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    • The Future of Bioengineering at the UIUC University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bruce Wheeler, Interim Head, Department of Bioengineering http://www.bioen.uiuc.edu
    • Bioengineering at Illinois
      • A regular department within the College of Engineering
      • BS, MS, and PhD programs
      • Will have biology as its root discipline
      • To be created as soon as possible
    • Steady State Characteristics
      • 16 faculty – mostly new hires
      • Many affiliates – 50 - 100??
      • 200-300 undergraduate students
      • 75-100 graduate students
      • New Building -- ??
    • Many Contributors
      • Current Advisory Committee
        • Bob Clegg (Physics), Bill O’Brien (ECE), Deborah Leckband (ChBME), Russ Jamison (MatSE),
        • David Clayton (Cell & Structural Biology), Matt Wheeler (Animal Science), Jim Zachary (Vet Pathobiology)
      • Staff
        • Sandy Heibenthal (secretary)
        • Elizabeth Stovall (50%, on loan from Engineering (Dir Ext. Relations)
      • Past Program Chairs and Leaders
        • Floyd Dunn, John Chato, Howard Ducoff, Charles Cain, Richard Magin, Leon Frizzell, Eric Jakobsson, Shankar Subramaniam
      • Formation, Advisory, and Search Committees
        • Deborah Leckband, Russ Jamison, Bill O’Brien, Bob Clegg, Zhi Pei Liang, Al Feng, Klaus Schulten, Phil Best, Vern Snoeyink, Steve Boppart, John Katzenellebogen
    • More Contributors
      • Grad/Undergrad Curriculum Committees
        • Manssour Moeinzadeh, Bob Clarkson, Neil Kelleher, Bruce Litchfield, Jerry Pijanowski, Jim Zachary, Leon Frizzell, Yoram Bresler, Mark Shannon, Sandra Rodriguez-Zas, Gerard Wong, Richard Braatz
      • College Bioeng / Biotech Review Committees
        • Chet Gardner, Dave Beebe, Howard Birnbaum, Dick Blahut, Steve Bishop, Richard Buckius, Bob Clegg, Jim Coleman, Steve Eckhoff, Leon Frizzell, Mike Heath, Russ Jamison, Ken Jenkins, Lutgarde Raskin, Mark Spong, Erik Wiener, Chip Zukoski, Robert Skeel
      • Others
        • Dave Gross, Martha Gillette, Bill Greenough, Ken Holmes, Pierre Wiltzius
      • Patient Proposal Reviewers
        • Roscoe Pershing, Rich Masel, Michael Loui, Barclay Jones, Lamar Murphy, Bill Walker, Leon Frizzell, Fred Lawrence, Myron Salamon
        • … and more to come …
      • Help from the Life Sciences (especially):
        • Charles Miller, Phil Best, Dave Clayton, Fred Delcomyn
      • Deans Daniel, Schowalter, Schwartz, Whiteley, Delia
    • Today’s Talk
      • Introduction
      • Thanks
      • Rationale and Mission
      • For Undergraduates
      • For Graduate Students
      • Research Areas
      • Prospects and Philosophy
    • Why a BioE Dept is Needed
      • Students: high demand major, grad program
      • Research: bioengineering / biotechnology is a major intellectual and economic frontier
      • Faculty: opportunities for graduate students and collaboration
      • Institutional: virtually every major engineering college has a bioengineering department
      • State of Illinois: part of our essential mission to provide education, research, and service to the citizenry of the state
    • Trends In Undergrad Enrollment 1979-99 Bioengineering Source: Whitaker Foundation All Engineering
    • Trends in Graduate Enrollment 1979-99 Source: Whitaker Foundation Bioengineering All Engineering
    • Job Growth
      • ARLINGTON, Va., Jan. 2, 2002 --- The number of biomedical engineering jobs will increase by 31.4 percent through 2010---double the rate for all other jobs combined, according to the U.S. Department of Labor.
    • Mission Statement
      • Intellectually rigorous undergraduate education
        • emphasizes fundamental engineering and life sciences
        • prepare students for
          • further education in medicine or bioengineering
          • successful careers in businesses related to medicine and biology
      • Graduate education of highest quality
        • fully integrated with research from molecular to system levels
        • graduates to have distinguished careers in academe or business
      • Research admired by peers and deemed important by the employers of our students.
      • Service in the bioengineering related fields to state, national and international entities
    • Bioengineering Definition
      • “ Bioengineering integrates physical, chemical, or mathematical sciences and engineering principles for the study of biology, medicine, behavior, or health . It advances fundamental concepts, creates knowledge for the molecular to the organ systems levels, and develops innovative biologics, materials, processes, implants, devices, and informatics approaches for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, for patient rehabilitation, and for improving health. It is the application of a systematic, quantitative, and integrative way of thinking about and approaching the solutions of problems important to biology, medical research, and population studies.”
      • From HR 1795 establishing the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health. Signed by President Clinton December, 2000.
    • Bioengineering Vision
      • Biology is the science core;
      • Engineering is the framework for inquiry
      • Education integrates biology and engineering
      • Focus research to either
        • build on campus strength, or
        • create synergy with biology and engineering
      • Teams to solve problems of significance
      • Engage industry
    • Governance
      • Department Head (not a rotating Chair)
      • Full Time Faculty
        • 50% or greater appointments
      • Partial Appointments
        • To cover teaching or other needs
      • Affiliate Faculty
        • Most current Bioengineering Faculty
        • Periodic review
        • Rights: graduate students
        • Responsibilities: committees, teaching
    • Building on Existing Strength
      • Bioengineering dates to the 1950’s at Illinois
      • Currently: 60 faculty, 250 interested students (minors in life science or engineering)
      • Research Strengths:
        • Strongest in imaging: MRI, ultrasound, optical coherence, fluorescence dynamics
        • Other areas: biomaterials, neuroscience, computational biology, microanalytical chemistry
      • Demand has outstripped the capabilities of our administrative structure
    • Timetable
      • 2003-2004:
        • many Faculty affiliates
        • Approvals of department, grad and undergrad programs
      • 2004-2005:
        • 3 new faculty + affiliates
        • First graduate students enter – 2004
        • First undergraduates enter – fall 2004
      • 2005-2006:
        • 5 new faculty + affiliates
      • 2006-2009:
        • 8 new faculty + affiliates
        • ABET; First PhDs; New building
      • 2009-2012:
        • Steady state student levels
    • For Undergraduates
      • Timetable
        • Fall 2004: first freshman class (~25 students)
        • Fall 2005: fully engaged undergrad curriculum
      • Preparation from High School
        • Excellent analytical, mathematical, and verbal skills – same as now
        • Excited by biology and engineering
    • For Undergrads What is Bioengineering? Any Area of Biology mixed with Any Area of Engineering in Any Proportion What do you Study? Strength in Math, Physics, Chem, Biol Engineering Approach in BioE Coursework Strong Elective Concentration
    • UIUC Bioen Curriculum Basic Science/Math (approved 12/03)
      • Mathematics (17 hours)
        • Math 120, 130, 242, 285 Calculus thru Dif EQ
        • Industrial Eng 230 Analysis of Data
      • Physics (12 hours)
        • Phycs 111,112,113,114 (Mechanics, E&M, Thermal, Waves and Quantum Physics)
      • Chemistry (16 hours)
        • Chem 101/105; 102/105 General Chemistry
        • Chem 231/234 Organic Chemistry
        • Bioch 350 Biochemistry
    • UIUC Bioen Curriculum Basic Science/Math (approved 12/03)
      • Life Sciences (12 hours)
        • MCB 150 Molecular/Cellular Basis of Life
        • Bioph 301 Introduction to Biophysics
        • Physl 302,304 Systems/Integrative Physiology, Lab
      • Computer Science (3 hours)
        • CS 101 Intro Computing
      • General Education / Free Electives (28 hours)
        • Rhet 105
        • Soc Sci / Humanities
        • Free Electives (6 hours)
    • UIUC Bioen Curriculum Bioengineering Classes (approved 12/03)
      • Introductory Course Work (6 hours)
        • Bioen 120 (1 hour) Introduction to Bioengineering
        • Bioen 201 (3 hours) Bioengineering Fundamentals
        • Bioen 202 (2 hours) Cell and Tissue Laboratory for Bioengineers
      • Bioinstrumentation (8 hours):
        • ECE 205 (3 hours) Introduction to Electric and Electronic Circuits,
        • Bioen 314 (3 hours) Biomedical Instrumentation
        • Bioen 315 (2 hours) Biomedical Instrumentation Laboratory
      • Thermodynamics, Biomechanics, Biomaterials, Fluid Dynamics (6 hours). Take 2 of:
        • Biomechanics , either/or
          • Bioen 321 (3 hours) Physiol. System Biomech.
          • TAM/Bioen 307 (4 hours) Cellular Biomechanics
        • Thermodynamics , either/or
          • Ch E 370 (4 hours) Chem Eng Thermodynamics
          • MatSE 301 (4 hours) Thermodynamics of Materials
        • Biomaterials (3 hours)
          • MatSE 371 (3 hours) Biomaterials
        • Fluid Mechanics (3 hours)
          • Ch E 371 (3 hours) Fluid Mech and Heat Transfer
      UIUC Bioen Curriculum Bioengineering Classes (approved 12/03)
    • UIUC Bioen Curriculum Bioengineering Classes (approved 12/03)
      • Capstone Bioengineering (9 hours)
      • Bioen 331 (3 hours) Cellular / Systemic Reactions to Injury
      • Bioen 335 (4 hours) Bioengineering Design/Research
      • Bioen 336 (2 hours) Bioengineering Professionalism
      • Concentration Tracks (15 hours in one of the following)
      • Student Designed Track: “Coherence, focus, and purpose”
      • Preapproved tracks: Biosignals, Electronics, Imaging, Microengineering, Computational biology and bioinformatics, Biomaterials, Biomechanics, Biomolecular, Cell and Tissue, Premedical
    • Undergrads are Prepared For
      • Graduate school in bioengineering
      • With some remediation, graduate school in the engineering or life science program closest to their concentration track
      • Medical School
      • Technical work place, relying on strong science and engineering background
      • Other related careers
    • For Graduate Students
      • Timetable:
        • Fall 2004: a very few on campus transfers
        • Fall 2005: first recruited graduate students
      • Grad Study is Preparation for
        • Advanced bioengineering positions in industry
        • Research positions in industry or academia
    • Graduate Student Preparation
      • Undergraduate Preparation
        • We will assume either:
          • Major in Engineering, Minor in Life Science
          • Major in Life Science, Minor in Engineering
        • Remediation for Students with Demonstrated Potential
    • Graduate Student Preparation
      • Biology Minor (example)
        • Physl 301/3: Cell & Membrane Physiology / Lab (5 hours)
        • Physl 302/4 Systems & Integrative Physiology / Lab (5 hours)
        • Chem 231/4 Organic Chem/Lab (5 hours)
        • Biochem 350 Intro Biochem (3 hours)
      • Engineering Minor (example)
        • ECE 205/206 Electronic Circuits (4 hours)
        • CS 101, 300 Programming, Data Structures (7 hours)
        • TAM 150, 212 Statics & Dynamics (5 hours)
        • ME 205 or MATSE 301 Thermodynamics (4 hours)
    • Graduate Student Requirements
      • MS Degree (thesis; 9 units)
        • 1 unit – seminar, journal club, ethics
        • 2 units – thesis
        • 2 units – 400 level, engineering or life science
        • 1 unit – 400 level, life science or engineering
        • 3 more units
      • Coursework approved by Advising Committee with oversight approval from Graduate Committee
    • Graduate Student Requirements
      • MS (non-thesis/coursework only; 10 units)
        • 1 unit – seminar, journal club, ethics
        • 2 units – 400 level, engineering or life science
        • 1 unit – 400 level, life science or engineering
        • 6 more units
      • Coursework approved by Individual Advising Committee with oversight approval from Graduate Committee
    • PhD Requirements
      • MS with thesis or equivalent
      • PhD Entrance Based On
        • Research, academic records, qualifying exam
      • Qualifying Exam
        • Individualized per student
        • Written responses to questions over 2 weeks
        • Oral exam
        • Topics:
          • Undergrad major, undergrad minor,
          • Grad major, grad minor
      • Thesis Prelim / Defense as per Graduate College
    • Graduate Supervision
      • Individual Committee (both engineering and life science faculty) for each student
      • Committee recommends coursework, administers Qualifying Exam
      • Strong Graduate Committee Oversight
      • Patterned after the Neuroscience Program
    • Possible Sources of Graduate Student Support
      • Teaching Assistants:
        • Bioengineering will have a very limited number of positions
        • Neuroscience Model: agreements with Chem, Psych, Biology for some TA positions
      • Research Assistants:
        • Dominant mode, especially at beginning
      • Fellowships, Training Grants
        • Must be sought by department
      • Pay Your Own Way
        • Likely for MS students at the start
        • How many MS students?
    • Target Faculty Hiring by Teaching Need
      • Bioinstrumentation Lecture / Lab
      • Introductory Bioengineering Lecture
      • Cell/Tissue Lab
      • Senior Design Lab
      • Capstone Bioeffects Lecture
      • Capstone Professionalism Course
    • Target Faculty Hiring by Research Areas
      • Bioimaging
      • Computational Bioengineering
      • Micro and Molecular Technologies in Bioengineering
      • Cell and Tissue Engineering
    • Bioimaging
      • MRI
        • Adequate facilities for a BioE hire need
        • Base level of faculty on campus
        • Great interest from Psychology, Biology, Computation, Engineering
        • Should be campus-wide area of coordination
      • Ultrasound
      • Optical Imaging
        • brain imaging, optical coherence tomography
      • Microscopies
      • Fluorescence dynamics
      • Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      • Image Processing
      • Need: Strong biomedical applications faculty to coalesce research efforts
    • Micro and Molecular Technologies in Bioengineering
      • Examples:
        • Lab on a Chip – fluidics, integrated sensors
        • DNA, genomic, proteomic microarrays
        • Novel chemical sensors
        • Implantable devices
      • Nano/Micro Fabrication
        • “ milli” scale – tissues
        • “ micro” scale – cells
        • “ nano” scale – molecules
      • Other Players
        • ME, ECE, ChemE, GE, MatSE, Physics, Chemistry; Nano/Micro Lab-- addition earmarked for “Bio Nano”
    • Computational Bioengineering
      • Bioinformatics
        • Creation and searching genomic data bases
        • Cross between CS and molecular genetics
      • Computational Molecular Chemistry
        • Molecular modeling, prediction of receptor–ligand binding, folding, ion channel conduction, rational drug design
      • Dynamical Modeling
        • Hodgkin-Huxley modeling of Excitable Cells
        • In silico cell biology – modeling of kinetics of metabolic pathways
        • Overlaps Metabolic Engineering (ChemE)
      • Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing
    • Computational Bioengineering
      • Job Demand in Bioinformatics
        • Undergrads: strong CS plus chem/biochem/biology
        • Pharmaceutical companies consistently cite this area for hiring
      • Campus Needs in Bioinformatics
        • Significant Opportunities in Conjunction with Institute for Genomic Biology
        • Significant Difficulties in Recruiting in this Area.
        • Coordination is needed. Neither BioE nor any other department can do this alone.
    • Cell & Tissue Engineering
      • Tissue engineering
        • Artificial skin, bone, cartilage, liver, brain …
        • Resorbable materials for orthopedic implants
        • Scaffolds for growing cells for later implantation, tissue models for research
        • Understanding cell – surface interactions
      • Drug delivery and gene therapy
      • Closely linked to Biomaterials
      • Greatest opportunity for linkage to the Life Sciences (LAS, Vet Med, Medicine)
      • Least developed base on campus
    • Other Notes
      • Lack of research hospital, but unusual and strong MD / PhD program
      • Campus is weak in medical disease and organ system oriented research
      • Recent initiatives at UIUC Medical School
      • Carle: Midwest Breast Institute --newly proposed
      • Neuroengineering: Campus strength in study of the nervous system – the Neuroscience Program has 60 faculty in 6 colleges – fits into all four themes.
      • Veterinary College expertise is underutilized
      • Best match to national interest in disabilities is with collaboration with Speech & Hearing Sciences (in ALS College), building on hearing aid project
    • Faculty Hiring Priorities
      • Best people
      • Initial focus on a subset of our target areas
      • Imaging is starting now
      • Senior people
        • clear understanding of a biomedical research problem
        • exploiting quantitative, design oriented engineering methodologies and tools
      • Collaborate with other campus units, especially in areas where hiring is difficult
    • Leading BioE Programs Biomaterials, Tissue Engrg., Implants, Imaging, Sensing, Cardiac Bioelectricity, Neural Engrg. & Prostesis, Medical Transport Phenomena Case Hospital (plus others) 20, 24 affil. faculty Case Western (est. 1968) 5 Transport, Imaging, Biomaterials, Cell & Tissue Engrg., Computational Bioengineering, Genetics 10, 15 affil. faculty MIT (est. 1998) 4 Cardiac Mech., Biomolecular, Genetic Circuits, Microhemodynamics, Vascular Bioengrg., Biosensors, Tissue Engrg., etc. UCSD Med. Center 13, 10 affil. faculty UCSD (est. 1994) 3 Biomechanics of Cells & Tissue, Cellular & Biosurface Engrg., Bio-Electrical, Imaging, & Bioinformatics Duke Med. Center 19, 27 affil. faculty Duke 2 Virtually Everything Biomedical: Vascular, Tissue, Cardiac, Optics, Biomaterials, Imaging, Computational, Neurophysiology, etc. Johns Hopkins Med. School 20 primary (16 affil.), 23 affil. faculty Johns Hopkins (est. 1970) 1 Focus Med. School No. of Faculty School Rank (USN)
    • Leading BioE Programs Biomechanics, Tissue Engrg., Bioinformatics, Micromachines, Imaging, Biomedical UCSF Med. School 4, 9 split & 5 affil. UC-Berkeley (est. 1998) 10 Biotech., Biomaterials, Imaging, Bioelectrical, Rehab., & Biomechanics U. of Mich. Med. Sch. 3, 30 split & 26 affil. U. Michigan 9 Cell & Tissue Engrg., Imaging, Biofluid Mech., Injury Biomech., Neoroengrg., Orthopaedic Engrg. U. Penn. Med. School 4, 15 split & 60 affil. U. of Penn. 8 Biomolecular Enrgr., Nanobiology, Computational Bioengrg., Biomaterials, Imaging U. of Wash. Med. Sch. 6, 11 split & 24 affil. U. Wash. 6 Cardiovascular Biomechanics, Cell & Tissue Engrg., Neuroengrg., Imaging, Biomedical Computing, Cancer Tech. Emory Univ. Med. Sch. 8, 1 split apt., 24 affil. Ga. Tech (est. 1997) 6
    • History of Science & Technology Lite
      • 1864 Maxwell’s Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field
      • Wait 40 years: wireless telegraph, early radio
      • Wait 40 more years: television is dominant communications medium
      • 1913 Bohr model of atom
      • Wait 40 years: transistors
      • Wait 40 more years: electronics dominate
      • 1953 Watson & Crick describe structure of DNA
      • Wait 40 years: human genome sequenced
      • Wait 40 more years: biotechnology dominates
    • The Nature of Engineering Disciplines
      • ME: the application of the science of mechanics to diverse problems
      • EE: the application of the science of electricity to diverse problems
      • ChemE: the application of the science of chemistry to diverse problems
      • BioE:
        • Until now: the application of diverse engineering disciplines to problems in biology and medicine
        • Future: the application of the science of biology to solve diverse problems
    • What does it mean to have Biology as a Root Science?
      • A major aspect of biology is emerging that is quantifiable, repeatable, and manipulable so as to be usable in designing solutions to diverse problems – molecular biology
      • Impact on Education and Research:
        • Undergraduate education: conservative – application of engineering to biology
        • Research: radical – changing over the next two decades to the application of biology
      • Implementation at the UIUC
        • Must hire quantitative, design oriented life scientists and hypothesis savvy engineers – people motivated by the biological and biomedical problems
    • Next Steps
      • Recruit senior faculty to lead in linking biology and engineering
      • Implement educational programs
      • Get a building
      • Build partnerships with industry
    • Prognosis
      • Multiple Programs will Flourish
        • Biomaterials option in MatSE
        • Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Dept
        • Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering
        • Bioinformatics (ChemE/CS initiative; MS degree)
        • LAS Molec. & Cell. Biol. Major with emphases in bioinformatics, …
        • Biophysics and Computational Biology Center, PhD program
        • Civil and Environmental Engineering
        • Agricultural and Biological Engineering
      • … and BS, MS, PhD in Bioengineering