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Intro to Neuroanatomy
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Intro to Neuroanatomy

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  • Spaces continuous w/ venous system

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  • 1. Basic Neuroanatomy Maryann Martone, Ph. D. 1/7/10
  • 2. Organization of the Nervous System •CNS (neural plate) •Brain •Spinal cord •PNS (neural crest) •Somatic •Autonomic •Sympathetic •Parasympathetic •Enteric •Gut motility and secretion “Gross anatomical convenience”-Swanson
  • 3. Directions Medial LateralLateral
  • 4. Planes of Section Coronal (frontal) Horizontal Sagittal
  • 5. Fig 2.8: Squire et al, Fundamental neuroscience, 2nd ed
  • 6. Development of the Nervous System
  • 7. Divisions of the Brain Embryonic vesicles form the fundamental regional brain divisions in the adult
  • 8. Alar vs Basal Plates
  • 9. Sylvian Fissure Gyri and sulci
  • 10. Dividing up the brain Gross anatomy: •White matter vs gray matter •Cortex vs Subcortical nuclei •Nuclei vs Ganglia
  • 11. Nissl vs Myelin Stain
  • 12. Corpus Callosum Callosum (L): hard, tough Commissure vs decussation
  • 13. More white matter terms • White matter: • Tract: common origin and destination • Fasciculus, funiculus, peduncle or brachium: distinct collection of nerve fibers (may contain many tracts) • Lemiscus: Ascending fibers in the brainstem
  • 14. Brain is divided into “regional parts” based on: Gross appearance: e.g., gray matter vs white matter Landmarks, e.g., sulci Histology Cytoarchitecture Chemoarchitecture Projection patterns Functional considerations Don’t all agree with one another!
  • 15. Motor Somatosensory FF PP TT OO Vision Audition General Functions Associated with each Lobe Structure-function relationships
  • 16. Features sometimes form useful landmarks to delineate different functional areas
  • 17. The Ventricles
  • 18. Cerebral ventricles •Lateral ventricles •Interventricular foramen •Third ventricle •Cerebral aqueduct •Fourth ventricle
  • 19. Ventricular system in mid- sagittal section
  • 20. Useful guides for identification
  • 21. Cerebrospinal Fluid Ventricles are not mere landmarks however
  • 22. CSF •125 ml in adult human •500 ml/24 hr period •Produced by choroid plexus, principally in the lateral ventricles •Forms “water cushion” for brain •Bathes neural tissue, extending into perivascular spaces
  • 23. Hydrocephalus
  • 24. Flow of CSF
  • 25. Meninges Leptomeninges = Arachnoid + pia mater Pachymeninges=dura mater http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.html – Greek and Latin roots of neuroscience (especially neuroanatomy) words
  • 26. Sinuses
  • 27. Cerebral Blood Supply