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NA_Intro2005_I.ppt

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  • 1. Introduction to Neuroanatomy
    • Structure-function relationships
      • Localization of function in the CNS
    • Non-invasive brain imaging
      • CAT: structure, low resolution
      • MRI: structure, high resolution
      • PET: function, low resolution
      • f MRI: function, high resolution
  • 2. Dual approach to learning neuroanatomy:
    • Functional anatomy
      • Neural structures that serve particular functions; e.g., pain path from skin to cortex for perception
    • Regional anatomy
      • Localization of structures in particular brain regions
  • 3. Lecture objectives:
    • Overview of brain structures to “demystify” anatomical content in Neural Science lectures
    • Survey brain structure-function relations to provide background for first labs
    First half of lecture:
    • Quick review of basic CNS organization
    • Use development to understand principles of structural organization of CNS
    Second half: Functional localization
  • 4. Introduction to Neuroanatomy I: Regional Anatomy
  • 5. CNS Organizational Principles
    • 1) Tubular organization of central nervous system
    • 2) Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
    • 3) Complex C-shaped organization of cerebral cortex and deep structures
  • 6. Brief Overview of Mature CNS Neuroanatomy
    • Tubular organization of central nervous system
    • Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
    Nuclei : locations of neuron cell bodies w/in the central nervous system Ganglia : locations of neuron cell bodies in the periphery Nerves : locations of axons in the periphery Tracts : locations of axons w/in the central nervous system
  • 7. SC Dorsal surface Ventral surface Gray matter White matter Dorsal root Ventral root Spinal nerve NTA 1-4
  • 8. Brief Overview of Mature CNS Neuroanatomy
    • 1) Tubular organization of central nervous system
    • 3) Complex C-shaped organization of cerebral cortex and nuclei and structures located beneath cortex
      • Lateral ventricle
      • Basal ganglia
      • Hippocampal formation & Fornix
    • 2) Columnar/longitudinal organization of spinal and cranial nerve nuclei
  • 9. Neural Induction
    • • Portion of the dorsal ectoderm becomes committed to become the nervous system :
    • Neural plate
  • 10. Neural plate Ectoderm Neural groove Neural tube NTA 3-1 Neural crest: PNS neurons, etc White matter Gray matter Neural tube wall: neurons & glia of CNS Neural tube cavity: ventricular system
  • 11. NT development Cephalic flexure Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Spinal cord Neural Tube Development Rostral neural tube forms the brain Caudal neural tube forms the spinal cord Brain vesicles: Rostral Caudal NTA 3-2
  • 12. 3 & 5 ves stages Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Spinal cord Cerebral hemisphere Diencephalon Midbrain Pons & Cerebellum Medulla Lateral ventricle 3rd ventricle 4th ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Central canal 3-vesicle stage 5-vesicle stage Cephalic flexure … by the 5 vesicle stage, all 7 major brain divisions are present NTA 3-2
  • 13. MidsagBrain The cephalic flexure persists into maturity Cephalic flexure
  • 14. axes NTA 1-13
  • 15. Spinal cord & brain stem have a similar developmental plan
    • Segmentation
    • Nuclear organization: columnar
  • 16. SC dev Alar plate Basal plate Sulcus limitans Dorsal horn Ventral horn Dorsal horn Ventral horn Central canal Central canal NTA 3-7
  • 17. Dorsal root Ventral root Dorsal horn Ventral horn
  • 18.
    • Key differences
    • 1) central canal enlargement motor medial and sensory lateral
    • 2) migration away from ventricle
    • 3) >> sensory and motor
    Similarities between SC and brain stem development • Sulcus limitans separates sensory and motor nuclei • Nuclei have columnar shape
  • 19. BS dev Alar plate and migrating neuroblasts Basal plate NTA 3-8
  • 20. Medulla development Alar plate Basal plate Sulcus limitans 4th Vent Inferior olivary nucleus NTA 3-9 Alar plate Basal plate Striated/somite Autonomic. Striated/branchio. Vestibular/auditory. Somatic sensory. Taste/viscerosensory
  • 21. Pons development Alar plate Basal plate Sulcus limitans 4th Vent Pontine nuclei Striated/somite Autonomic. Striated/branchio. Vestibular/auditory. Somatic sensory. Taste/viscerosensory Alar plate Basal plate NTA 3-10
  • 22. Midbrain development Alar plate Basal plate Sulcus limitans Cerebral aq. Striated/somite Autonomic. Basal plate Somatic sensory. Sub. nigra Red nucleus More like spinal Cord b/c fewer nuclear classes and cerebral aqueduct NTA 3-11
  • 23.
    • Key differences
    • 1) CH more complex than BS/SC
    • 2) Cortical gyri more complex anatomy than nuclei
    • 3) Subcortical nuclei are C-shaped
      • Confusing: structure in two places on image
    Similarities between forebrain and hindbrain/spinal development • Tubular
  • 24. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
      • Gateway to cortex
    • Hypothalamus
      • Control of endocrine and bodily functions
      • Circadian rhythms
      • Etc.
  • 25. CH dev NTA 3-14
  • 26. Cerebral Cortex Development Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal
  • 27. Forebrain Development & C-shaped Structures
    • Cerebral cortex (NTA 3-15)
    • Lateral ventricles (NTA 3-16)
    • Striatum (NTA 3-16)
    • Hippocampal formation and fornix (NTA 3-17)
  • 28. Summary
    • 7 Major components of the central nervous system & Ventricles
    • All present from ~ 1st prenatal month
    • Longitudinal organization of SC and BS nuclei
      • Columns
      • Anatomical and functional divisions
    • C-shape organization of cerebral hemisphere structures and diencephalic
      • Cerebral cortex
      • Lateral ventricle
      • Striatum
      • Hippocampal formation and fornix