cells in the Adult Brain4.Stem Cells in the Adult Brain
Rietze & co-workers.
Nature Aug 2001.
Walter & Eliza Hall a...
5. Alzheimer’s Disease5. Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’sAlzheimer’s
SuffererSufferer
NormalNormal Brain Affected byBrain A...
RecapRecap
 Brain and mind disorders impose the highestBrain and mind disorders impose the highest
health burden of any d...
Australia’s Neuroscience CapabilityAustralia’s Neuroscience Capability
Neuroscience
Capability
6 Professional6 Professiona...
How do we optimise this opportunity?How do we optimise this opportunity?
 Cross-disciplinary research networksCross-disci...
Recommendation: Establish aRecommendation: Establish a
Brain and Mind Research AllianceBrain and Mind Research Alliance
Br...
Outcomes for AustraliaOutcomes for Australia
 Curing some major brain and mind disordersCuring some major brain and mind ...
Bringing Brain andBringing Brain and
Mind TogetherMind Together
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
FunctionalFunctional
neuroimagingneuroimaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Structural andStructural and
functionalfunctional
neuroim...
Reorganisation of the BrainReorganisation of the Brain
Following Injury:Following Injury: SpeechSpeech
NormalNormal
ChildC...
Brain Activation in MathematicallyBrain Activation in Mathematically
Gifted and Normal Children DuringGifted and Normal Ch...
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia
Functional Brain Imaging and GenomicsFunctional Brain Imaging and Genomics
Reveal a Fundamental...
.ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

.ppt

398

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
398
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • •Prime Minister, Ministers, PMSEIC Colleagues, Ladies and Gentlemen
    Over the last few months I have had the pleasure of working with a group of eminent neuroscientists to prepare this presentation on the pivotal role their field of science will play in treating and preventing this important group of diseases - the brain and mind disorders
  • •These scientists have spent their scientific careers working towards solutions to the major brain and mind disorders
    The group representatives here today include
    Fred Mendelsohn,…..
    [Presentation by myself and Fred]
    Brain and mind disorders is a collective term for a range of
    - neurological disorders - stroke, dementia, Parkinson's, epilepsy
    - psychiatric disorders: - depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addiction
    Our choice to treat them as one group of diseases is not an accident
    - traditionally it was thought that the ‘mood’ related disorders such as depression did not have a biochemical or physiological basis in the same way as stroke, for example.
    However, we now know that both neurological and psychiatric disorders have an ‘organic’ basis
    And they both involve gene abnormalities
    - Essentially - brain and mind are now coming together, so neuroscience offers great potential for curing both groups of diseases
  • The Brain and Mind disorders stand out as by far the outstanding cause of disability in Australia and indeed, the Western world.
    We are not saying they are the leading cause of death, but because of their chronic, debilitating nature, they are clearly the major cause of disability.
  • And interestingly, psychiatric disorders such as depression dominate in early life, while in the elderly, the neurological diseases such as dementia and stroke are most prevalent.
  • The impact is enormous:
    Over 15% of our population - both adult and children - experiences a major brain and mind disorder in any year.
    Besides the direct effects of illness, the consequences include unemployment, social isolation, dependency, violence and suicide
    Childhood problems: attention difficulties, anxiety, delinquent behaviour
    Impact is not just on the sufferer, but also on their families
    Aboriginals: 10 x more severe
  • The health costs are very high, with over $2 billion per annum in pharmaceutical benefits costs plus disabilitys support pensions.
  • • And the PBS/DSP data do not take into account the costs to business
    Take this one disease alone - dementia:
    although there are only 160,000 cases pa, it accounts for over 50% of aged care residents and 2.5% of health costs
    but costs to business are many fold this amount - because of the effect on families and carers
    • Most worryingly, the situation is predicted to get worse:
    If the Intergenerational report is correct the health plus business costs will exceed $20 b pa
    Clearly this is unsustainable
  • Simply delaying the onset of these diseases, or decreasing the incidence by 25% could save Government and business billion of dollars each year.
  • How are we going to achieve these benefits?
    Incremental improvements in disease management are not the answer [they could actually increase the cost burden]
    Early intervention is required to either prevent the disease from occurring, or at least allow people to continue productive lives.
    Health care alone is not the answer:
    Research from the Australian Twin Registry: 30% of the cause of anxiety and depression is accounted for by genetic rather than environmental factors
    - more than half the burden is unavertable - data from Andrews and co-workers at the Univ NSW
    Currently 14% of psychiatric disorders are treatable with currently available methods
    If we were to apply evidence based medicine this could be improved by 6% to 20%
    By focussing on cost effective treatments this could be increased by 13% to 33%
    However, even given unlimited funds to support all available knowledge we could only gain another 12% (total 45%) and the majority of disorders cannot be averted
  • I would now like to present some of recent discoveries about the brain in the last 5 tears that are revolutionizing the way we understand the brain and that we believe are opening doors for solving some of the problems in brain and mind disorders.
    This is the 50th anniversary of discovery of the double helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick and coincides with completion of sequencing of the human genome (10 billion BP)
    This is the biggest single advance since over half of the know genes are expressed in the brain as shown on this DNA microchip. This is markedly accelerating the discovery of the chemical basis of brain function
  • This is a nerve cell in the brain. There are approximately 100 billion of them in each of our brains, nearly twenty times the number of people on earth.
    Each nerve cell is intricately connected to many others through these areas called synapses. There are about 100,000 on each nerve cell.
    We use to believe that this wiring between nerve cells was fixed after early childhood but now we know this is a very dynamic process – during this talk you will have formed about a million new synaptic connections every second. This process underlies learning, and development and continues throughout life. It indicates that there are many possible ways we might intervene to enable the brain to respond to damage or injury or to minimize the impact of disease.
  • These images show areas of loss of grey matter in patients with onset of schizophrenia in comparison with controls or compared with patients with chronic illness. The most dramatic changes appear to be occurring in the first 2-4 years of the illness. This may be the optimal time to intervene to ameliorate the illness and prevent chronicity.
    This is work form Associate Prof Pantelis a member of the working party
    In conjunction with genomic studies by other workers in these brain areas show that there are major changes in synapse formation and function
    In schizophrenia.
    Incidentally, the ability to predict mental illness before it is full blown is an important medical and research advance but it raises legal and ethical implications that we could discuss
  • With regard to the ability of the brain to adapt and repair itself has been the remarkable discovery that the adult brain contains stem cells that are capable of forming new nerve cells. Here some pioneering Australian workers have isolated these stems cells and show them producing a new nerve cell here. Clearly understanding how these cells are regulated offers the chance of repairing the injured brain or spinal cord
    Purification of a pluripotent neural stem cell from the adult mouse brainRODNEY L. RIETZE, HELEN VALCANIS, GORDON F. BROOKER, TIM THOMAS, ANNE K. VOSS & PERRY F. BARTLETTNature 412, 736-739 (16 August 2001)
  • Of these two sisters in their eighties the one of the left has Alzheimer’s disease. If we were to look at the brain of someone with Alzheimer’s we would find that the brain is shrunken and filled with abnormal deposits of a protein called A beta which damages nerve cells.
    Pioneering work by an Australian, Professor Colin Masters, and his collaborator, Professor Conrad Beyreuther in Germany, have worked out the detailed biochemical pathways involved in the deposition of this abnormal protein. Although there is some controversy, most scientists working on AD now believe that this abnormal protein causes the disease.
    Masters group has gone on to develop a novel drug that prevents the deposits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s and also stops the mice developing the behavioural and memory effects typical of the disease
    This drug is now in clinical trials in patients. Whether or not this particular drug is successful, many groups around the world are working on ways to block the deposition, or enhance the dissolution,of the abnormal protein
    We make the bold prediction that a cures, or prevention, of Alzheimer's disease may be achievable within the next decade
  • We have many universities, research institutes and centres with world-competitive neuroscience programs.
    The strength of this sector was recognised by the award of an MNRF in the last round.
    There are also a range of support organisations, such as the Mental Health Council.
    Also, our twin registry and the initiative beyond blue to address depression, have attracted international acclaim
    You may be surprised to learn of the depth and breadth of our industry sector in neuroscience. The 25 Australian companies have a combined capitalisation exceeding $2 billion.
    I would refer you to our paper which provides profiles of each of these innovative companies. Most evolved from our public sector research base.
    We also have a substantial presence of the global phama industry - because of our research capabilities.
    Finally, there are centres of excellence in a range of frontier and platform technologies that are essential to neuroscience.
  • So -
    Brain and mind are coming together
    The targets are huge
    The science is exciting:
    How can we leverage Australia’s impressive neuroscience capability to cure some of the really big ticket diseases?
    Research priorities was an important first step [Health and Well-Being}
    What is now needed in the means to achieve coherence, focus and linkages
  • Prime Minister, our recommendations are straightforward
    Australia needs to establish a Brain and Mind Research Alliance as the catalyst and glue to focus our excellent research capability on curing major brain and mind disorders within the next decade
    Our paper provides considerable detail on the functions of this alliance, the process for establishing it and some important early initiatives.
  • Prime Minister, as a non-neuroscientist I can speak without self-interest.
    What I have learned over the last few months is very exciting - we have a world-class neuroscience capability on which to build our research priorities.
    It is highly likely that within a decade, several of the big brain and mind disorders will be cured or treated effectively.
    The brain and mind alliance will position Australia to make a major contribution to those solutions.
    It will also help contain the spiralling costs of health care and improve the well-being of those 3 million Australians who suffer from brain and mind disorders.
  • The brain and mind are truly coming together!
  • This is some of the means we can study the living human brain using magnetic imaging or radioactive tracers to follow brain structure and function
  • We can now study how brain activity changes during recovery from injury, for example. The first image shows little activity in the right hemisphere during language generation in a child compared with the left hemisphere in the second
    image. After injury to the left hemisphere, the language generation capacity in this ten year old is transferred to the right hemisphere as shown in the third image.
  • The insights from brain imaging go beyond disease states. Here, in mathematically gifted children performing a mental rotation task, we see that they engage a much bigger brain network to solve the problem. We don’t know yet wether this represents an innate difference or whether it can be learned. In any case it has major implication for education, since this may reveal a brain strategy that is much more powerful for solving mental tasks.
  • Transcript of ".ppt"

    1. 1. Neuroscience:Neuroscience: The future in treating and preventingThe future in treating and preventing brain and mind disordersbrain and mind disorders
    2. 2. Brain and Mind Working GroupBrain and Mind Working Group Dr Leanna Read CEO, TGR BioSciences Pty Ltd Prof Fred Mendelsohn Director, Howard Florey Institute Prof Max Bennett AO Dept Physiology, Univ Sydney Prof Edward Byrne Centre for Neuroscience, Univ Melbourne Prof Ian Hickie CEO, beyondblue Prof Assen Jablensky School Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosci, Univ WA A/Prof Christos Pantelis Dept Psychiatry Univ Melbourne Prof Peter Schofield Neurobiology Res Program, Garvan Inst Med Res With assistance from Department of Health, and Michael Healy, Office of the Chief Scientist
    3. 3. Aims of This PresentationAims of This Presentation  To demonstrate:To demonstrate: • The impact of brain & mind disordersThe impact of brain & mind disorders on Australiaon Australia • The urgent need for solutionsThe urgent need for solutions • The pivotal role neuroscience will playThe pivotal role neuroscience will play in those solutionsin those solutions  To show the way forwardTo show the way forward
    4. 4. Causes of DisabilityCauses of Disability Australia, 1996Australia, 1996 0 100 200 300 400 500 Other Digestive Diabetes Injury Musculoskeletal Cancer Cardiovascular Chronic Respiratory Brain & Mind Years of Healthy Life Lost (thousands)
    5. 5. Psychiatric & Neurological DisordersPsychiatric & Neurological Disorders Depression and Addiction Afflict Our Young,Depression and Addiction Afflict Our Young, Dementia and Stroke the ElderlyDementia and Stroke the Elderly 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0-14 15-34 35-54 55-74 75+ Years of Age % Total disability Psychiatric disorders Neurological disorders
    6. 6. In any one year, overIn any one year, over 3 million3 million AustraliansAustralians experience one or moreexperience one or more episodes of majorepisodes of major brain or mind disorderbrain or mind disorder
    7. 7. Counting the CostCounting the Cost Brain and Mind Disorders Impose HighBrain and Mind Disorders Impose High Health Costs and Productivity LossesHealth Costs and Productivity Losses Annual Costs to Government ofAnnual Costs to Government of Mental DisordersMental Disorders PBS Spend DSP Spend 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 $ Billion p.a.
    8. 8. Increasing Costs of DementiaIncreasing Costs of Dementia 2001/02 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 $ Billion Health Business 2041/42
    9. 9. What If We CouldWhat If We Could PreventPrevent These Disorders orThese Disorders or ControlControl ThemThem Cost-effectively?Cost-effectively?
    10. 10.  Eliminating Alzheimer’s disease by 2042Eliminating Alzheimer’s disease by 2042 would save overwould save over $20 billion pa$20 billion pa in health andin health and business costsbusiness costs  If the onset of disease was delayed for fiveIf the onset of disease was delayed for five years the direct and indirect health savingsyears the direct and indirect health savings would bewould be • $5 billion pa$5 billion pa for Alzheimer’s diseasefor Alzheimer’s disease • $1 billion pa$1 billion pa for strokefor stroke  If the incidence of schizophrenia was reducedIf the incidence of schizophrenia was reduced by 25%, we would saveby 25%, we would save $500 million pa$500 million pa
    11. 11. Neuroscience researchNeuroscience research offers a real opportunityoffers a real opportunity to achieveto achieve impressive savingsimpressive savings
    12. 12. CurrentCurrent treatmentstreatments Improved Health Care Alone isImproved Health Care Alone is Not the AnswerNot the Answer Apply evidenceApply evidence based medicinebased medicine Invest but focusInvest but focus on cost effectiveon cost effective treatmentstreatments Unlimited support toUnlimited support to utilise all availableutilise all available knowledgeknowledge More than halfMore than half of the burden ofof the burden of mental disordersmental disorders cannotcannot be avertedbe averted by currentby current knowledgeknowledge ……. More research. More research is neededis needed
    13. 13. 1. Sequencing the Human Genome1. Sequencing the Human Genome  Greatest single advanceGreatest single advance for neurosciencefor neuroscience  More than half of knownMore than half of known genes are expressedgenes are expressed in the brainin the brain  Accelerating discoveryAccelerating discovery of chemical basis ofof chemical basis of brain functionbrain function  New targets for disease prevention andNew targets for disease prevention and treatmenttreatment DNA chip microarrayDNA chip microarray
    14. 14. 2.2. Cellular and molecular neuroscienceCellular and molecular neuroscience
    15. 15. 3. Multidisciplinary Approaches3. Multidisciplinary Approaches Early Changes Detected in the BrainEarly Changes Detected in the Brain Pantelis & co-workers, Lancet 10 Dec 2002 Schizophrenia:Schizophrenia: Brain ImagingBrain Imaging plus Genomicsplus Genomics Reveal aReveal a FundamentalFundamental Problem WithProblem With SynapsesSynapses New therapyNew therapy targetstargets
    16. 16. 4.Stem Cells in the Adult Brain4.Stem Cells in the Adult Brain Rietze & co-workers. Nature Aug 2001. Walter & Eliza Hall and Howard Florey Insts
    17. 17. 5. Alzheimer’s Disease5. Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’sAlzheimer’s SuffererSufferer NormalNormal Brain Affected byBrain Affected by Alzheimer’sAlzheimer’s NormalNormal BrainBrain Mouse Model of Alzheimer’sMouse Model of Alzheimer’s Treated MouseTreated Mouse
    18. 18. RecapRecap  Brain and mind disorders impose the highestBrain and mind disorders impose the highest health burden of any disease grouphealth burden of any disease group  Early intervention strategies neededEarly intervention strategies needed  The neuroscience revolution offers greatThe neuroscience revolution offers great promise: brain and mind are coming togetherpromise: brain and mind are coming together  Australia can tap its world-class researchAustralia can tap its world-class research capability and growing industry sectorcapability and growing industry sector
    19. 19. Australia’s Neuroscience CapabilityAustralia’s Neuroscience Capability Neuroscience Capability 6 Professional6 Professional BodiesBodies InitiativesInitiatives -Twin RegistryTwin Registry -- beyondblue- beyondblue Support Organisations Supporting Technologies ProteomicsProteomics GenomicsGenomics ImagingImaging Neuroscience Research Centres >10 Universities>10 Universities >20 Institutes/Centres>20 Institutes/CentresMNRFMNRF Industry >25 Australian Companies>25 Australian Companies Global Pharma CompaniesGlobal Pharma Companies
    20. 20. How do we optimise this opportunity?How do we optimise this opportunity?  Cross-disciplinary research networksCross-disciplinary research networks - national and international- national and international  National network funding for neuroscienceNational network funding for neuroscience researchresearch  Outcome focus through community andOutcome focus through community and industry partnershipsindustry partnerships  Provide the means to identify the big researchProvide the means to identify the big research priorities and to evaluate outcomespriorities and to evaluate outcomes  Pro-active consideration of ethical issuesPro-active consideration of ethical issues
    21. 21. Recommendation: Establish aRecommendation: Establish a Brain and Mind Research AllianceBrain and Mind Research Alliance Brain and Mind Research Alliance Policy: Research Priorities Outcome Evaluation Ethics Cross-disciplinary Research Partnerships: National & International Community and Industry Partnerships Cross-Agency National Network Research Funding
    22. 22. Outcomes for AustraliaOutcomes for Australia  Curing some major brain and mind disordersCuring some major brain and mind disorders  A significant improvement in the health andA significant improvement in the health and well-being of Australianswell-being of Australians  Retain international leadership inRetain international leadership in neuroscience researchneuroscience research  Build an internationally competitive neuro-Build an internationally competitive neuro- biotechnology industrybiotechnology industry
    23. 23. Bringing Brain andBringing Brain and Mind TogetherMind Together
    24. 24. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)Positron Emission Tomography (PET) FunctionalFunctional neuroimagingneuroimaging
    25. 25. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Structural andStructural and functionalfunctional neuroimagingneuroimaging
    26. 26. Reorganisation of the BrainReorganisation of the Brain Following Injury:Following Injury: SpeechSpeech NormalNormal ChildChild Left SidedLeft Sided Brain DamageBrain Damage RightRight RightRightLeftLeft
    27. 27. Brain Activation in MathematicallyBrain Activation in Mathematically Gifted and Normal Children DuringGifted and Normal Children During a Mental Taska Mental Task GiftedGifted ControlControl
    28. 28. SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Functional Brain Imaging and GenomicsFunctional Brain Imaging and Genomics Reveal a Fundamental Problem With SynapsesReveal a Fundamental Problem With Synapses
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×