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Intro to Neuroanatomy

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Intro to Neuroanatomy Intro to Neuroanatomy Presentation Transcript

  • Basic Neuroanatomy Maryann Martone, Ph. D. 1/7/10
  •  
  • Organization of the Nervous System
    • CNS (neural plate)
      • Brain
      • Spinal cord
    • PNS (neural crest)
      • Somatic
      • Autonomic
        • Sympathetic
        • Parasympathetic
        • Enteric
          • Gut motility and secretion
    “ Gross anatomical convenience”-Swanson
  • Directions Medial Lateral Lateral
  • Planes of Section Coronal (frontal) Horizontal Sagittal
  • Fig 2.8: Squire et al, Fundamental neuroscience, 2 nd ed
  • Development of the Nervous System
  • Divisions of the Brain Embryonic vesicles form the fundamental regional brain divisions in the adult
  • Alar vs Basal Plates
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  • Gyri and sulci Sylvian Fissure
  • Dividing up the brain
    • Gross anatomy:
    • White matter vs gray matter
    • Cortex vs Subcortical nuclei
    • Nuclei vs Ganglia
  • Nissl vs Myelin Stain
  • Callosum (L): hard, tough Commissure vs decussation Corpus Callosum
  • More white matter terms
    • White matter:
      • Tract: common origin and destination
      • Fasciculus, funiculus, peduncle or brachium: distinct collection of nerve fibers (may contain many tracts)
      • Lemiscus: Ascending fibers in the brainstem
  • Brain is divided into “regional parts” based on: Gross appearance: e.g., gray matter vs white matter Landmarks, e.g., sulci Histology Cytoarchitecture Chemoarchitecture Projection patterns Functional considerations Don’t all agree with one another!
  • Motor Somatosensory F P T O Vision Audition General Functions Associated with each Lobe Structure-function relationships
  • Features sometimes form useful landmarks to delineate different functional areas
  • The Ventricles
  • Cerebral ventricles
    • Lateral ventricles
    • Interventricular foramen
    • Third ventricle
    • Cerebral aqueduct
    • Fourth ventricle
  • Ventricular system in mid-sagittal section
  • Useful guides for identification
  •  
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Ventricles are not mere landmarks however
  • CSF
    • 125 ml in adult human
    • 500 ml/24 hr period
    • Produced by choroid plexus, principally in the lateral ventricles
    • Forms “water cushion” for brain
    • Bathes neural tissue, extending into perivascular spaces
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Flow of CSF
  • Meninges Leptomeninges = Arachnoid + pia mater Pachymeninges=dura mater
    • http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neuroroot.html
      • Greek and Latin roots of neuroscience (especially neuroanatomy) words
  • Sinuses
  • Cerebral Blood Supply