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Cognitive Psychology Chapter 9a Language

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Cognitive Psychology Chapter 9a Language Cognitive Psychology Chapter 9a Language Presentation Transcript

  • Cognitive Psychology Chapter 9a Language
    • Language
      • Articulatory Phonetics
        • Top down processes
      • Syntax
      • Lexical and semantic factors
        • Case Grammar
      • Neuropsychology of language
        • Classical Localization Model
      • Neurophysiology of language
    Study Questions. • How has sentence ambiguity been used to study the psycholinguistics of grammar. • Describe the classical localization model of brain and language. How do different aphasias relate to the model. Give examples. 10/28/10 Oh freddled guntbuggly, thy micturations are to me As plurdled gabbleblothchits on a lugid bee Groop, I implore thee, my foonting turlingdromes And booptiously drangle me with crinkly bindlewurdles Or I will rend thee in the gobberwarts With my blurglecruncheon, see if I don’t Prostetnic Vogon Jeltz Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
  • Language
    • Articulatory Phonetics
      • Voicing
  • Language
    • Is speech special?
      • Do we possess specialized neural mechanisms for perceiving speech?
      • Categorical perception
        • Voice onset-time and distinguishing /d/ from /t/
    Percentage Identified 100 80 60 40 20 0 Voice-onset time (ms) 40 50 60 70 10 20 30
  • Language
    • Articulatory Phonetics
      • Vowels
        • Positioning and part of tongue
          • Height
            • High (/i/ b ee t)
            • Med (/e/ b ai t)
            • Low (/a/ p o t)
          • Part
            • Front (/I/ b i t)
            • Central (b u t)
            • Back (/o/ b oa t)
  • Language
    • The search for invariants
      • Distinctive features
      • Problems with a simple bottom-up approach
        • There are no periods of silence between phonemes
          • The speech spectrograph
  • Language
    • The search for invariants
  • Language
    • The search for invariants
      • Phonemic information is presented in parallel
        • Coarticulation
        • E.g. Cf. /M/ in “Tim” vs. “/M/ in “mad”
      • We perceive them as the same, but they are different
      • We perceive the same sound differently according to the context
        • E.g.: Writer vs. Rider
        • E.g.: Insert a silence between /s/ and /i/ --> “ski”
        • Insert a silence between /s/ and /u/ --> “spew”
  • Language
    • Top down processes
      • Phonemic restoration effect (Warren, 1970)
        • Their respective legi*latures
        • Found a *eel on the axle
        • Found a *eel on the shoe
  • Language
    • Perceiving conversational speech
      • Two main problems:
        • There are no physical boundaries between words
          • Anna Mary candy lights since imp pulp lay things
          • ( An American delights in simple play things)
        • Speech is sloppy
          • He wants to kiss this Guy?
          • Misheard Lyrics (www.kissthisguy.com)
          • This was the best buy vs. She is a bad girl
  • Language
    • Perceiving conversational speech
    • Perceiving conversational speech
    Language W h a d’ a y a D oo w i n
  • Language
    • Top-down processes and speech perception
      • Phonemic perception
        • The McGurk Effect
      • Sentence comprenension
        • Miller & Isard (1963)
          • Participants shadow sentences:
            • Grammatic : Bears steal honey from the hive.
            • Semantically incorrect : Bears shoot honey on the highways.
            • Ungrammatic : Across bears eyes honey the bill.
  • Language
    • Top-down processes and speech perception
        • Miller & Isard (1963)
          • Results
        • Gram. Nonsem. Nongram.
        • No noise 89% 79% 56%
        • Noise 63% 22% 3%
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Finite state grammar
        • E.g, Miller (1958).
    0 1 3 2 0´ Start Finish S N N X S G G X
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Finite state grammar
        • E.g, Miller (1958).
          • Structured Random
          • L1 L2 R1 R2
          • SSXG NNSG GNSX NXGS
          • NNXSG NNSXG NSGXN GNXSG
          • SXSXG SXXSG XGSSN SXNGG
          • Etc. Etc. Etc. Etc.
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Finite state grammar
        • E.g, Miller (1958).
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Finite state grammar
        • Problems with finite state grammar
          • Linguistic competence
          • Judgements of grammaticity (Chomsky)
            • e.g., Colourless green ideas sleep furiously
            • (For words never paired together)
          • Judgements of agrammaticity (Miller and Selfridge)
            • e.g., Was he went to the newspaper is in deep end.
            • (For words often paired together)
          • Resolving/explaining ambiguity
            • e.g., They are cooking apples.
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Phrase structure grammar
      • Constituent analysis
    The boy hit the ball Verb phrase (VP) Noun phrase (NP) NP Det. The Det. the Noun boy Verb hit Noun ball
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Phrase structure grammar
        • Three types of sentences
          • Grammatical / meaningful: maps onto only one phrase structure.
          • Nongrammatical: cannot be mapped onto a phrase structure
          • Grammatical / ambiguous: maps onto more than one phrase structure.
          • e.g., They are flying planes
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Transformational grammar
        • Some ambiguous sentences are not explained by phrase structure
            • E.g, Visiting relatives can be boring
        • Both interpretations map onto the same phrase structure...but, they map onto different meanings
      • Surface structure : Superficial appearance (i.e., phrase structure).
      • Deep structure: The meaning of the sentence.
      • Transformational rules : convert the deep structure into a surface structure (a sentence ready to be spoke)
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Resolving ambiguity (McKay, 1966)
        • Lexical ambiguity
          • E.g., Although he was continually bothered by the cold …
          • Control: headache
        • Surface ambiguity
          • E.g., Although Hannibal sent troops over a week ago …
          • Control: almost
        • Underlying ambiguity
          • E.g., Knowing that visiting relatives could be bothersome ….
          • Control: visiting some
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Resolving ambiguity (McKay, 1966)
        • Results
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Case grammar
        • Semantic analysis involves determining the semantic role of each word or concept and computing sentence meaning based on that analysis.
        • E.g,
          • A] The key will open the door
          • B] The janitor will open the door with the key
          • The ‘key’ is the subject of [A] and an object in [B] but serves the same role in each sentence.
  • Language
    • Syntax
      • Interaction between syntax and semantics
        • Fillenbaum (1974)
          • Had subjects read and then paraphrase several sentences
          • Normal sentences:
            • Threat: Don’t print that or I will sue you.
            • Control: John got off the bus and went to the store
          • Perverse/disordered
            • Threat: Don’t print that or I won’t sue you
            • Control: John went in the store and got on the bus.
          • Results:
            • Perverse: 50% normalized in their paraphrases
            • Disordered: 60 % normalized.
            • When subjects checked their work, they missed half of the errors…
  • Nice we’re having weather isn’t it?
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Aphasia: Language deficits resulting from brain-related disorders and injury.
        • Very common
          • 40 % of all strokes produce some aphasia
      • Broca’s Aphasia
        • Paul Broca - studied patient Leborgne (A.K.A.’Tan’)
          • Treated for leg injury
          • Died a few days later
          • Autopsied brain
          • Discovered ‘Broca’s area’
          • Left Hemisphere dominance for language
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Broca’s Aphasia
    Paul Broca
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Broca’s Aphasia
        • Production Deficits
          • Problems in producing fluent language
          • Range from ‘Tan,tan,tan,…’ to short phrases
          • Lack function words and grammar
            • May retain idioms (‘fit as a fiddle’) or songs
          • Proximity to motor cortex
            • Dysarthria : loss of control over articulatory muscles
            • Speech Apraxia : Unable to program voluntary articulatory movements.
    Paul Broca
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Broca’s Aphasia
        • Comprehension deficits
          • Unable to analyze precise grammatical information
            • E.g.
            • “ The Boy ate the cookie”
            • Who ate the Cookie?
            • “ Boy ate cookie”
            • Implied grammar (cookies don’t eat boys)
            • “ The Boy was kicked by the girl”
            • Who kicked whom?
            • “ Boy kick girl”
    Paul Broca
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Wernicke’s Aphasia
        • Carl Wernicke, 1870s
          • Examined two patients
            • Problems understanding language following strokes
            • Fluent but nonsensical speech
            • Poor language comprehension
            • Proximity to auditory sensory areas
            • (Wernicke proposed word memory area)
    Carl Wernicke
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Wernicke’s Aphasia
        • Production deficits
          • Sounds fluent (e.g., foreign language)
          • Neologistic (invented words)
          • Semantic substitutions
            • E.g.
            • I called my mother on the television and did not understand the romers by the door.
    Carl Wernicke
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Wernicke’s Aphasia
        • Comprehension deficits
          • Do not recognize the incomprehensibility of their own sentences
          • Do not comprehend written or spoken language
        • “ Here and gone again”
          • Aphasia improves over time
          • Anomia: Losing the ability to retrieve words (nouns)
    Carl Wernicke
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Classical localization model (Lichtheim, 1885; Geschwand, 1967)
    Conceptual Information Wernicke’s Broca’s
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Classical localization model (Lichtheim, 1885; Geschwand, 1967)
        • Damage to main areas
          • Broca’s Aphasia
          • Wernicke’s Aphasia
        • Damage to connections
          • Conduction aphasia
          • Transcortical sensory aphasia
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Conduction aphasia
        • Damage to the connection between Wernicke’s and Broca’s area
          • Arcuate Fasciculus
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Conduction aphasia
        • Production deficits
          • Problems producing spontaneous speech
          • Problem repeating speech
          • Sometimes use words incorrectly
        • Comprehension
          • Can understand spoken/written words
          • Can hear their own speech errors, but cannot correct them
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • Conduction aphasia
    Conceptual Information Wernicke’s Broca’s
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • A prediction
    Conceptual Information Wernicke’s Broca’s
  • Brain & Language
    • Neuropsychology of language
      • A prediction
        • Disconnecting Wernicke’s from the conceptual area should lead to repetition without comprehension.
        • Transcortical Sensory Aphasi
          • Damage to the angular gyri
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
      • ERP studies
        • The N400: S emantic violations
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
      • ERP studies
        • The P600: Syntactic Positive Shift (syntactic violation)
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
        • Dispreferred continuation of ambiguous sentences
          • E.g.,
            • The spy saw the cop with the binoculars
            • Who has the binoculars?
            • “ The spy has the binoculars” -> preferred continuation
        • The N400 and aphasia
          • Swaab et al.
            • Patients listened to sentences that had an anomalous word at the end.
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
        • Swaab et al. (1997)
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
        • A caveat: Individual differences
          • Stimulation mapping of the brain
            • Neurosurgery around left hemisphere language areas
          • A couple hundred of partients
          • Correlation with effects in Wernicke and Broca’s area are week
            • Some patients have naming problems in the area, not all.
          • Anatomical localizations vary considerably.
  • Brain & Language
    • Neurophysiology of language in the intact brain
        • A caveat: Individual differences