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  • Preview Question 4: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning?
  • Preview Question 5: Why is Pavlov’s work important?
  • Preview Question 7: What are the basic types of reinforcers?
  • Preview Question 11: How might educators, business managers, and other individuals apply operant conditioning?
  • Preview Question 12: What is observational learning?

Learning Chapter 7 Powerpoint Learning Chapter 7 Powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Chapter 7
    • Learning
    • Worth Publishers
  • Learning
    • Learning
      • relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
  • Types of Learning
    • 1. Classical Conditioning
    • 2. Operant Conditioning
    • 3. Observational Learning
    View slide
  • Association
    • We learn by association
      • Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
      • Aristotle 2000 years ago
      • John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago
    • Associative Learning
      • learning that two events occur together
        • two stimuli
        • a response and its consequences
    View slide
  • Association
    • Learning to associate two events
    Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  • Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • We learn to associate two stimuli
  • Operant Conditioning
    • We learn to associate a response and its consequence
  • Behaviorism
    • John B. Watson
      • viewed psychology as objective science
        • generally agreed-upon consensus today
      • recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes
        • not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Ivan Pavlov
      • 1849-1936
      • Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
      • Nobel Prize in 1904
      • studied digestive secretions
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning
      • organism comes to associate two stimuli
      • Begins with a reflex
      • a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
      • stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response
    • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
      • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
        • salivation when food is in the mouth
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
      • originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
    • Conditioned Response (CR)
      • learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  • Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Acquisition
      • the initial stage in classical conditioning
      • the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
      • in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
  • Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Extinction
      • diminishing of a CR
      • in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS
      • in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
  • Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Spontaneous Recovery
      • reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
    • Generalization
      • tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Discrimination
      • in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
  • Stimulus Discrimination
    • Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
  • Stimulus Generalization
    • Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization . Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.
  • Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
    • Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints .
  • Cognitive Processes
    • Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms.
    However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972).
  • Biological Predispositions
    • Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning.
    However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
  • Biological Predispositions John Garcia Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not. Courtesy of John Garcia
  • Biological Predisposition
    • The “Garcia effect”
      • Each specie has a biological predisposition or preparedness to learn associations that enhance its survival.
        • Birds and sight
        • Rats and taste
        • Humans and taste
    • Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures.
    Pavlov’s Legacy Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    • Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use.
    • Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response.
    Applications of Classical Conditioning
    • Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom.
    Applications of Classical Conditioning John B. Watson Brown Brothers
  • Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
      • type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
    • Law of Effect
      • Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  • Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Behavior
      • operates (acts) on environment
      • produces consequences
    • Respondent Behavior (Classical)
      • occurs as an automatic response to stimulus
      • behavior learned through classical conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
    • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
      • elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • developed behavioral technology
  • Operant Chamber
    • Skinner Box
      • chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer
      • contains devices to record responses
  • Shaping
    • Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations.
    A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. Khamis Ramadhan/ Panapress/ Getty Images Fred Bavendam/ Peter Arnold, Inc.
  • Types of Reinforcers
    • Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold.
    Reuters/ Corbis
  • Principles of Reinforcement
    • Primary Reinforcer
      • innately reinforcing stimulus
      • i.e., satisfies a biological need
    • Conditioned Reinforcer
      • A learned reinforcer (stimulus) that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer
      • secondary reinforcer
    • Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press.
    • Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week.
    Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require consistent study.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Continuous Reinforcement
      • reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
    • Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
      • reinforcing a response only part of the time
      • results in slower acquisition
      • greater resistance to extinction
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Ratio (FR)
      • reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
      • faster you respond the more rewards you get
      • different ratios
      • very high rate of responding
      • like piecework pay
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Ratio (VR)
      • reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
      • average ratios
      • like gambling, fishing
      • very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Interval (FI)
      • reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
      • response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
      • Mail delivery, waiting for cake to bake
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Interval (VI)
      • reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
      • produces slow steady responding
      • like pop quiz, waiting for a busy phone line to clear.
  • Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
  • Discriminative Stimulus
    • Sd Discriminative stimulus = in operant conditioning, a stimulus (cue) signaling that a response will be reinforced
      • Logos such as golden arches – turn in here and you will find food
      • Word “Sale” -
      • Others?
  • Punishment
    • Punishment
      • aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
      • powerful controller of unwanted behavior
  • Punishment
  • Punishment
    • Results in unwanted fears.
    • Conveys no information to the organism.
    • Justifies pain to others.
    • Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence.
    • Causes aggression towards the agent.
    • Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another.
    Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it usually leads to negative effects.
  • Extending Skinner’s Understanding
    • Skinner believed in inner thought processes and biological underpinnings, but many psychologists criticize him for discounting them.
  • Skinner’s Legacy
    • Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will.
    Falk/ Photo Researchers, Inc .
  • Biological Predispositions
    • Instinctive Drift - when an animal is engaged in operant conditioning, its behavior will drift in the direction of instinctive behaviors related to the task it is learning
      • Pig will return to pushing coins with its nose if not constantly reinforced for picking up the coin instead.
  • Cognition and Operant Conditioning
    • Cognitive Map
      • mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
      • Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
    • Latent Learning
      • learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  • Intrinsic Motivation
    • Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
    • Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
  • Applications of Operant Conditioning
    • Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards.
    In School LWA-JDL/ Corbis
  • Applications of Operant Conditioning
    • Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership.
    At work
  • Applications of Operant Conditioning
    • At Home
    • In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.
  • Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
  • Learning by Observation
    • Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others.
    • The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward.
    © Herb Terrace ©Herb Terrace
  • Mirror Neurons
    • Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning.
    Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Subiaul et al., Science 305: 407-410 (2004) © 2004 AAAS.
  • Observational Learning
    • Mirror Neurons
      • frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
      • may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
  • Imitation Onset
    • Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart.
    Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants. Child Development, 59 1221-1229. Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk.
  • Observational Learning
    • Observational Learning
      • learning by observing others
    • Modeling
      • process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  • Factors in Observational Learning
    • Observational learning depends on these:
      • Attention – the extent to which we focus on others’ behavior
      • Retention – our ability to retain a representation of others’ behavior in memory
      • Production Processes – our ability to act on these memory representations
      • Motivation – the usefulness to us of the information acquired
  • Observational Learning
    • Alfred Bandura’s Experiments
      • Bobo doll
      • we look and we learn
  • Observational Learning
    • Prosocial Behavior
      • positive, constructive, helpful behavior
      • opposite of antisocial behavior
  • Applications of Observational Learning
    • Unfortunately, Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have antisocial effects.
  • Modeling Violence
    • Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression.
    Children modeling after pro wrestlers Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Glassman/ The Image Works
  • Television and Observational Learning
    • Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression.
    Ron Chapple/ Taxi/ Getty Images
  • Television and Observational Learning