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  • Figure 4.10 from Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology , 2 nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Figure 4.10 from Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology , 2 nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Figure 2.2 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Source: Damasio, et al., 1994
  • Figure 2.10 from: Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology , second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

courses.csusm.edu/psyc362cr/Neuroanatomy -- Ch 2.1.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cognitive Neuroscience Chapter 2
  • 2. To Do List…
    • Neuroanatomy (just the basics)
    • Methods of Investigation
      • Behavioral studies
      • Neuroimaging
    • Hemispheric Specialization
      • What is lateralized?
      • Split-brain patients
      • “ Normals”
  • 3.
    • BACK
    FRONT TOP BOTTOM
  • 4. Important Brain Structures
    • Brainstem (basic functions)
      • Medulla
        • Automatic functions  Heart rate, respiration
      • Pons
        • Sleeping, dreaming
      • Reticular Activating System (RAS)
        • Arousal
        • Extends into the center of the brain
      • Cerebellum
        • Movement, balance
        • Analyzing sensory info and language comprehension
  • 5.  
  • 6. Important Brain Structures
    • Thalamus
      • Traffic officer
      • Sensory relay station, attentional gate
    • Hypothalamus
      • Eating, drinking, sex, temperature control
      • Coordinates brain and hormonal systems
  • 7. Brain Anatomy
  • 8. Important Brain Structures
    • Limbic System
      • Hippocampus
        • Encoding long term memories
        • Gateway to memory
      • Amygdala
        • Emotions (fear and anger)  initial response to sensory information
        • Enhances memory
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Important Brain Structures
    • Cortex
      • Frontal Lobe
        • Motor Cortex *
        • Planning, goal setting, emotional control
      • Temporal Lobe
        • Auditory Cortex (hearing)
        • Language, Music
      • Parietal Lobe
        • Somatosensory Cortex (touch) *
      • Occipital Lobe
        • Visual Cortex
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. Methods of Investigation
    • Lesions
      • Animals
      • Patients
        • Stroke
        • Tumors
        • Head injury
  • 15. Stroke
  • 16. Tumor
  • 17. Head Injury
  • 18. Phineas Gage
    • Phineas was a railroad construction foreman (1848)
    • An explosion forced a steel rod through his head
    • He was “…no longer Gage…”
    • Lost his job, worked as a sideshow exhibit
  • 19. Dissociation
    • Dissociation occurs when a patient has brain damage leading to some cognitive deficit, but other cognitive abilities are preserved
      • E.g., H.M. has no ability to store LTM, but his STM is completely normal  LTM and STM must be different systems
  • 20. Methods of Investigation
    • Direct Stimulation
      • Animals
      • Patients
  • 21. Imaging Brain Function
    • Electrophysiology
      • Electroencephalograms (EEGs)– passive recording from multiple electrodes
      • Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)– measures response to a specific stimulus
  • 22. Measuring ERPs in an infant
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. EEG
  • 26. Imaging Brain Function
    • CT
      • Computerized Tomography
      • X-ray
    • MRI
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 27. CT scan demonstrating enlargement of the ventricles in a patient with schizophrenia
  • 28. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Method for studying body and brain tissue
    • Magnetic fields align hydrogen atoms
    • When field is removed, molecules release energy as radio waves
    • Computer calculates tissue density from radio waves
    • Provides clear, 3D images
  • 29. MRI scanning magnet
  • 30.  
  • 31. Imaging Brain Function
    • PET
      • Positron Emission Tomography
    • fMRI
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 32. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Analysis of brain activity, using injections of glucose with a radioactive tracer
    • Active areas use more glucose and sensors detect radioactivity
    • Different tasks show distinct patterns (bright spots)
  • 33. PET scanning
  • 34. PET image -red areas are most active
  • 35. fMRI ( oxygenated blood flows to active areas)
  • 36. The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a band of fibers called the corpus callosum
  • 37. Hemispheric Specialization
    • Different brain functions tend* to rely more heavily on one hemisphere or the other
    • THERE ARE NO LEFT-BRAINED OR RIGHT-BRAINED PEOPLE
      • Over exaggeration and simplification
      • Any intelligent behavior requires both hemispheres to work together
  • 38. Hemispheric Specialization
    • Left
      • Right side of body
      • Linguistics
      • Fine motor control
      • Fine details
    • Right
      • Left side of body
      • Music
      • Emotion
      • Spatial Processing
      • Big Picture
  • 39. Split-Brain Patients
    • Severed corpus callosum to stop epileptic seizures
    • No obvious problems at first
    • Laboratory testing revealed some problems
    • Remember
      • Left hand projects to right hemisphere
      • Right hand projects to left hemisphere
      • Only the left hemisphere can talk
  • 40. Left visual field projects to right hemisphere Right visual field projects to left hemisphere
  • 41.  
  • 42. Split-Brain Patients
    • This is confusing
    • Let me help … Movie Time!