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powerpoint icon Lecture 3 - Cranial Nerves

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  • 1. Practical Neuroanatomy Lecture 3 Cranial Nerves and Hypothalamus Christine Hulette MD [email_address] 684-3801 M214C Green Zone Duke South Leibman’s Neuroanatomy Made Easy and Understandable pages 48-75
  • 2. SENSORY NERVES Cranial nerve I Olfactory Cranial nerve II Optic Cranial nerve VIII Acoustovestibular
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  • 4. MOTOR NERVES Cranial nerve IV Trochlear Cranial nerve VI Abducens Cranial nerve XI Accessory Cranial nerve XII Hypoglossal
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  • 6. Cranial Nerve III Oculomotor Motor to four eyeball muscles Parasympathetic to ciliary ganglion Injury to nerve causes dilated pupil and ptosis “ fixed and dilated”
  • 7. Cranial Nerve V Trigeminal Sensory from face, cornea, mouth, nose, temporomandibular joint Motor to muscles of mastication
  • 8. Cranial Nerve VII Facial Sensory from anterior 2/3 of tongue Motor to muscles of facial expression Parasympathetic to salivary and lacrimal glands Injury causes facial droop, dry eyes, dry mouth
  • 9. Cranial Nerve IX Glossopharyngeal Sensory posterior 1/3 of tongue, auditory tube, pharynx Parasympathetic to parotid gland
  • 10. Cranial Nerve X Vagus Sensory larynx and pharynx Motor to larynx and pharynx Parasympathetic to chest and abdomen
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  • 13. AUDITORY SYSTEM
    • Outer and Middle ear amplify sound
    • Inner ear
      • Cochlea
      • Hair cells
    • Acoustovestibular nerve
      • Dorsal and Ventral Cochlear nuclei
        • Lateral lemniscus
        • Inferior colliculus
        • Medial geniculate nucleus
    • Superior Temporal Cortex
      • Brodmann areas 41 and 42
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  • 22. VISUAL SYSTEM
    • The eyeball focuses light which stimulates the retina.
    • These signals are transmitted via the optic nerve, chiasm and tract to the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus.
    • Nervous impluses then travel via the optic radiations to terminate in the primary visual (calcarine) cortex.
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  • 37. OLFACTORY SYSTEM
    • Sensory receptors in the nasal mucosa are stimulated by odors.
    • These stimuli are detected by the olfactory bulb.
    • Nervous impluses then travel through the olfactory tract to terminate in the anterior perforated substance.
    • There intimate connections with the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and other parts of the limbic system.
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  • 47. HYPOTHALAMUS Bounded by the mamillary bodies, optic chiasm and hypothalamic sulcus. Regulates sleep, temperature, water metabolism, blood pressure, hunger, pituitary hormone secretion. Sympathetic and parasympathetic balance
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  • 51. RETICULAR SYSTEM Descending reticular system projects to autonomic nervous system, extrapyramidal system output to voluntary muscles via the pontine tegmentum Ascending (reticular activating system) provides input from all sensory organs to thalamus and cortex
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  • 54. Cranial Nerves Auditory System Visual System Olfactory and Limbic System Reticular System