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Neuroanatomy
Seikel, Chapter 12
Overview
 Voluntary for communication seen in light
of the context of automaticity and
background.
 Automaticity-develop...
 Voluntary activities are considered to be
voluntary activities, but are actually
automated responses.
 Automatic functi...
 Cerebral cortex or cerebrum - Voluntary
movement, consciousness
 Cerebellum – movement coordination
 Basal ganglia- mo...
Sensors and Effectors
 Sensors relay information from the
environment to the brain
 Effectors are the means to respond t...
Types of Sensation
 Somatic sense – pain, temp, stim
 Kinesthetic sense – body in motion
 Special senses – transduce in...
 Sensor types vary by
the stimulus to which
they respond
 Synapse – dendritic
connection with
bipolar first-order
sensor...
Receptors
 Mechanoreceptors
 Chemoreceptors
 Photoreceptors
 Thermoreceptors
 Teleceptors
 Interoceptors
 Exterocep...
Divisions of the Nervous
System
 Anatomically
 Central Nervous System
 Peripheral Nervous System
 Functionally
 Autonomic Nervous System
 Sympathetic-thoracolumbar
 Parasympathetic-craniosacral
CNS and PNS involveme...
Neurons
Ventricles
Cerebrum
 Locate the following:
 Superior longitudinal fissure
 Left and right hemispheres
 Frontal, parietal, and temporal lob...
Landmarks
Frontal Lobe
 Predominately for planning, initiation, and
inhibition of voluntary motion and
cognitive functioning
Broca’...
Parietal Lobe
 Primary reception site for somatic (body)
sense Postcentral gyrus
 Cortical association area integrating ...
Temporal Lobe
 Site of auditory reception and for auditory
and receptive language processing
 Superior temporal gyrus – ...
Medial Surface of Cerebral
Cortex
 Corpus Collosum
Inferior Surface of
Cerebral Cortex
 Parahippocampal gyrus
 The hippocampus is deeply involved in
memory
Myelinated Fibers
 Projection fibers
 Association Fibers
 Commissural Fibers
Subcortex
 Basal ganglia
 Hippocampal formation
 Thalmus
Cerebrovascular System
 Vascular System
 Aorta - Carotid and vertebral branches
Carotid
Anterior and middle cerebral art...
Cerebrovascular
Accidents
 Thrombus
 Thrombosis
 Embolus
 Embolism
 Aneurysm
 Occlusion of the middle cerebral arter...
Cranial Nerves
Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy
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Neuroanatomy

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Transcript of "Neuroanatomy"

  1. 1. Neuroanatomy Seikel, Chapter 12
  2. 2. Overview  Voluntary for communication seen in light of the context of automaticity and background.  Automaticity-development of patterns of responses that no longer demand specific motor control  Background-muscular contraction that supports action or movement
  3. 3.  Voluntary activities are considered to be voluntary activities, but are actually automated responses.  Automatic functions are supported by background tonicity - a partial contraction as muscle tone  The body works as a unit to meet needs.
  4. 4.  Cerebral cortex or cerebrum - Voluntary movement, consciousness  Cerebellum – movement coordination  Basal ganglia- modifies output from cerebrum- involved in background  Neural pathways, nerves or tracts  Motor commands conveyed to the periphery  Sensory information transmitted to the brain for evaluation
  5. 5. Sensors and Effectors  Sensors relay information from the environment to the brain  Effectors are the means to respond to changing conditions  Superficial sensation – temperature, pain, touch  Deep sensation – muscle tension, muscle length, point position sense, muscle pain, pressure, and vibration
  6. 6. Types of Sensation  Somatic sense – pain, temp, stim  Kinesthetic sense – body in motion  Special senses – transduce information  Vision  Hearing  Olfaction  Tactile  Gustation
  7. 7.  Sensor types vary by the stimulus to which they respond  Synapse – dendritic connection with bipolar first-order sensory neurons
  8. 8. Receptors  Mechanoreceptors  Chemoreceptors  Photoreceptors  Thermoreceptors  Teleceptors  Interoceptors  Exteroceptors  Proprioceptors
  9. 9. Divisions of the Nervous System  Anatomically  Central Nervous System  Peripheral Nervous System
  10. 10.  Functionally  Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic-thoracolumbar  Parasympathetic-craniosacral CNS and PNS involvement  Somatic Nervous System  Pyramidal motor strip and cerebral cortex  Extrapyramidal tone and support
  11. 11. Neurons
  12. 12. Ventricles
  13. 13. Cerebrum
  14. 14.  Locate the following:  Superior longitudinal fissure  Left and right hemispheres  Frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes  Central fissure  Lateral sulcus  Pre and post central gyri
  15. 15. Landmarks
  16. 16. Frontal Lobe  Predominately for planning, initiation, and inhibition of voluntary motion and cognitive functioning Broca’s area - Inferior frontal gyrus/frontal operculum Motor strip – precentral gyrus
  17. 17. Parietal Lobe  Primary reception site for somatic (body) sense Postcentral gyrus  Cortical association area integrating info Visual, audition and somatic Supramarginal gyrus – important for comprehension of written language Angular gyri – involved in the motor planning for speech
  18. 18. Temporal Lobe  Site of auditory reception and for auditory and receptive language processing  Superior temporal gyrus – Heschl’s gyrus all auditory information is projected there Lateral to Heschl’s gyrus is a higher- order processing region for auditory stimulation *Posterior portion of stg is Wernicke’s area
  19. 19. Medial Surface of Cerebral Cortex  Corpus Collosum
  20. 20. Inferior Surface of Cerebral Cortex  Parahippocampal gyrus  The hippocampus is deeply involved in memory
  21. 21. Myelinated Fibers  Projection fibers  Association Fibers  Commissural Fibers
  22. 22. Subcortex  Basal ganglia  Hippocampal formation  Thalmus
  23. 23. Cerebrovascular System  Vascular System  Aorta - Carotid and vertebral branches Carotid Anterior and middle cerebral arteries Vertebral Anterior and posterior spinal arteries Posterior inferior cerebellar artery Basilar artery Posterior cerebral arteries Superior cerebellar and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries Circle of Willis
  24. 24. Cerebrovascular Accidents  Thrombus  Thrombosis  Embolus  Embolism  Aneurysm  Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery may result in language and speech deficits if in the dominant cerebral hemisphere
  25. 25. Cranial Nerves
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