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  • 1. Neuroanatomy II
    • Autonomic Nervous System (4.1)
    • Neuroanatomical Divisions of the Brain (4.1)
      • hindbrain
      • midbrain
      • forebrain
      • ventricles
    • Review
  • 2. Autoreceptors A) are located on the presynaptic membrane B) are located on the postsynaptic membrane C) decrease the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft D) two of the above
  • 3. Sensory information from the foot enters the spinal cord through A) central canal B) dorsal root C) dorsal horn D) all of the above
  • 4. The Autonomic Nervous System SNS: facilitates energy expenditure PNS: facilitates energy conservation
  • 5. Major Neuroanatomical Divisions of the Brain Hindbrain: pons, medulla, cerebellum Midbrain: tectum, superior/inferior colliculus, substantia nigra Forebrain: thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia Fish Brain
  • 6.
    • Medulla:
    • just above the spinal cord
    • important for vital reflexes
    • damage is often fatal
    • Pons:
    • lies anterior and ventral to the
    • medulla
    • contains lots of axons
    • Cerebellum:
    • lies dorsal to the medulla
    • controls movement, attention
    The Hindbrain The Human Brainstem
  • 7.
    • Tectum:
    • “ roof” of the midbrain
    • receives information from the
    • eyes and the ears
    • Superior and Inferior Colliculi:
    • SC: visual sensation
    • IC: auditory sensation
    • orientation (motor)
    • Substantia Nigra:
    • important dopaminergic circuit
    • involved in the control of
    • movement
    • cell death: Parkinson’s disease
    The Midbrain The Human Brainstem
  • 8.
    • several interlinked structures comprise the limbic system
    • important for motivated/emotional behaviors (eating, drinking, sexual
    • activity, aggressive behavior)
    The Forebrain: Limbic System
  • 9.
    • receives and processes sensory information (except olfaction)
    • sends the output to the cerebral cortex
    The Forebrain: Thalamus
  • 10.
    • contains several distinct nuclei; widespread connections
    • communicates with the pituitary gland to regulate the release of
    • several hormones
    • regulates motivated behavior
    The Forebrain: Hypothalamus
  • 11.
    • three major structures: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
    • highly conserved across evolution (amphibians - mammals)
    • important for sequences of behavior & certain aspects of memory and
    • emotional expression
    • deteriorates in Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases
    The Forebrain: Basal Ganglia
  • 12. The Ventricles
    • contain cerebral spinal fluid (CSF); similar to blood plasma
    • formed by the choroid plexus; reabsorbed into the blood vessels
    • protective function; provides a reservoir for hormones and nutrients
  • 13. The Cranial Nerves: Location 1 - olfactory nerve (s) 2 - optic nerve (s) 3 - oculomotor nerve (s/m) 4 - trochlear nerve (s/m) 5 - trigeminal nerve (s/m) 6 - abducens (s/m) 7 - facial nerve (s/m) 8 - statoacoustic nerve (s) 9 - glosophayyngeal nerve (s/m) 10 - vagus nerve (s/m) 11 - accessary nerve (m) 12 - hypoglossal nerve (s/m)
  • 14. The Cranial Nerves: Function
  • 15. Meningitis & Encephalitis
    • Meningitis: infection of the meninges
    • adults: usually begins with a severe headache and a stiff neck
    • children: convulsions are common
    • inflammation around the brain causes pressure points on the brainstem/SC
    • Encephilitis: infection of the brain
    • symptoms vary depending upon the site of infection
    Meninges: membrane lining the brain