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  • 1. Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 7 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  • 2. Learning
    • Learning
      • relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
    • Associative Learning
      • learning that two events occur together
        • two stimuli
        • a response and its consequences
  • 3. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • We learn to associate two stimuli
    Two related events: Lightning Stimulus 1 Thunder Stimulus 2 Result after repetition We see lightning Stimulus We wince anticipating thunder Response
  • 4. Operant Conditioning
    • We learn to associate a response and its consequence
    Response: Pushing vending machine button Consequence:Receiving a candy bar
  • 5. Learning
    • Behaviorism
      • Promoted by John B. Watson
      • View that psychology…
        • should be an objective science
        • studies behavior without reference to mental processes
  • 6. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Ivan Pavlov
      • 1849-1936
      • Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
      • Nobel Prize in 1904
      • studied digestive secretions
  • 7. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Classical Conditioning
      • organism comes to associate two stimuli
        • lightning and thunder
        • tone and food
      • begins with a reflex
      • a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex
      • neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex
  • 8. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Pavlov’s device for recording salivation
  • 9. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
      • effective stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically - triggers a response
    • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
      • unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
        • salivation when food is in the mouth
  • 10. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
      • originally neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
    • Conditioned Response (CR)
      • learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  • 11. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
  • 12. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Acquisition
      • the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened
      • the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response
  • 13. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
  • 14. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Extinction
      • diminishing of a conditioned response
      • in classical conditioning, when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
  • 15. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Weak Strong Time
  • 16. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Spontaneous recovery
      • reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
    • Generalization
      • tendency, once a response has been established, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses
  • 17. Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  • 18. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
    • Discrimination
      • in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
  • 19. Nausea Conditioning among Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  • 20. Little Albert’s Fear Conditioning UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) CS (rat) CS (rat) CR (fear) UCS (loud noise) UCR (fear) Stimulus similar to rat (such as rabbit) Conditioned fear (generalization)
  • 21. Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
      • type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
    • Law of Effect
      • Thorndike’s principle that rewarded behavior is likely to recur
  • 22. Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Behavior
      • complex or voluntary behaviors
        • push button, perform complex task
      • operates (acts) on environment
      • produces consequences
    • Respondent Behavior
      • occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
  • 23. Operant Conditioning
    • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
      • elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect
      • developed behavioral technology
  • 24. Operant Conditioning
    • Operant Chamber (“Skinner Box”)
  • 25. Operant Conditioning
    • Reinforcer
      • any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
    • Shaping
      • operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
  • 26. Principles of Reinforcement
    • Primary Reinforcer
      • an innate reinforcer
      • satisfies a biological need
    • Secondary Reinforcer
      • a conditioned reinforcer
  • 27. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Continuous Reinforcement
      • reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs
      • extinction occurs rapidly
    • Partial Reinforcement
      • reinforcing a response only part of the time
      • results in slower acquisition
      • greater resistance to extinction
  • 28. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Ratio (FR)
      • schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
      • the faster you respond, the more rewards you get
      • different ratios
      • very high rate of responding
      • like piecework pay
  • 29. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Ratio (VR)
      • schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
      • like gambling, fishing
      • very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
  • 30. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Fixed Interval (FI)
      • a schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
      • response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
  • 31. Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Variable Interval (VI)
      • schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
      • produces slow, steady responding
      • like pop quiz
  • 32. Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
  • 33. Punishment
    • Punishment
      • aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows
  • 34. Problems with Punishment
    • Punished behavior is not forgotten , it's suppressed--
    • Causes increased aggression - shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems-- explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes
  • 35. Problems with Punishment
    • Creates fear
    • Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior --
    • Punishment teaches how to avoid it
  • 36. Operant vs Classical Conditioning Comparison of Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning The response Involuntary, automatic “Voluntary,” operates on environment Acquisition Associating events; CS announces Associating response with a conse- UCS. quence (reinforcer or punisher). Extinction CR decreases when CS is repeatedly Responding decreases when reinforce- presented alone. ment stops. Cognitive Subjects develop expectation that Subjects develop expectation that a processes CS signals the arrival of UCS response will be reinforced or punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement. Biological Natural predispositions constrain Organisms best learn behavior similar to predispositions stimuli and responses can easily be their natural behaviors; unnatural be- associated. haviors instinctively drift back toward natural ones.
  • 37. Observational Learning
    • Observational Learning
      • learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
    • Modeling
      • process of observing and imitating behavior
    • Prosocial Behavior
      • positive, constructive, helpful behavior
      • opposite of antisocial behavior