Emotion Lecture 5 Neuropsychology of emotionsPresentation Transcript
Emotion Lecture 5 Neuropsychology of emotions
Effects on emotions following acquired brain damage in people who were normal, that is, without emotional disorders prior to the injury.
Relevant reading in: A.R. Damasio (1994). Descartes’ error. In Heavy Demand. J. LeDoux (1998). The Emotional Brain. In Heavy Demand. J. Borod (2000). The neuropsychology of emotion. In Heavy Demand. R. Lane & L. Nadel (2002). Cognitive neuroscience of Emotion. In Heavy Demand
What is meant with “emotion”
The process of emotion
How does brain injury affect this process and which brain region may be involved?
Working definition: ( Scherer, 2000)
“ Emotions are episodes of coordinated changes in several components (including physiological activation, motor expression and subjective feeling/experience) in response to external or internal events of major significance to the organism” (p. 138).
The process of emotion:
identification, evaluation, appraisal of emotional stimuli
recognition of emotional stimuli
evaluation of emotional significance
production of affective state
emotional experience and behaviour
regulation of affective state
inhibition or modulation to adjust to current context
Identification, evaluation, appraisal of emotional stimuli
Important to the organism:
important for one’s career, self-esteem, survival, well-being of a loved one, etc .
Emotions are relevance detectors
Evaluation, appraisal in some form is required
Emotion and motivation are closely related
Production of affective state
Emotions/affective state consist of (at least 3 elements):
physiological changes (e.g. heart beat, sweating)
motor actions (e.g. facial expressions, hitting, running)
subjective experience, which is distinct from other mental states
often refereed to as “feeling”
Psychological research mainly concerned with:
Emotion elicitation and differentiation:
what events and evaluations lead to an emotion?
number of possible emotions?
Patterning of the components of emotions
unique patterns of components?
relationship between components?
Effect of emotion on other psychological functions (Scherer, 2000)
Contribution of neuropsychology
Can help in resolving questions from the areas mentioned, e.g.
Limited number of basic emotions?
Contribution of emotion to decision-making
Identify the brain areas involved in different emotions or components of emotion.
assumption is that emotions are caused by processes in the brain: changes in the brain can result in changes in emotion (Scherer, 2000)
Recognition of emotional stimuli
Recognition of emotional expressions.
Emotions expressed in:
Assessment of emotion recognition deficits
Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (PONS)
face, voice and body movement (neck to knee)
220 2-sec film segments, positive-dominant, positive-submissive, negative-dominant, negative-submissive
RHD patients (7) more impaired than LHD patients (4)
Perception of Emotions Test (POET)
face, voice and verbal (emotional scripts)
128 6-sec. video/audio segments, anger, happy, sad, neutral
PET; more RH activation
Victoria Emotion Perception Test
face and voice
72 items, anger, sadness, happy, fear
Florida Affect Battery
face and voice
10 subtests, 20 items/subtest, happy, sad, anger, fear and neutral
RHD patients (10) more impaired than LHD patients (10)
Right vs. left hemisphere
expression recognition more frequently impaired following RH damage
range of tests and stimuli (posed, spontaneous)
studies in healthy adults also indicate greater role RH than LH in recognition expressions in face and voice, regardless of valence
Right vs. left hemisphere
RH dominant for emotion processing, regardless of valence
Valence hypothesis :
A. RH dominant negative emotions, LH dominant positive emotions
B. RH dominant perception all emotions, experience and expression RH and LH dominance depends on valance.
Site within the hemispheres Frontal, temporal, parietal
matching faces on expression (Kolb & Taylor, 2000):
RH frontal, temporal, parietal group and LH frontal groups impaired on fear and disgust
no impairments for happy, sad, angry, surprise
matching faces to emotional cartoon
RH and LH frontal and temporal patients impaired on all emotions
patients with ventral frontal lesions (Hornak et al., 1996):
impaired in recognising expressions in voice and face, compared to patients with lesions in other areas (e.g. temporal, parietal)
Recognition of expressions
Patients with amygdala lesions:
Selective impairment for fear
incorrect label or low rating of intensity
Expressions in the face, voice or body postures (Scott et al., 1997; Sprengelmeyer et al., 1999)
problem of task difficulty
Presentation of expressions of fear: increase in rCBF in (L) amygdala
Increase amygdala activation even when subjects were not aware of CS or fearful face
Selective impairments in recognition disgust
symptomatic Huntington’s disease (Sprengelmeyer et al., 1996)
Huntington’s gene carriers (Gray et al., 1997)
not confirmed by later studies (Milders et al., 2003)
patient with lesions in the left insula and the basal ganglia (putamen, globus pallidus and part of the caudate nucleus), caused by an infarction: selective impairment at recognising facial as well as vocal expressions of disgust (Calder et al, 2000).
Further reading in:
Adolphs R, Tranel D, Hamann S, Young AW, Calder AJ, Phelps EA, Anderson A, Lee GP, Damasio AR. Recognition of facial emotion in nine individuals with bilateral amygdala damage. Neuropsychologia 1999; 37: 1111-7.
Borod, J., Bloom, R., Brickman, A., Nakhutina, L., Curko, E. (2002). Emotional processing deficits in individuals with unilateral brain damage. Applied Neuropsychology, 9, 23-36. In Heavy Demand (ask at issue desk).
Calder AJ, Keane J, Manes F, Antoun N, Young AW. Impaired recognition and experience of disgust following brain injury. Nature Neuroscience 2002; 3: 1077-78
Milders, M., Crawford, J.R., Lamb, A. Simpson, S.A. (2003). Differential deficits in expression recognition in gene-carriers and patients with Huntington’s disease. Neuropsychologia, 41, 1484-1492.
Morris JS, Frith CD, Perrett DI, Rowlands D, Young AW, Calder AJ, Dolan RJ. A differential neural response in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions, Nature 1996; 383: 812-15
Phillips, M., Drevets, W., Rauch, S. & Lane,R. (2003). Neurobiology of emotion perception I: The neural basis of normal emotion perception. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 504-514.
Sprengelmeyer R, Young AW, Calder AJ, Karnat A, Lange H, Homberg V, Perrett DI, Rowland D. Loss of disgust. Perception of faces and emotions in Huntington's disease. Brain 1996; 119: 1647-65.
Sprengelmeyer R, Young AW, Schroeder U, Grossenbacher PG, Federlein J, Buttner T, Przuntek H. Knowing no fear. Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 1999; B266: 2451-56.
Whalen PJ, Rauch SL, Etcoff NL, McInerney SC, Lee MB, Jenike MA. Masked presentation of emotional facial expressions modulate amydala activity without explicit knowledge. Journal of Neuroscience 1998; 18: 411-18.