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Myers’ EXPLORING
PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
Chapter 7
Learning
Worth Publishers
Learning
 Learning
 relatively
permanent
change in an
organism’s
behavior due
to experience
Types of Learning
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
3. Observational Learning
Association
 We learn by association
 Our minds naturally connect events that occur
in sequence
 Aristotle 2000 years a...
Association
 Learning to
associate
two events
Event 1 Event 2
Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock
Seal learns t...
Classical or Pavlovian
Conditioning
 We learn
to
associate
two stimuli
Operant Conditioning
 We learn to
associate a
response and
its
consequence
Behaviorism
 John B. Watson
 viewed psychology as
objective science
 generally agreed-upon
consensus today
 recommende...
Classical
Conditioning
 Ivan Pavlov
 1849-1936
 Russian
physician/
neurophysiologist
 Nobel Prize in
1904
 studied di...
Classical
Conditioning
 Pavlov’s device
for recording
salivation
Classical
Conditioning
 Classical Conditioning
 organism comes to associate two
stimuli
 Begins with a reflex
 a neutr...
Classical
Conditioning
 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
 stimulus that unconditionally--automatically
and naturally--trigge...
Classical
Conditioning
 Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
 originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
association with an uncond...
Pavlov’s Classic
Experiment
Before Conditioning
During Conditioning After Conditioning
UCS (food
in mouth)
Neutral
stimulu...
Classical
Conditioning
 Acquisition
 the initial stage in classical conditioning
 the phase associating a neutral stimu...
Classical
Conditioning
UCS
(passionate
kiss) UCR
(sexual
arousal)
CS
(onion
breath)
CS
(onion
breath) CR
(sexual
arousal)
...
Classical
Conditioning
 Extinction
 diminishing of a CR
 in classical conditioning, when a
UCS does not follow a CS
 i...
Classical
Conditioning
Strength
of CR
Pause
Acquisition
(CS+UCS)
Extinction
(CS alone)
Extinction
(CS alone)
Spontaneous
r...
Classical
Conditioning
 Spontaneous Recovery
 reappearance, after a rest
period, of an extinguished CR
 Generalization
...
Classical
Conditioning
 Discrimination
 in classical conditioning, the learned
ability to distinguish between a CS
and o...
Stimulus Discrimination
Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish
between a conditioned stimulus and other stim...
Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond to
stimuli similar to the CS is
called generalization.
Pavlov conditioned the
...
Nausea Conditioning in
Cancer Patients
UCS
(drug)
UCR
(nausea)
CS
(waiting
room)
CS
(waiting
room) CR
(nausea)
UCS
(drug)
...
Classical
Conditioning
Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or
mind, unfit for the scientific study of ps...
Cognitive Processes
Early behaviorists believed that learned
behaviors of various animals could be reduced
to mindless mec...
Biological Predispositions
Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of
learning were similar for all animals.
Therefore, a pig...
Biological Predispositions
John Garcia
Garcia showed that the duration
between the CS and the US may be
long (hours), but ...
Biological Predisposition
The “Garcia effect”
Each specie has a biological predisposition or
preparedness to learn associa...
Pavlov’s greatest contribution
to psychology is isolating
elementary behaviors from
more complex ones through
objective sc...
1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid
cues (people, places) associated with
previous drug use.
2. Through classical c...
Watson used classical
conditioning procedures to
develop advertising
campaigns for a number of
organizations, including
Ma...
Operant Conditioning
 Operant Conditioning
 type of learning in which behavior is
strengthened if followed by reinforcem...
Operant Conditioning
 Operant Behavior
 operates (acts) on environment
 produces consequences
 Respondent Behavior (Cl...
Operant Conditioning
 B.F. Skinner
(1904-1990)
 elaborated
Thorndike’s Law
of Effect
 developed
behavioral
technology
Operant Chamber
 Skinner Box
 chamber with a
bar or key that an
animal
manipulates to
obtain a food or
water reinforcer
...
Shaping
Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure
in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the
desired target behav...
Types of Reinforcers
Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the
behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively
reinforces ...
Principles of
Reinforcement
 Primary Reinforcer
 innately reinforcing stimulus
 i.e., satisfies a biological need
 Con...
1. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that
occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets
a food pellet for a bar press.
2....
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Continuous Reinforcement
 reinforcing the desired response each time it
occurs
 Partial (In...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Fixed Ratio (FR)
 reinforces a response only after a
specified number of responses
 faster ...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Variable Ratio (VR)
 reinforces a response after an
unpredictable number of responses
 aver...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Fixed Interval (FI)
 reinforces a response only after a
specified time has elapsed
 respons...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Variable Interval (VI)
 reinforces a response at unpredictable
time intervals
 produces slo...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
Variable Interval
Number of
responses
1000
750
500
250
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Time (minutes)
Fi...
Discriminative Stimulus
Sd Discriminative stimulus = in operant
conditioning, a stimulus (cue) signaling
that a response w...
Punishment
 Punishment
 aversive event that decreases the
behavior that it follows
 powerful controller of unwanted
beh...
Punishment
Punishment
1. Results in unwanted fears.
2. Conveys no information to the organism.
3. Justifies pain to others.
4. Causes...
Extending Skinner’s Understanding
Skinner believed in inner thought processes
and biological underpinnings, but many
psych...
Skinner’s Legacy
Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by
external influences instead of inner thoughts and
feelings. ...
Biological Predispositions
Instinctive Drift - when an animal is
engaged in operant conditioning, its
behavior will drift ...
Cognition and
Operant Conditioning
 Cognitive Map
 mental representation of the layout of one’s
environment
 Example: a...
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation:
The desire to perform a
behavior for its own
sake.
Extrinsic Motivation:
The de...
Applications of Operant Conditioning
Skinner introduced the concept of teaching
machines that shape learning in small step...
Applications of Operant Conditioning
Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies
now allow employees to share profits ...
Applications of Operant Conditioning
At Home
In children, reinforcing good behavior increases
the occurrence of these beha...
Operant vs. Classical
Conditioning
Learning by Observation
Higher animals,
especially humans,
learn through observing
and imitating others.
The monkey on the...
Mirror Neurons
Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in
the brains of animals and humans that are
active during observ...
Observational
Learning
 Mirror Neurons
 frontal lobe neurons that fire when
performing certain actions or when
observing...
Imitation Onset
Learning by observation
begins early in life. This
14-month-old child
imitates the adult on TV
in pulling ...
Observational
Learning
 Observational Learning
 learning by observing others
 Modeling
 process of observing and imita...
Factors in Observational
Learning
Observational learning depends on these:
Attention – the extent to which we focus on
oth...
Observational
Learning
 Alfred Bandura’s
Experiments
 Bobo doll
 we look and we
learn
Observational
Learning
 Prosocial Behavior
positive, constructive, helpful
behavior
opposite of antisocial behavior
Applications of Observational Learning
Unfortunately,
Bandura’s studies
show that antisocial
models (family,
neighborhood ...
Modeling Violence
Research shows that viewing media violence
leads to an increased expression of aggression.
Children mode...
Television and Observational Learning
Gentile et al., (2004)
shows that children in
elementary school who
are exposed to v...
Television and
Observational Learning
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  • Preview Question 4: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning?
  • Preview Question 5: Why is Pavlov’s work important?
  • Preview Question 7: What are the basic types of reinforcers?
  • Preview Question 11: How might educators, business managers, and other individuals apply operant conditioning?
  • Preview Question 12: What is observational learning?
  • Transcript of "Learning Chapter 7 Powerpoint"

    1. 1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 7 Learning Worth Publishers
    2. 2. Learning  Learning  relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
    3. 3. Types of Learning 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Observational Learning
    4. 4. Association  We learn by association  Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence  Aristotle 2000 years ago  John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago  Associative Learning  learning that two events occur together  two stimuli  a response and its consequences
    5. 5. Association  Learning to associate two events Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
    6. 6. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning  We learn to associate two stimuli
    7. 7. Operant Conditioning  We learn to associate a response and its consequence
    8. 8. Behaviorism  John B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
    9. 9. Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  1849-1936  Russian physician/ neurophysiologist  Nobel Prize in 1904  studied digestive secretions
    10. 10. Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
    11. 11. Classical Conditioning  Classical Conditioning  organism comes to associate two stimuli  Begins with a reflex  a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
    12. 12. Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response  Unconditioned Response (UCR)  unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus  salivation when food is in the mouth
    13. 13. Classical Conditioning  Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response  Conditioned Response (CR)  learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
    14. 14. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
    15. 15. Classical Conditioning  Acquisition  the initial stage in classical conditioning  the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response  in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
    16. 16. Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
    17. 17. Classical Conditioning  Extinction  diminishing of a CR  in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS  in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
    18. 18. Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR
    19. 19. Classical Conditioning  Spontaneous Recovery  reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR  Generalization  tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses
    20. 20. Classical Conditioning  Discrimination  in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS
    21. 21. Stimulus Discrimination Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
    22. 22. Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.
    23. 23. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
    24. 24. Classical Conditioning
    25. 25. Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness, or mind, unfit for the scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance of cognitive processes and biological constraints.
    26. 26. Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla & Wagner, 1972).
    27. 27. Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning. However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
    28. 28. Biological Predispositions John Garcia Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning but other stimuli (sight or sound) did not. CourtesyofJohnGarcia
    29. 29. Biological Predisposition The “Garcia effect” Each specie has a biological predisposition or preparedness to learn associations that enhance its survival. Birds and sight Rats and taste Humans and taste
    30. 30. Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Pavlov’s Legacy Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
    31. 31. 1. Former crack cocaine users should avoid cues (people, places) associated with previous drug use. 2. Through classical conditioning, a drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response may cause the taste of the drug to invoke the immune response. Applications of Classical Conditioning
    32. 32. Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations, including Maxwell House, making the “coffee break” an American custom. Applications of Classical Conditioning John B. Watson BrownBrothers
    33. 33. Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment  Law of Effect  Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
    34. 34. Operant Conditioning  Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on environment  produces consequences  Respondent Behavior (Classical)  occurs as an automatic response to stimulus  behavior learned through classical conditioning
    35. 35. Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect  developed behavioral technology
    36. 36. Operant Chamber  Skinner Box  chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer  contains devices to record responses
    37. 37. Shaping Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations. A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate objects of different shapes, colors and sizes. KhamisRamadhan/Panapress/GettyImages FredBavendam/PeterArnold,Inc.
    38. 38. Types of Reinforcers Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in the cold. Reuters/Corbis
    39. 39. Principles of Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcer  innately reinforcing stimulus  i.e., satisfies a biological need  Conditioned Reinforcer  A learned reinforcer (stimulus) that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer  secondary reinforcer
    40. 40. 1. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press. 2. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week. Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require consistent study.
    41. 41. Schedules of Reinforcement  Continuous Reinforcement  reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs  Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement  reinforcing a response only part of the time  results in slower acquisition  greater resistance to extinction
    42. 42. Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Ratio (FR)  reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses  faster you respond the more rewards you get  different ratios  very high rate of responding  like piecework pay
    43. 43. Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Ratio (VR)  reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  average ratios  like gambling, fishing  very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
    44. 44. Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Interval (FI)  reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near  Mail delivery, waiting for cake to bake
    45. 45. Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Interval (VI)  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  produces slow steady responding  like pop quiz, waiting for a busy phone line to clear.
    46. 46. Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
    47. 47. Discriminative Stimulus Sd Discriminative stimulus = in operant conditioning, a stimulus (cue) signaling that a response will be reinforced Logos such as golden arches – turn in here and you will find food Word “Sale” - Others?
    48. 48. Punishment  Punishment  aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows  powerful controller of unwanted behavior
    49. 49. Punishment
    50. 50. Punishment 1. Results in unwanted fears. 2. Conveys no information to the organism. 3. Justifies pain to others. 4. Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its absence. 5. Causes aggression towards the agent. 6. Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in place of another. Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it usually leads to negative effects.
    51. 51. Extending Skinner’s Understanding Skinner believed in inner thought processes and biological underpinnings, but many psychologists criticize him for discounting them.
    52. 52. Skinner’s Legacy Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will. Falk/PhotoResearchers,Inc.
    53. 53. Biological Predispositions Instinctive Drift - when an animal is engaged in operant conditioning, its behavior will drift in the direction of instinctive behaviors related to the task it is learning Pig will return to pushing coins with its nose if not constantly reinforced for picking up the coin instead.
    54. 54. Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Cognitive Map  mental representation of the layout of one’s environment  Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it  Latent Learning  learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
    55. 55. Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake. Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
    56. 56. Applications of Operant Conditioning Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards. In School LWA-JDL/Corbis
    57. 57. Applications of Operant Conditioning Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now allow employees to share profits and participate in company ownership. At work
    58. 58. Applications of Operant Conditioning At Home In children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.
    59. 59. Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
    60. 60. Learning by Observation Higher animals, especially humans, learn through observing and imitating others. The monkey on the right imitates the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward. ©HerbTerrace ©HerbTerrace
    61. 61. Mirror Neurons Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning. ReprintedwithpermissionfromtheAmerican AssociationfortheAdvancementofScience, Subiauletal.,Science305:407-410(2004) ©2004AAAS.
    62. 62. Observational Learning  Mirror Neurons  frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so  may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
    63. 63. Imitation Onset Learning by observation begins early in life. This 14-month-old child imitates the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart. Meltzoff,A.N.(1998).Imitationoftelevisedmodelsbyinfants. ChildDevelopment,591221-1229.PhotosCourtesyofA.N.MeltzoffandM.Hanuk.
    64. 64. Observational Learning  Observational Learning  learning by observing others  Modeling  process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
    65. 65. Factors in Observational Learning Observational learning depends on these: Attention – the extent to which we focus on others’ behavior Retention – our ability to retain a representation of others’ behavior in memory Production Processes – our ability to act on these memory representations Motivation – the usefulness to us of the information acquired
    66. 66. Observational Learning  Alfred Bandura’s Experiments  Bobo doll  we look and we learn
    67. 67. Observational Learning  Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior
    68. 68. Applications of Observational Learning Unfortunately, Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have antisocial effects.
    69. 69. Modeling Violence Research shows that viewing media violence leads to an increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers BobDaemmrich/TheImageWorks Glassman/TheImageWorks
    70. 70. Television and Observational Learning Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression. RonChapple/Taxi/GettyImages
    71. 71. Television and Observational Learning
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