Intro to Neuroanatomy

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  • Spaces continuous w/ venous system
  • Intro to Neuroanatomy

    1. 1. Basic Neuroanatomy Maryann Martone, Ph. D. 1/7/10
    2. 2. Organization of the Nervous System •CNS (neural plate) •Brain •Spinal cord •PNS (neural crest) •Somatic •Autonomic •Sympathetic •Parasympathetic •Enteric •Gut motility and secretion “Gross anatomical convenience”-Swanson
    3. 3. Directions Medial LateralLateral
    4. 4. Planes of Section Coronal (frontal) Horizontal Sagittal
    5. 5. Fig 2.8: Squire et al, Fundamental neuroscience, 2nd ed
    6. 6. Development of the Nervous System
    7. 7. Divisions of the Brain Embryonic vesicles form the fundamental regional brain divisions in the adult
    8. 8. Alar vs Basal Plates
    9. 9. Sylvian Fissure Gyri and sulci
    10. 10. Dividing up the brain Gross anatomy: •White matter vs gray matter •Cortex vs Subcortical nuclei •Nuclei vs Ganglia
    11. 11. Nissl vs Myelin Stain
    12. 12. Corpus Callosum Callosum (L): hard, tough Commissure vs decussation
    13. 13. More white matter terms • White matter: • Tract: common origin and destination • Fasciculus, funiculus, peduncle or brachium: distinct collection of nerve fibers (may contain many tracts) • Lemiscus: Ascending fibers in the brainstem
    14. 14. Brain is divided into “regional parts” based on: Gross appearance: e.g., gray matter vs white matter Landmarks, e.g., sulci Histology Cytoarchitecture Chemoarchitecture Projection patterns Functional considerations Don’t all agree with one another!
    15. 15. Motor Somatosensory FF PP TT OO Vision Audition General Functions Associated with each Lobe Structure-function relationships
    16. 16. Features sometimes form useful landmarks to delineate different functional areas
    17. 17. The Ventricles
    18. 18. Cerebral ventricles •Lateral ventricles •Interventricular foramen •Third ventricle •Cerebral aqueduct •Fourth ventricle
    19. 19. Ventricular system in mid- sagittal section
    20. 20. Useful guides for identification
    21. 21. Cerebrospinal Fluid Ventricles are not mere landmarks however
    22. 22. CSF •125 ml in adult human •500 ml/24 hr period •Produced by choroid plexus, principally in the lateral ventricles •Forms “water cushion” for brain •Bathes neural tissue, extending into perivascular spaces
    23. 23. Hydrocephalus
    24. 24. Flow of CSF
    25. 25. Meninges Leptomeninges = Arachnoid + pia mater Pachymeninges=dura mater http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.html – Greek and Latin roots of neuroscience (especially neuroanatomy) words
    26. 26. Sinuses
    27. 27. Cerebral Blood Supply

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