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  1. 1. 46-320-01 Tests and Measurements Intersession 2006
  2. 2. Cognitive Behavioral Assessment Based on principles of behavior modification (learning and cognition) Cause vs. symptom Symptom: precede, coexist, maintain  Environmental factors or thought processes Observable phenomenon Goal: changing symptom
  3. 3. Operant Conditioning-Based Behaviors are observed Alter probability of recurrence of response  Positive reinforcement  Negative reinforcement  Punishment Critical response  Frequency, intensity, duration – baseline  Implement  Evaluate intervention against baseline
  4. 4. Self-Report Techniques List of statements about situations (primary determinants of behavior) Fear Survey Schedule (FSS)  50 to 122 items  5- or 7-point scale  Identify situations that elicit fear and avoidance Assertiveness Behavior Survey Schedule (ABSS)  Situations and consequences
  5. 5. Self-Report Cautela and Upper  Self-report battery  Primary Scales  Secondary Scales  Tertiary Scales Evaluating self-report  Face validity  Adequate psychometric analysis
  6. 6. Kanfer and Saslow Functional Approach  Behavioral excesses and deficits  Normal and disordered behaviors develop similarly  Clarify problem  Suggest treatment alternatives
  7. 7. More Scales Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS)  2 forms; list of statements, 7-point Likert scale  Good validity Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT)  Beliefs and expectations vs. reality  100 items, agreement on 5-point scale  ½ items negatively worded
  8. 8. Cognitive Functional Analysis Meichenbaum: self-statements critical in behavior  Self-appraisals and expectancies  Environmental antecedents, environmental consequences, internal dialogue Self-monitoring devices
  9. 9. Psychophysiological Procedures Quantify physiological responses Heart rate, BP, GSR, skin temp Fear, anger (Ax) Polygraph Sexual arousal Evaluation:  Artifacts  Direct measurement/Prestimulus strength  Demographics
  10. 10. Psychophysiological Procedures EEG Biofeedback  Alter brain waves  Alpha waves  Video-game format
  11. 11. Clinical Neuropsychology What is it? Brain dysfunction, affects of mental/physical illness Memory:  Weschler Memory Scale-III  Auditory Immediate, Visual Immediate, Immediate Memory, Auditory Delayed, Visual Delayed, Auditory Recognition Delayed, General Memory, and Working Memory
  12. 12. Clinical Neuropsychology Localized problems vs. interconnections Left vs. Right hemisphere problems Specific problems  E.g., Wernicke’s Aphasia Spatial problems  E.g., dressing apraxia Information-processing deficits  Recall vs. recognition
  13. 13. Developmental Neuropsychology Brain injury, lesions, trauma Development and birth complications Executive functions  Volition, self-control and self-monitoring  Mirsky: Focus Execute, Sustain, Encode, Shift Learning disabilities  Dyslexia
  14. 14. Trail Making Test
  15. 15. Developmental Neuropsychology Development of Rehabilitation Plans  1. Testing to determine problem  2. Assessment of environment  3. Treatment plan  4. Ideal treatment plan  5. Availability of resources  6. Realistic remedial plan  7. Progress evaluation
  16. 16. Halstead-Reitan Battery Many tests  Halstead category test, Tactual test, Rhythm test, Speech-sounds perception test, Finger oscillation test  Related procedures: Trail making test, Strength- of-grip test, Sensory-perceptual examination Performance associated with dysfunction in one hemisphere
  17. 17. Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery Pluripotentiality Golden  269 items, 24 hours  11 subsections  Motor functions, rhythm, tactile, visual, receptive speech, expressive speech, writing, reading, arithmetic skills, memory, intellectual processes  Scores: subsections, Pathognomic score, left or right hemisphere dysfunction
  18. 18. California Verbal Learning Test How errors are made in learning tasks Verbal learning and memory  E.g., recall and recognition Good validity CVLT-C  Ages 5 to 16  Learning disabilities, ADHD, MR, neurological disorders  Recall and recognition of words  High reliability and validity
  19. 19. Anxiety Stress:  Frustration, conflict, pressure  Exposure causes anxiety STAI  20 items per, 4-point scale  A-State, A-Trait  Reliability: test-retest  Validity: 2 factor structure, good concurrent validity
  20. 20. Test Anxiety Mandler & Sarason: 2 types of responding  Task-relevant or task-irrelevant responses Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ)  Learned task drive  Learned anxiety drive  37 items, 15 cm line (ends and midpoint defined)  High reliability
  21. 21. Test Anxiety Test Anxiety Scale (TAS)  Sarason – criticized TAQ for state not trait  TAQ items in T/F format (21 items)  Person focus (not situation)  Valid as measure of personality Emotionality and Worry (Liebert & Morris)  Independent dimensions Achievement and Anxiety Test (AAT)  Debilitating and facilitating anxiety
  22. 22. Coping and Social Support Ways Of Coping Scale  68 item checklist  Thoughts and actions used in stressful situation  Problem focused and emotion focused Social Support Questionnaire  27 items, people and satisfaction with support  Very stable and valid
  23. 23. Quality of Life Assessment Health Psychometric vs. decision theory SF-36  8 health concepts  Physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, role emotional, mental health  Good reliability and validity  Not age-specific

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