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Neuroanatomy and Brain Injury

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  • Other structures: corpus callosum, cerebellum, pons, medulla, thalamus

Neuroanatomy and Brain Injury Neuroanatomy and Brain Injury Presentation Transcript

  • Neuroanatomy and Brain Injury
  • The Skull
    • Inflexible protective shell
    • Comprised of several bones; names correspond to underlying brain lobes
      • Frontal
      • Temporal
      • Parietal
      • Occipital
  • Meninges
    • Three membranes inside the skull that provide further protection to the brain
      • Dura mater
      • Arachnoid mater
      • Pia mater
    View slide
  • Saggital MRI of the Head View slide
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
    • Fluid that cushions brain from the skull
    • Produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles
    • Circulates in the subarachnoid space and ventricles
    • Eventually reabsorbed into the bloodstream
  • Ventricular System
  • Brain Parenchyma
    • Gray Matter
      • Cell bodies
    • White Matter
      • Myelinated tracks that transmit information across the brain
  • White / Gray Matter Differentiation
  •  
  • Four Lobes of the Brain
  • Four Lobes of the Brain
    • Frontal Lobe
      • Attention, language, planning, emotion, motor skills
      • Very vulnerable to trauma
    • Temporal Lobe
      • Language (left hemisphere)
      • Memory
  • Four Lobes of the Brain
    • Parietal Lobe
      • Sensory functions
      • Damage can result in visual field cuts or hemisensory neglect, or agnosia
    • Occipital Lobe
      • Visual processing
      • Extensive damage can result in cortical blindness
  • Saggital Brain Specimen
  • Brainstem
  • Brainstem
  • Cerebral Vasculature
  • Cerebral Vasculature
  • Cerebral Vasculature
  • Injuries resulting from trauma
    • Coup injury
      • Injury to the brain tissue on the same side as the impact
    • Contracoup injuries
      • Injury to brain tissue opposite the side of impact, due to brain hitting the skull
    • Diffuse Axonal Injury
      • Due to rotational forces
  • Injuries resulting from trauma
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Intracranial pressure
      • Herniation
      • Midline shift
  •  
  • Massive hemorrhagic stroke
  • Brain Tumor (Glioma)
  •