Introduction
NEU257
Mammalian Neuroanatomy
•Introductions
•Structure of the course
• Course website
• Course structure
• Textbook
• Examinations
•Goals of course
• T...
Basic Mammalian Neuroanatomy
Orientation
Maryann Martone, Ph. D.
1/6/09
Organization of the Nervous System
•CNS
•Brain
•Spinal cord
•PNS
•Somatic
•Autonomic
•Sympathetic
•Parasympathetic
•Enteri...
Directions
Medial
LateralLateral
Direction Terms in Neuroanatomy
Rostral-Caudal: “Towards the beak and towards the tail”
Anterior-Posterior: “Towards the f...
Planes of Section
Coronal = frontal in
human
Gray Matter Vs White Matter
Terms:
•Cortex vs Subcortical
nuclei
•Nuclei vs Ganglia
Nissl vs Myelin Stain
Development of the Nervous System
Divisions of the Brain
The Ventricles
http://brainmuseu
m.org
Gyrus, Sulcus, Fissure
•Hemisphere: one of
two regions of the brain
defined by the medial
plane (sometimes)
•Ipsilateral (...
Sylvian Fissure
Corpus Callosum
Callosum (L): hard, tough
Commissure vs decussation
More Gross Anatomy Terms
Subdivisions of white matter:
Fasciculus: L: bundle
•bundle of nerve fibers (Wordnet)
Funiculus: ...
Brain names
•Brain nomenclature has evolved over 100’s if not 1000’s of years
•It reflects a confusing set of conventions,...
Intro to Course
Intro to Course
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Intro to Course

  1. 1. Introduction NEU257 Mammalian Neuroanatomy
  2. 2. •Introductions •Structure of the course • Course website • Course structure • Textbook • Examinations •Goals of course • Two faces of neuroanatomy (space vs stuff in the space) •Anatomy as organizational framework •Anatomy as experimental discipline
  3. 3. Basic Mammalian Neuroanatomy Orientation Maryann Martone, Ph. D. 1/6/09
  4. 4. Organization of the Nervous System •CNS •Brain •Spinal cord •PNS •Somatic •Autonomic •Sympathetic •Parasympathetic •Enteric •Gut motility and secretion
  5. 5. Directions Medial LateralLateral
  6. 6. Direction Terms in Neuroanatomy Rostral-Caudal: “Towards the beak and towards the tail” Anterior-Posterior: “Towards the front and towards the back” Dorsal-Ventral: “Towards the back or upper surface and towards the front or lower surface” Superior-Inferior: “Towards the top and towards the bottom” Medial-Lateral: “Towards the midline and away from the midline” Proximal-Distal: “Towards the point of origin and away from the point of origin” Afferent-Efferent: “Towards a center vs away from a center
  7. 7. Planes of Section Coronal = frontal in human
  8. 8. Gray Matter Vs White Matter Terms: •Cortex vs Subcortical nuclei •Nuclei vs Ganglia
  9. 9. Nissl vs Myelin Stain
  10. 10. Development of the Nervous System
  11. 11. Divisions of the Brain
  12. 12. The Ventricles
  13. 13. http://brainmuseu m.org
  14. 14. Gyrus, Sulcus, Fissure •Hemisphere: one of two regions of the brain defined by the medial plane (sometimes) •Ipsilateral (same side) •Contralateral (opposite side) Brainstem: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain Cerebrum: Brain, left and right hemispheres + white matter; cerebral cortex Cerebellum
  15. 15. Sylvian Fissure
  16. 16. Corpus Callosum Callosum (L): hard, tough Commissure vs decussation
  17. 17. More Gross Anatomy Terms Subdivisions of white matter: Fasciculus: L: bundle •bundle of nerve fibers (Wordnet) Funiculus: L: cord •bundle of nerve fibers Lemniscus: L: ribbon •ribbon-shaped bundle of nerve fibers Peduncle: L: stalk •bundle of nerve fibers Tract: group of axons
  18. 18. Brain names •Brain nomenclature has evolved over 100’s if not 1000’s of years •It reflects a confusing set of conventions, some useful and some not, and often erroneously or narrowly applied, including: •Quasi-evolutionary terms: neo-, paleo-, archi- •Developmental: Telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon •Functional: Motor cortex, sensory cortex, occulomotor nerve •Directional: Dorsal funiculus, Dorsal-medial nucleus •Descriptive (usually in Latin or Greek): amygdala, hippocampus, substantia nigra, substantia innominata, vagus nerve •Proper names: Edinger-Westphal nucleus (Ludwig Edinger and Friedrich Otto Westphal); •Many structures have multiple names and many anatomical concepts are poorly specified, inconsistently used or partially overlapping •Brain nomenclature continues to befuddle neuroscientists and non- neuroscientists alike and has been a major impediment to neuroinformatics efforts •“Space and stuff in the space”

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