Psyc 689 Clin
Psychopharmacology
Introduction-Neuroanatomy
Instructor Contact Details
• Paul J. Wellman
• Office: Psychology 248
– Phone:
• 979-845-2557 (Office)
• 979-845-2581 (Dep...
Psyc 689 Course Details
• Lectures are
Wednesday
– 9 am-12 pm
• Exams: 2 exams each
worth 100 points
(exams will be taken ...
Overview Of Course Topics
– Neurophysiology
– Neurochemistry
– Neuroanatomy (functional and neurochemical)
– Basic princip...
Physical Approaches to Altering
Behavior
• Trephining
• ECT
• Psychosurgery
• All are based on the idea that altering
brai...
ECT
Psychosurgery
Psychopharmacology
• Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of
drugs on the nervous system and on behavior
• The t...
Development of Psychoactive
Drugs
– Alcohol (?)
– Cannabis (THC)
– Opiates
– Caffeine (1300 Ethiopia)
– Cocaine (1200-1500...
“Evolution” of Localization of
Function
Phrenology
Bust
Brodman
Cytoarchitectonic Map
Cortical Activity
During 2nd
Languag...
Broca’s Area
• Patient “Tan” showed major
deficit in speech (aphasia)
following a stroke
– Broca’s autopsy of Tan’s brain
...
Artificial Stimulation of Brain
• Neurons in a region can be artificially activated to
assess the role of that region in b...
Hunger and Reward After Lateral
Hypothalamic Stimulation
Neuroanatomy Terms
• The neuraxis is an imaginary
line drawn through the spinal
cord up to the front of the brain
• Anatom...
Planes of Section
• The brain can be
sectioned in three
planes
• Each section provides
a different view of the
internal an...
Two Nervous Systems
• The nervous system consists of two divisions
– The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of
the ...
Views of the CNS
• Anatomical
– Nuclei and fibers
• Functional
– Sensory, motor, integrative
– Emotion, reward, memory, sl...
Levels of the CNS
• Cerebral Cortex and brain hemispheres
• Cortical lobes (4 bone-defined, 2 internal)
• Gyri and sulci m...
Midline Brain View
Motor Sensory
Cerebral Cortex
• The cerebral cortex forms the outer surface of
the cerebral hemispheres
• Cortex surface is convoluted b...
Orbitofrontal Cortex
• Humans are able to interact socially and to
understand social situations
• The analysis of social s...
Frontal Lobe Neuropathology
• Paralysis (usually flaccid if upper body
neuron)
• Paresis (weakness)
• Impaired dexterity
•...
Primary Sensory and Motor
Cortex
Motor Cortex
• Multiple motor systems control body movements
– Walking, talking, postural, arm and finger movements
• Prim...
Divisions of Motor Cortex
Motor “Homunculus”
Parietal Lobe Neuropathology
• Issues in receptive speech, naming,
comprehension
• Tactile discrimination difficulty
• Ves...
Visual Cortex Function
• V4: responds to color and
perception
• V5: responds to movement
• TEO: involved in color
discrimi...
Occipital Lobe Neuropathology
• Cortical blindness
• Visual eye movement difficulties (area 8)
• Achromatopsia (rod vision...
Receptive Fields
– Receptive Field (RF): Those
attributes of a stimulus that will
alter the firing rate of a given
sensory...
Primary Auditory Cortex
Temporal Lobe Neuropathology
• Misidentification syndromes –
Prosopagnosia
• Amnestic syndromes (hippocampus)
• Central de...
Limbic System
• The limbic system is
comprised of
– Hippocampus: involved in
learning and memory
– Amygdala: involved in
e...
Hippocampal Damage and Amnesia
• Severe anterograde amnesia follows bilateral
damage to the hippocampus
– Patient H.M. suf...
Emotion and the Amygdala
• Threat stimuli increase neural firing and fos
activity within central nucleus of the amygdala
–...
Diencephalon
• Diencephalon consists
of
– Thalamus: contains
nuclei that receive
sensory information and
transmit it to co...
The Basal Ganglia
• The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical
nuclei that lie just under the anterior aspect of th...
Degenerative Disorders
• Certain diseases produce loss of brain
neurons
– Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine
neurons
– ...
Mesencephalon
• The mesencephalon (midbrain) consists of
– Tectum is the dorsal portion of midbrain
• Superior and inferio...
Metencephalon
• Metencephalon consists of the
– Pons
• Contains the core of the reticular formation
• The pons is involved...
Neural Control of REM Sleep
• The pons is important for the control of REM sleep
– PGO waves are the first predictor of RE...
Sleep and Neurotransmitters
• Sleep function is altered by
– Norepinephrine (arousal)
– Serotonin (promotes sleep)
– Dopam...
Myelencephalon
• The myelencephalon consists of the
– Medulla oblongata
– The medulla is the most caudal portion of brain ...
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  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body
    Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.
    The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body
    Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.
    Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.
    Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body
    Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.
    The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body
    Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.
    Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.
    Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body
    Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.
    The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body
    Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.
    Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.
    Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body
    Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.
    The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body
    Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.
    Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.
    Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Neuroanatomy

    1. 1. Psyc 689 Clin Psychopharmacology Introduction-Neuroanatomy
    2. 2. Instructor Contact Details • Paul J. Wellman • Office: Psychology 248 – Phone: • 979-845-2557 (Office) • 979-845-2581 (Dept) • 979-845-4727 (Fax) • 979-777-3163 (Cell) – Email: PJW@PSYC.TAMU.EDU – Web site: http://psychology.tamu.edu/courses/W ellman/689.html
    3. 3. Psyc 689 Course Details • Lectures are Wednesday – 9 am-12 pm • Exams: 2 exams each worth 100 points (exams will be taken in class) • Readings are from Handbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for Therapists (4e) by Preston, O’ Neal, and Talaga (2005)
    4. 4. Overview Of Course Topics – Neurophysiology – Neurochemistry – Neuroanatomy (functional and neurochemical) – Basic principles of pharmacology – Specific disorders • Psychoses • Anxiety • Depression – Issues of treatment • Side effect profiles • Subject characteristics (gender, age, health) • Psychopharmacology Resources (PDR)
    5. 5. Physical Approaches to Altering Behavior • Trephining • ECT • Psychosurgery • All are based on the idea that altering brain function can alter behavior • Risk-benefit issues for these treatments
    6. 6. ECT
    7. 7. Psychosurgery
    8. 8. Psychopharmacology • Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior • The term drug has many meanings: – Medication to treat a disease – A chemical that is likely to be abused – An “exogenous” chemical that significantly alters the function of certain bodily cells when taken in relatively low doses (chemical is not required for normal cellular functioning)
    9. 9. Development of Psychoactive Drugs – Alcohol (?) – Cannabis (THC) – Opiates – Caffeine (1300 Ethiopia) – Cocaine (1200-1500 Incas; cocaine isolated in 1859) – Nicotine (1556: Western Europe) – Ether: used as an inhalation toxicant – Hallucinogens (peyote) – Stimulants (amphetamine syn in 1887) – Medicinal chemistry http://itsa.ucsf.edu/~ddrc/histdrg_frset.html
    10. 10. “Evolution” of Localization of Function Phrenology Bust Brodman Cytoarchitectonic Map Cortical Activity During 2nd Language Practice
    11. 11. Broca’s Area • Patient “Tan” showed major deficit in speech (aphasia) following a stroke – Broca’s autopsy of Tan’s brain (1861) noted damage in the left hemisphere – “the lesion of the left frontal lobe was the cause of the loss of speech” – Case report conclusion was correct – Broca’s paper can be read at: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Broca/perte-e
    12. 12. Artificial Stimulation of Brain • Neurons in a region can be artificially activated to assess the role of that region in behavior – Electrical stimulation involves passing electrical current through a wire inserted into brain – Cincinnati physician and brain stimulation • Conducted in prostitute with bone cancer of skull – Patient died, but not related to electrical stimulation… – Penfield’s cortical stimulation studies (Montreal) – Chemical stimulation can involve infusion of an excitatory amino acid such as glutamate into a region • A cannula implanted into a region can be used to deliver drug solutions into that region • Chemical stimulation can be more specific than electrical stimulation (glutamate activates cell bodies, not axons)
    13. 13. Hunger and Reward After Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation
    14. 14. Neuroanatomy Terms • The neuraxis is an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain • Anatomical directions are understood relative to the neuraxis • Anterior (rostral): toward the head • Posterior (caudal): toward the tail • Ventral (inferior): toward the “belly” • Dorsal (superior): toward the back (top of head) • Location in brain: – Ipsilateral: same side of brain – Contralateral: opposite side of brain
    15. 15. Planes of Section • The brain can be sectioned in three planes • Each section provides a different view of the internal anatomy of the brain – Sagittal – Coronal (or transverse) – Horizontal
    16. 16. Two Nervous Systems • The nervous system consists of two divisions – The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of the brain and spinal cord – The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of the cranial/spinal nerves and peripheral ganglia • PNS nerves project to target organs and to muscles (efferent) • These nerves also carry sensory information to the brain (afferent)
    17. 17. Views of the CNS • Anatomical – Nuclei and fibers • Functional – Sensory, motor, integrative – Emotion, reward, memory, sleep and arousal – Lesion studies, functional imaging studies • Neurochemical pathways – Dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, glycine
    18. 18. Levels of the CNS • Cerebral Cortex and brain hemispheres • Cortical lobes (4 bone-defined, 2 internal) • Gyri and sulci markers • Fibers, tracts, commisures, nerves, ganglia, nuclei, fasciculi (us) • Neurons • Neuron components • Synapses and neurotransmitters (NTs) • Receptors (auto-, post-synaptic) • Neuron membranes and associated channels – Ligand-gated; voltage-gated
    19. 19. Midline Brain View Motor Sensory
    20. 20. Cerebral Cortex • The cerebral cortex forms the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres • Cortex surface is convoluted by grooves – Sulci (small grooves) – Fissures (large grooves) • The bulges in cortex are termed gyri • The cortex is primarily composed of cells, giving it a gray appearance – The cortex is formed from 6 layers of cells • Cortex can be divided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal (limbic makes 5)
    21. 21. Orbitofrontal Cortex • Humans are able to interact socially and to understand social situations • The analysis of social situations requires an intact orbitofrontal cortex – Phineas Gage: dynamite tamping rod penetrated orbitofrontal cortex – Gage exhibited reduced inhibitions and self-concern • Jacobsen: reported calming action of frontal lobe damage in monkeys – Led to the development of prefrontal lobotomy technique (Moniz)
    22. 22. Frontal Lobe Neuropathology • Paralysis (usually flaccid if upper body neuron) • Paresis (weakness) • Impaired dexterity • Motor impersistence • Subclinical catatonia and motor retardation • Impairment smooth eye-tracking • Elevated blink rate
    23. 23. Primary Sensory and Motor Cortex
    24. 24. Motor Cortex • Multiple motor systems control body movements – Walking, talking, postural, arm and finger movements • Primary motor cortex is located on the precentral gyrus – Motor cortex is somatotopically organized (motor homunculus) – Motor cortex receives input from • Premotor cortex • Supplemental motor area • Frontal association cortex • Primary somatosensory cortex – Planning of movements involves the premotor cortex and the supplemental motor area which influence the primary motor cortex
    25. 25. Divisions of Motor Cortex
    26. 26. Motor “Homunculus”
    27. 27. Parietal Lobe Neuropathology • Issues in receptive speech, naming, comprehension • Tactile discrimination difficulty • Vestibular processing (Area 2) • Route finding issues (spatial) • Calculation problems • Right parietal lobe: spatial neglect • Time interval estimate difficulties • Prosopagnosia (w/ inf. Temporal lobe)
    28. 28. Visual Cortex Function • V4: responds to color and perception • V5: responds to movement • TEO: involved in color discrimination, 2-d pattern discrimination • TE: neurons respond to 3-d (a face or a hand)
    29. 29. Occipital Lobe Neuropathology • Cortical blindness • Visual eye movement difficulties (area 8) • Achromatopsia (rod vision, lacks color perception • Visual neglect (agnosias) • Gaze disorders
    30. 30. Receptive Fields – Receptive Field (RF): Those attributes of a stimulus that will alter the firing rate of a given sensory cell • Can measure the RF at each level of sensory system • There are as many RF’s as there are cells in a sensory system – Look for commonalities of fields at each level of the system – Cortex is organized into columns, with each column sharing an attribute
    31. 31. Primary Auditory Cortex
    32. 32. Temporal Lobe Neuropathology • Misidentification syndromes – Prosopagnosia • Amnestic syndromes (hippocampus) • Central deafness (areas 41,42) • Wernicke –related dysphasias (Area 22) – Receptive – Conductive type • Hypo- and hypersexuality • Panic/fear states
    33. 33. Limbic System • The limbic system is comprised of – Hippocampus: involved in learning and memory – Amygdala: involved in emotion – Mammillary Bodies • The fornix is a fiber bundle that interconnects the hippocampus with the mammillary bodies
    34. 34. Hippocampal Damage and Amnesia • Severe anterograde amnesia follows bilateral damage to the hippocampus – Patient H.M. suffered from severe epilepsy • To minimize his epilepsy, H.M.’s surgeons removed his medial temporal lobe (including the hippocampus) – Following surgery, H.M. showed severe anterograde amnesia • No retention for events that have occurred since 1953 • Can recall events that occurred prior to 1953 • H.M.’s amnesia was attributed to hippocampal damage – Patient Boswell: herpes encephalitis led to bilateral damage to the mesial temporal lobe • Amygdala, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex) • Severe anterograde AND severe retrograde amnesia
    35. 35. Emotion and the Amygdala • Threat stimuli increase neural firing and fos activity within central nucleus of the amygdala – Humans show increased amygdala activity (PET studies) • Lesions of central nucleus diminish emotional responses: – Reduced fear responses to threat stimuli – Reduced chance of developing ulcers to stress – Reduced levels of stress hormones • Electrical stimulation of central nucleus induces fear and agitation • Central amygdala nucleus is important for the expression of emotional responses to aversive stimuli
    36. 36. Diencephalon • Diencephalon consists of – Thalamus: contains nuclei that receive sensory information and transmit it to cortex – Hypothalamus: contains nuclei involved in integration of species- typical behaviors, control of the autonomic nervous system and pituitary
    37. 37. The Basal Ganglia • The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei that lie just under the anterior aspect of the lateral ventricles – “Ganglia” is a misnomer (term refers to collections of cell bodies in periphery) • Basal ganglia consist of the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the globus pallidus – Input to the basal ganglia is from the primary motor cortex and the substantia nigra – Output of the basal ganglia is to • Primary motor cortex, supplemental motor area, premotor cortex • Brainstem motor nuclei (ventromedial pathways)
    38. 38. Degenerative Disorders • Certain diseases produce loss of brain neurons – Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine neurons – Huntington’s Chorea: loss of GABA/ACh – Alzheimer’s disease: loss of ACh neurons
    39. 39. Mesencephalon • The mesencephalon (midbrain) consists of – Tectum is the dorsal portion of midbrain • Superior and inferior colliculi are involved in the visual and auditory systems – Tegmentum is that portion of the midbrain located under the tectum and consists of the • Rostral end of the reticular formation • Periaqueductal gray • Red nucleus • Substantia nigra (projects to striatum) • Ventral tegmental area (part of reward circuit)
    40. 40. Metencephalon • Metencephalon consists of the – Pons • Contains the core of the reticular formation • The pons is involved in the control of sleep and arousal – Cerebellum is involved in motor control
    41. 41. Neural Control of REM Sleep • The pons is important for the control of REM sleep – PGO waves are the first predictor of REM sleep – ACh neurons in the peribrachial pons modulate REM sleep • Increased ACh increases REM sleep • Peribrachial neurons fire at a high rate during REM sleep • Peribrachial lesions reduce REM sleep – Pontine ACh neurons project to the thalamus (control of cortical arousal), to the basal forebrain (arousal and desynchrony), and to the tectum (rapid eye movements) – Pontine cells project via magnocellular cells within medulla to the spinal cord: release glycine to inhibit alpha-motoneurons (induce REM motor paralysis or atonia)
    42. 42. Sleep and Neurotransmitters • Sleep function is altered by – Norepinephrine (arousal) – Serotonin (promotes sleep) – Dopamine (arousal) – Acetylcholine (in cortex – arousal) – Histamine (arousal) – GABA (promotes sleep) – Opioid/opiates (promote sleep)
    43. 43. Myelencephalon • The myelencephalon consists of the – Medulla oblongata – The medulla is the most caudal portion of brain and is rostral to the spinal cord – The medulla contains part of the reticular formation – The nuclei of the medulla control vital functions such as regulation of the cardiovascular system, breathing, and skeletal muscle tone
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