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Biology 3401 - Animal Behaviour Introduction

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Biology 3401 - Animal Behaviour Introduction Biology 3401 - Animal Behaviour Introduction Presentation Transcript

  • Biology 3401 - Animal Behaviour Introduction
  • Levels of Analysis in Ethology Proximate Causes Ultimate Causes Genetic/Developmental Mechanisms Sensory/Motor Mechanisms Historical Pathways Selective Processes
    • -effects of heredity
    • -development of sensory-
    • motor systems
    • gene-environment
    • interactions
    -nervous systems for stimulus detection -hormone systems for adjusting response levels -muscles for carrying out responses -adaptive context ? -evolutionary development of a trait How? Why?
  • Scientific Method Make Observation Formulate hypothesis to explain observation Test Hypothesis Pass Fail Hypothesis Theory Test Theory Theory Law Pass Fail Fail Pass Many Pass Many
  • The Scientific Method Tinbergen's Observations on the Bee Wolf - Philanthus triangulum 6. Confirm hypothesis  1.Observation - Female flies in a circle before going to hunt. 2. Hypothesis - Female is using landmarks to find the nest. 3. Prediction - Female will return to a landmark to find the nest. 4. Test - Place an artificial landmark around the nest and move it when the female is away 5. Result - Female orients to new landmark.
  • First Representations of Animal Behaviour
  • Greek Philosophers Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Perfect ‘Type’ e.g.
  • Ethology Psychology - origins in natural history - origins in physiology & medicine
    • early focus
      • understanding adaptive value of behaviour in the wild
    • early focus
      • understanding causation and motivation of human behaviour using animal models
    - field-based - laboratory-based COMPARISON OF ETHOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY - initially more observational - initially more empirical
  • Historical Figures 1. Charles Darwin
  • 1835 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Journal of researches (or voyage of the Beagle) A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, On the Origin of Species Fossil Cirripedia The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilised by insects. The movements and habits of climbing plants. The variation of animals and plants under domestication. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Insectivorous plants. The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. The power of movement in plants. The formation of vegetable mould, through the action of worms. Questions about the breeding of animals The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Geological observations on South America. Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Darwin - Published Books
  • 1835 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Journal of researches (or voyage of the Beagle) A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, On the Origin of Species Fossil Cirripedia The various contrivances by which orchids are fertilised by insects. The movements and habits of climbing plants. The variation of animals and plants under domestication. The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Insectivorous plants. The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. The power of movement in plants. The formation of vegetable mould, through the action of worms. Questions about the breeding of animals The structure and distribution of coral reefs. Geological observations on South America. Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Darwin - Published Books
  • Historical Figures 1. Charles Darwin
  • Historical Figures 2. Lloyd Morgan
  • Historical Figures 3. Julian Huxley - Courtship habits of the great crested grebe
  • Historical Figures 4. J.B. Watson 5. B.F.Skinner
  • Historical Figures 6. Karl von Frisch
  • Historical Figures 7. Konrad Lorenz
  • Historical Figures 8. Niko Tinbergen
  • Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology -1973 Konrad Lorenz 1903 - 1989 Niko Tinbergen 1907 - 1988 Karl von Frisch 1886 - 1982
  • Ethology Ecology Population Biology Genetics Endocrinology Physiology Neurophysiology Sociobiology Evolutionary Biology