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  1. 1. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Function ofFunction of the Brainthe Brain and Nervousand Nervous SystemSystem
  2. 2. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Neuroanatomy: Structure is Key to FunctionNeuroanatomy: Structure is Key to Function
  3. 3. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Function of Neurons  There are approximately 100 billion neurons in the human brain  The human brain has 100 trillion synaptic connections  There are about 3 million miles of axons in the human brain  There are over 1,000 disorders of the brain and nervous system
  4. 4. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Diseases of the Nervous System Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s Stroke Epilepsy Paralysis Obesity?
  5. 5. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience?  At least 30 million neurons in the entire visual cortex are activated by the single image of a house or face  For centuries, people thought that the heart, not the brain, was important for memory. The expression "memorize by heart" is derived from this old belief Perception, Learning, Memory
  6. 6. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? How Drugs Work  Botox temporarily paralyzes muscles by interfering with acetylcholine, which transmits nerve signals to muscles. Sales of the wrinkle-softening toxin Botox totaled $309.5 million in 2001  In 2002, the US government spent close to $19 billion treating and preventing drug abuse
  7. 7. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Genes And Behavior
  8. 8. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Development  The weight of the human brain triples during the first year of life, going from 300 grams to 900 grams  When children are six years old, they can understand approximately 13,000 words; high school graduates know at least 60,000 words
  9. 9. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? Evolutionary and Comparative Perspective
  10. 10. What Is Neuroscience? Sex Differences  The number of neurons in the neocortex of females is 19.3 billion; in males, the number of neurons in the neocortex is 22.8 billion  The brain of the great physicist Albert Einstein weighed 1,230 grams. This is far below the average brain weight of 1,400 grams  In 2000, 495 doctorates were awarded in neuroscience; 39.4% of these new PhDs were women
  11. 11. Undergrad Minimum Requirements GPA 3.0 GRE 1100 Research Experience Letters Physical Sciences Bio Chem Physics Psychology Computer Science Molecular Approaches Grad Begin life as a Professional Masters Optional Stipend=18-25K per yr Coursework & Teaching First 2 yrs Cell, Molecular Biology Neuroanatomy Pharmacology Physiology Clinical, Cognitive Psych Labwork Develop skills First 2 yrs Dissertation Project Last 3 yrs Learn How To. . . 1. Ask Questions 2. Experimentally Test 3. Write Papers 4. Give Scientific Talks Post-Doc Stipend=35-45K Expand Technical Skills Continue to Learn. . . Questions Experiments Papers Talks Learn How to Obtain Funds NIH NSF Private Foundations A grant as a Post-Doc makes you MUCH more attractive as a job candidate ‘Real’ Job Salary Academic Non-Academic Research Inst. Biotech NIH Other Teaching is the difference Both Involve 1. Funding 2. Experiments 3. Papers 4. Talks Undergraduate 5-7 years 2-6 years
  12. 12. What Is Neuroscience?What Is Neuroscience? The Place to Start inThe Place to Start in PsychologyPsychology Fundamental UnderstandingFundamental Understanding of Behavior (normal andof Behavior (normal and abnormal!)abnormal!) Technical Area withTechnical Area with Widespread ApplicationsWidespread Applications More Than Lab Work . . .More Than Lab Work . . .