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courses.csusm.edu/psyc362cr/Neuroanatomy -- Ch 2.1.ppt

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  • Figure 4.10 from
    Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Figure 4.10 from
    Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Figure 2.2 from:
    Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Source: Damasio, et al., 1994
  • Figure 2.10 from:
    Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Cognitive Neuroscience Chapter 2
    • 2. To Do List…  Neuroanatomy (just the basics)  Methods of Investigation  Behavioral studies  Neuroimaging  Hemispheric Specialization  What is lateralized?  Split-brain patients  “Normals”
    • 3. FRONTFRONT TOPTOP BOTTOMBOTTOM BACKBACK
    • 4. Important Brain Structures  Brainstem (basic functions)  Medulla  Automatic functions  Heart rate, respiration  Pons  Sleeping, dreaming  Reticular Activating System (RAS)  Arousal  Extends into the center of the brain  Cerebellum  Movement, balance  Analyzing sensory info and language comprehension
    • 5. Important Brain Structures  Thalamus  Traffic officer  Sensory relay station, attentional gate  Hypothalamus  Eating, drinking, sex, temperature control  Coordinates brain and hormonal systems
    • 6. Brain Anatomy
    • 7. Important Brain Structures  Limbic System  Hippocampus  Encoding long term memories  Gateway to memory  Amygdala  Emotions (fear and anger)  initial response to sensory information  Enhances memory
    • 8. Important Brain Structures  Cortex  Frontal Lobe  Motor Cortex *  Planning, goal setting, emotional control  Temporal Lobe  Auditory Cortex (hearing)  Language, Music  Parietal Lobe  Somatosensory Cortex (touch) *  Occipital Lobe  Visual Cortex
    • 9. Methods of Investigation  Lesions  Animals  Patients  Stroke  Tumors  Head injury
    • 10. Stroke
    • 11. Tumor
    • 12. Head Injury
    • 13. Phineas Gage  Phineas was a railroad construction foreman (1848)  An explosion forced a steel rod through his head  He was “…no longer Gage…”  Lost his job, worked as a sideshow exhibit
    • 14. Dissociation  Dissociation occurs when a patient has brain damage leading to some cognitive deficit, but other cognitive abilities are preserved  E.g., H.M. has no ability to store LTM, but his STM is completely normal  LTM and STM must be different systems
    • 15. Methods of Investigation  Direct Stimulation  Animals  Patients
    • 16. Imaging Brain Function  Electrophysiology  Electroencephalograms (EEGs)– passive recording from multiple electrodes  Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)– measures response to a specific stimulus
    • 17. Measuring ERPs in an infant
    • 18. EEG
    • 19. Imaging Brain Function  CT  Computerized Tomography  X-ray  MRI  Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • 20. CT scan demonstrating enlargement of the ventricles in a patient with schizophrenia
    • 21. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  Method for studying body and brain tissue  Magnetic fields align hydrogen atoms  When field is removed, molecules release energy as radio waves  Computer calculates tissue density from radio waves  Provides clear, 3D images
    • 22. MRI scanning magnet
    • 23. Imaging Brain Function  PET  Positron Emission Tomography  fMRI  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • 24. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  Analysis of brain activity, using injections of glucose with a radioactive tracer  Active areas use more glucose and sensors detect radioactivity  Different tasks show distinct patterns (bright spots)
    • 25. PET scanning
    • 26. PET image -red areas are most active
    • 27. fMRI (oxygenated blood flows to active areas)
    • 28. The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a band of fibers called the corpus callosum
    • 29. Hemispheric Specialization  Different brain functions tend* to rely more heavily on one hemisphere or the other  THERE ARE NO LEFT-BRAINED OR RIGHT- BRAINED PEOPLE  Over exaggeration and simplification  Any intelligent behavior requires both hemispheres to work together
    • 30. Hemispheric Specialization  Left  Right side of body  Linguistics  Fine motor control  Fine details  Right  Left side of body  Music  Emotion  Spatial Processing  Big Picture
    • 31. Split-Brain Patients  Severed corpus callosum to stop epileptic seizures  No obvious problems at first  Laboratory testing revealed some problems  Remember  Left hand projects to right hemisphere  Right hand projects to left hemisphere  Only the left hemisphere can talk
    • 32. Left visual field projects to right hemisphere Right visual field projects to left hemisphere
    • 33. Split-Brain Patients  This is confusing  Let me help … Movie Time!