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  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.
  • Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action. The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical body Monism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul. Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms. Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.

Transcript

  • 1. Psyc 689 Clin Psychopharmacology Introduction-Neuroanatomy
  • 2. Instructor Contact Details
    • Paul J. Wellman
    • Office: Psychology 248
      • Phone:
        • 979-845-2557 (Office)
        • 979-845-2581 (Dept)
        • 979-845-4727 (Fax)
        • 979-777-3163 (Cell)
      • Email: [email_address]
      • Web site: http://psychology.tamu.edu/courses/Wellman/689.html
  • 3. Psyc 689 Course Details
    • Lectures are Wednesday
      • 9 am-12 pm
    • Exams: 2 exams each worth 100 points (exams will be taken in class)
    • Readings are from Handbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for Therapists (4e) by Preston, O’ Neal, and Talaga (2005)
  • 4. Overview Of Course Topics
      • Neurophysiology
      • Neurochemistry
      • Neuroanatomy (functional and neurochemical)
      • Basic principles of pharmacology
      • Specific disorders
        • Psychoses
        • Anxiety
        • Depression
      • Issues of treatment
        • Side effect profiles
        • Subject characteristics (gender, age, health)
        • Psychopharmacology Resources (PDR)
  • 5. Physical Approaches to Altering Behavior
    • Trephining
    • ECT
    • Psychosurgery
    • All are based on the idea that altering brain function can alter behavior
    • Risk-benefit issues for these treatments
  • 6. ECT
  • 7. Psychosurgery
  • 8. Psychopharmacology
    • Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior
    • The term drug has many meanings:
      • Medication to treat a disease
      • A chemical that is likely to be abused
      • An “ exogenous” chemical that significantly alters the function of certain bodily cells when taken in relatively low doses (chemical is not required for normal cellular functioning)
  • 9. Development of Psychoactive Drugs
      • Alcohol (?)
      • Cannabis (THC)
      • Opiates
      • Caffeine (1300 Ethiopia)
      • Cocaine (1200-1500 Incas; cocaine isolated in 1859)
      • Nicotine (1556: Western Europe)
      • Ether: used as an inhalation toxicant
      • Hallucinogens (peyote)
      • Stimulants (amphetamine syn in 1887)
      • Medicinal chemistry
    http://itsa.ucsf.edu/~ddrc/histdrg_frset.html
  • 10. “Evolution” of Localization of Function Phrenology Bust Brodman Cytoarchitectonic Map Cortical Activity During 2 nd Language Practice
  • 11. Broca’s Area
    • Patient “Tan” showed major deficit in speech ( aphasia ) following a stroke
      • Broca’s autopsy of Tan’s brain (1861) noted damage in the left hemisphere
      • “ the lesion of the left frontal lobe was the cause of the loss of speech”
      • Case report conclusion was correct
      • Broca’s paper can be read at: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Broca/perte-e
  • 12. Artificial Stimulation of Brain
    • Neurons in a region can be artificially activated to assess the role of that region in behavior
      • Electrical stimulation involves passing electrical current through a wire inserted into brain
      • Cincinnati physician and brain stimulation
        • Conducted in prostitute with bone cancer of skull
          • Patient died, but not related to electrical stimulation…
      • Penfield’s cortical stimulation studies (Montreal)
      • Chemical stimulation can involve infusion of an excitatory amino acid such as glutamate into a region
        • A cannula implanted into a region can be used to deliver drug solutions into that region
        • Chemical stimulation can be more specific than electrical stimulation (glutamate activates cell bodies, not axons)
  • 13. Hunger and Reward After Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation
  • 14. Neuroanatomy Terms
    • The neuraxis is an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain
    • Anatomical directions are understood relative to the neuraxis
        • Anterior (rostral): toward the head
        • Posterior (caudal): toward the tail
        • Ventral (inferior): toward the “belly”
        • Dorsal (superior): toward the back (top of head)
    • Location in brain:
      • Ipsilateral : same side of brain
      • Contralateral : opposite side of brain
  • 15. Planes of Section
    • The brain can be sectioned in three planes
    • Each section provides a different view of the internal anatomy of the brain
      • Sagittal
      • Coronal (or transverse)
      • Horizontal
  • 16. Two Nervous Systems
    • The nervous system consists of two divisions
      • The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of the brain and spinal cord
      • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of the cranial/spinal nerves and peripheral ganglia
        • PNS nerves project to target organs and to muscles ( efferent )
        • These nerves also carry sensory information to the brain ( afferent )
  • 17. Views of the CNS
    • Anatomical
      • Nuclei and fibers
    • Functional
      • Sensory, motor, integrative
      • Emotion, reward, memory, sleep and arousal
      • Lesion studies, functional imaging studies
    • Neurochemical pathways
      • Dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, glycine
  • 18. Levels of the CNS
    • Cerebral Cortex and brain hemispheres
    • Cortical lobes (4 bone-defined, 2 internal)
    • Gyri and sulci markers
    • Fibers, tracts, commisures, nerves, ganglia, nuclei, fasciculi (us)
    • Neurons
    • Neuron components
    • Synapses and neurotransmitters (NTs)
    • Receptors (auto-, post-synaptic)
    • Neuron membranes and associated channels
      • Ligand-gated; voltage-gated
  • 19. Midline Brain View Motor Sensory
  • 20. Cerebral Cortex
    • The cerebral cortex forms the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres
    • Cortex surface is convoluted by grooves
      • Sulci (small grooves)
      • Fissures (large grooves)
    • The bulges in cortex are termed gyri
    • The cortex is primarily composed of cells, giving it a gray appearance
      • The cortex is formed from 6 layers of cells
    • Cortex can be divided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal (limbic makes 5)
  • 21. Orbitofrontal Cortex
    • Humans are able to interact socially and to understand social situations
    • The analysis of social situations requires an intact orbitofrontal cortex
      • Phineas Gage: dynamite tamping rod penetrated orbitofrontal cortex
      • Gage exhibited reduced inhibitions and self-concern
    • Jacobsen: reported calming action of frontal lobe damage in monkeys
      • Led to the development of prefrontal lobotomy technique (Moniz)
  • 22. Frontal Lobe Neuropathology
    • Paralysis (usually flaccid if upper body neuron)
    • Paresis (weakness)
    • Impaired dexterity
    • Motor impersistence
    • Subclinical catatonia and motor retardation
    • Impairment smooth eye-tracking
    • Elevated blink rate
  • 23. Primary Sensory and Motor Cortex
  • 24. Motor Cortex
    • Multiple motor systems control body movements
      • Walking, talking, postural, arm and finger movements
    • Primary motor cortex is located on the precentral gyrus
      • Motor cortex is somatotopically organized (motor homunculus)
      • Motor cortex receives input from
        • Premotor cortex
        • Supplemental motor area
        • Frontal association cortex
        • Primary somatosensory cortex
      • Planning of movements involves the premotor cortex and the supplemental motor area which influence the primary motor cortex
  • 25. Divisions of Motor Cortex
  • 26. Motor “Homunculus”
  • 27. Parietal Lobe Neuropathology
    • Issues in receptive speech, naming, comprehension
    • Tactile discrimination difficulty
    • Vestibular processing (Area 2)
    • Route finding issues (spatial)
    • Calculation problems
    • Right parietal lobe: spatial neglect
    • Time interval estimate difficulties
    • Prosopagnosia (w/ inf. Temporal lobe)
  • 28. Visual Cortex Function
    • V4: responds to color and
    • perception
    • V5: responds to movement
    • TEO: involved in color discrimination, 2-d pattern discrimination
    • TE: neurons respond to 3-d
    • (a face or a hand)
    form objects
  • 29. Occipital Lobe Neuropathology
    • Cortical blindness
    • Visual eye movement difficulties (area 8)
    • Achromatopsia (rod vision, lacks color perception
    • Visual neglect (agnosias)
    • Gaze disorders
  • 30. Receptive Fields
      • Receptive Field (RF): Those attributes of a stimulus that will alter the firing rate of a given sensory cell
        • Can measure the RF at each level of sensory system
        • There are as many RF’s as there are cells in a sensory system
          • Look for commonalities of fields at each level of the system
      • Cortex is organized into columns, with each column sharing an attribute
  • 31. Primary Auditory Cortex
  • 32. Temporal Lobe Neuropathology
    • Misidentification syndromes – Prosopagnosia
    • Amnestic syndromes (hippocampus)
    • Central deafness (areas 41,42)
    • Wernicke –related dysphasias (Area 22)
      • Receptive
      • Conductive type
    • Hypo- and hypersexuality
    • Panic/fear states
  • 33. Limbic System
    • The limbic system is comprised of
      • Hippocampus: involved in learning and memory
      • Amygdala: involved in emotion
      • Mammillary Bodies
        • The fornix is a fiber bundle that interconnects the hippocampus with the mammillary bodies
  • 34. Hippocampal Damage and Amnesia
    • Severe anterograde amnesia follows bilateral damage to the hippocampus
      • Patient H.M. suffered from severe epilepsy
        • To minimize his epilepsy, H.M.’s surgeons removed his medial temporal lobe (including the hippocampus)
      • Following surgery, H.M. showed severe anterograde amnesia
        • No retention for events that have occurred since 1953
        • Can recall events that occurred prior to 1953
        • H.M.’s amnesia was attributed to hippocampal damage
      • Patient Boswell: herpes encephalitis led to bilateral damage to the mesial temporal lobe
        • Amygdala, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex)
        • Severe anterograde AND severe retrograde amnesia
  • 35. Emotion and the Amygdala
    • Threat stimuli increase neural firing and fos activity within central nucleus of the amygdala
      • Humans show increased amygdala activity (PET studies)
    • Lesions of central nucleus diminish emotional responses:
      • Reduced fear responses to threat stimuli
      • Reduced chance of developing ulcers to stress
      • Reduced levels of stress hormones
    • Electrical stimulation of central nucleus induces fear and agitation
    • Central amygdala nucleus is important for the expression of emotional responses to aversive stimuli
  • 36. Diencephalon
    • Diencephalon consists of
      • Thalamus : contains nuclei that receive sensory information and transmit it to cortex
      • Hypothalamus : contains nuclei involved in integration of species-typical behaviors, control of the autonomic nervous system and pituitary
  • 37. The Basal Ganglia
    • The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei that lie just under the anterior aspect of the lateral ventricles
      • “ Ganglia ” is a misnomer (term refers to collections of cell bodies in periphery)
    • Basal ganglia consist of the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the globus pallidus
      • Input to the basal ganglia is from the primary motor cortex and the substantia nigra
      • Output of the basal ganglia is to
        • Primary motor cortex, supplemental motor area, premotor cortex
        • Brainstem motor nuclei (ventromedial pathways)
  • 38. Degenerative Disorders
    • Certain diseases produce loss of brain neurons
      • Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine neurons
      • Huntington’s Chorea: loss of GABA/ACh
      • Alzheimer’s disease: loss of ACh neurons
  • 39. Mesencephalon
    • The mesencephalon (midbrain) consists of
      • Tectum is the dorsal portion of midbrain
        • Superior and inferior colliculi are involved in the visual and auditory systems
      • Tegmentum is that portion of the midbrain located under the tectum and consists of the
        • Rostral end of the reticular formation
        • Periaqueductal gray
        • Red nucleus
        • Substantia nigra (projects to striatum)
        • Ventral tegmental area (part of
        • reward circuit)
  • 40. Metencephalon
    • Metencephalon consists of the
      • Pons
        • Contains the core of the reticular formation
        • The pons is involved in the control of sleep and arousal
      • Cerebellum is involved in motor control
  • 41. Neural Control of REM Sleep
    • The pons is important for the control of REM sleep
      • PGO waves are the first predictor of REM sleep
      • ACh neurons in the peribrachial pons modulate REM sleep
        • Increased ACh increases REM sleep
        • Peribrachial neurons fire at a high rate during REM sleep
        • Peribrachial lesions reduce REM sleep
      • Pontine ACh neurons project to the thalamus (control of cortical arousal), to the basal forebrain (arousal and desynchrony), and to the tectum (rapid eye movements)
      • Pontine cells project via magnocellular cells within medulla to the spinal cord: release glycine to inhibit alpha-motoneurons (induce REM motor paralysis or atonia)
  • 42. Sleep and Neurotransmitters
    • Sleep function is altered by
      • Norepinephrine (arousal)
      • Serotonin (promotes sleep)
      • Dopamine (arousal)
      • Acetylcholine (in cortex – arousal)
      • Histamine (arousal)
      • GABA (promotes sleep)
      • Opioid/opiates (promote sleep)
  • 43. Myelencephalon
    • The myelencephalon consists of the
      • Medulla oblongata
      • The medulla is the most caudal portion of brain and is rostral to the spinal cord
      • The medulla contains part of the reticular formation
      • The nuclei of the medulla control vital functions such as regulation of the cardiovascular system, breathing, and skeletal muscle tone