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  • 1. Introduction to Cognitive Neuropsychology & C81BIO – Semester 2, Lecture 8 Dr. Mark Haselgrove
  • 2. Overview of the lecture (1) Introduction to Cognitive Neuropsychology What is it? History: (i) Phrenology & Localization (ii) Recovery of function following damage (3) Cognitive Neuropsychology of Language Broca’s Area and Aphasia Wernicke’s area and aphasia (2) Mapping the brain Brodmann’s map
  • 3. (1) Introduction: What is Cognitive Neuropsychology? - The study of the relationship between brain function and behaviour. - Especially as determined through evidence from damaged brains, but can include other methods (e.g. imaging). • Missile wounds (bullets) • Tumours (cancer) • Impact (road accidents) • Surgery (intractable epilepsy) • Disease (encephalitis, hydrocephalus, HIV) • Strokes (blocks, bleeds)
  • 4. (1) Introduction: What is Cognitive Neuropsychology? - The study of the relationship between brain function and behaviour. - Especially as determined through evidence from damaged brains, but can include other methods (e.g. imaging). • Missile wounds (bullets) • Tumours (cancer) • Impact (road accidents) • Surgery (intractable epilepsy) • Disease (encephalitis, hydrocephalus, HIV) • Strokes (blocks, bleeds)
  • 5. (1) Introduction: What is Cognitive Neuropsychology? - The study of the relationship between brain function and behaviour. - Especially as determined through evidence from damaged brains, but can include other methods (e.g. imaging). - Aims to assign particular psychological functions to particular brain structures (if we accept modularity of brain function). • Missile wounds (bullets) • Tumours (cancer) • Impact (road accidents) • Surgery (intractable epilepsy) • Disease (encephalitis, hydrocephalus, HIV) • Strokes (blocks, bleeds)
  • 6. • Assumption: brain function is “localised” or “modular”, with different structures performing different roles. • Many functions rely on distributed brain systems. – Language, memory etc. use much of the brain. – Brain regions are specialized to perform particular roles, but these may not map neatly onto our ideas of “brain functions”. (1) Introduction: What is Cognitive Neuropsychology? CAUTION!
  • 7. (1) Introduction: History - Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828). - Johan Spurzheim (1776-1832) As a youth, Gall was annoyed by students with a good memory but poor original thinking… Recalled these students had large protruding eyes Developed a theory of brain function: Localisation of function: Different parts of the brain responsible or variations in individual differences
  • 8. (1) Introduction: History Phrenology People who had skills in maths, music, sense of colour combativeness, - bumps in other areas Depressions in skull indicate underdevelopment Amativeness (sex drive) behind lower part of ears Variety of people with different extreme traits examined: Murderers (N=25) Sadists Torturers Considered evidence from paintings and busts
  • 9. (1) Introduction: History Used as a method of personality assessment: Cranioscopy - The fall and ……collapse of Phrenology - Invited quackery, and ridicule by association - Most assessments entirely subjective - Outside of the skull does not mirror even the inside of the skull, let alone the underlying brain Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) “The famous physiologist, Magendie, preserved the brain of Laplace. Spurzheim had the very natural wish to see the brain of the great man. To test the science of the phrenologist, Mr Magendie showed him, instead of the brain of Laplace, that of an imbecile. Spurzheim, who had already worked-up his enthusiasm, admired the brain of the imbecile as he would have admired that of Laplace”
  • 10. (1) Introduction: History Flourens also conducted experiments… Lesioned parts of the cortex of different animals: Observed how it behaved At first: → Moved very little, refused to eat and drink Later: → Recovery of function. To the point of appearing normal. Pattern of loss and recovery seemed inconsistent with the assumption of localisation However: Lesions to: Parts of the brain stem → permanent breathing difficulties Cerebellum → loss of locomotor co-ordination (not sex drive!)
  • 11. ) Mapping the brain - Brodmann’s Areas (BAs, 1909) - Appearance of cortex under microscope (cytoarchitectonics) - Should BAs map neatly onto psychological functions? - Partly, because cytoarchitectonic structure is influenced by connections.
  • 12. ) Mapping the brain - Brodmann’s Areas (BAs, 1909) - Appearance of cortex under microscope (cytoarchitectonics) - Should BAs map neatly onto psychological functions? - Partly, because cytoarchitectonic structure is influenced by connections.
  • 13. 3) Cognitive Neuropsychology of Language Launched the field of Neuropsychology Jean Baptiste Bouilaud (1796-1881) Proposed that certain functions were localised Physicians noted that damage to left hemisphere → impaired movement on right Writing also disrupted…Language on the left? Paul Broca (1824-1880) Received a patient Monsieur “Tan” Leborgne Could only say “Tan” and utter an oath Bouilaud’s son in law, Ernest Auburtin, reported a case of a patient who lost the ability to speak when pressure was applied to the exposed frontal lobes
  • 14. 3) Cognitive Neuropsychology of Language Tan died in 1861 Autopsy revealed a lesion to the left frontal lobe: Thus demonstrating: Lateralization Localization Anterior speech region = Broca’s area Syndrome that results = Broca’s Aphasia from damage to this area
  • 15. 3) Cognitive Neuropsychology of Language Carl Wernicke (1848-1904) Investigated region of the cortex that receives information from the ear. Behind Broca’s area Wenicke’s patients: - Spoke fluently, but with no sense - Could hear, but could not understand what was said to them This region of temporal lobe = Wernicke’s’s area Syndrome that results = Wernicke’s Aphasia from damage to this area
  • 16. 3) Cognitive Neuropsychology of Language Model of Language processing Auditory information sent to: (1) Wernicke’s area (Sounds → sound images) (2) Sound images transmitted along Arcuate fasciculus to: (3) Broca’s area (representation of speech movements) From here instructions sent to control mouth muscles….. Conduction aphasia: Consequent upon Arcuate fibres being damaged: Comprehension maintained…and speech sounds Speech impaired (difficulty repeating what is said to them)
  • 17. Reading Kolb, B., & Wishaw, I. Q. (2003). Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, Worth Publishers. Ch’s 1, 3 & 17. Next Week: The Neuropsychology of Memory Email: Mark.Haselgrove@nottingham.ac.uk

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