Name : Dr. Birendra Nath Mallick
Designation : Professor of Neurobiology
Department : School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Institution & Address : New Delhi - 110 067, INDIA
FAX - 011-2671-7586; 011-2671-7558; 011-2671-7580
E. Mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Date of Birth : 1. 8. 1956
Educational Qualification (starting from Bachelor's Degree) :
Degree Year University Subject/s
B.Sc. 1978 Calcutta Physiology (Hons)
M.Sc. 1981 Calcutta Physiology
Ph.D. 1986 AIIMS Neurophysiology of Sleep-Wakefulness
D.M.S. 1979 Council of Homoeopathic Medicine(W.B.) Medicine subjects
Chronology of Appointments :
July 1981- August 1983 - Teaching Fellow, Department of Physiology, AIIMS
Sept 1983- June 1986 - Senior Demonstrator, Department of Physiology, AIIMS
June 1986 - September 1993 - Asstt. Prof., School of Life Sciences, JNU
May 1987- July 1988 - Research Assoc., UCLA, USA
March 1993 - July 1993 - Visiting Asstt. Prof., Harvard Medical School, USA
October 1993 - September 2001 - Assoc. Professor, School of Life Sciences, JNU
March 1995 - July 1995 - Visiting Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Neuropsychiatry, UCLA, USA
March 1997 - July 1997 - Visiting Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Neuropsychiatry, UCLA, USA
October 2001 - Continuing - Professor, School of Life Sciences, JNU
Nov-Dec 2002 - Visiting/Guest Professor, Univ of Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis
Faculté des Sciences Nice Cedex 2 FRANCE
SOME RELEVANT CREDENTIALS
B. K. S. Medal (1978) --- B.Sc. (1st in College)
University Gold Medal (1981) --- M.Sc. (1st in Calcutta University)
B. K. Anand Research Prize (1984) --- Association of Physiologists & Pharmacologists of India
Shakuntala Amir Chand Award (1992) --- Indian Council of Medical Research, Govt. of India
National Bioscience Award (1999) ----- Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India
Elected Fellow of The National Academy of Sciences (F.N.A.Sc.) (2000)
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize ----- Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Govt. of India
(Medical Sciences) (2001)
Ramendra Sundar Sinha Memorial Oration (2001) ---- Physiological Society of India
Chandra Kanta Dandiya Prize (2001) --- P C Dandiya Trust, India
Elected Fellow of The Indian National Science Academy (F.N.A.) (2004)
Elected Member of the Guha Research Conference (2004)
Served Peer Reviewer for International Science Journals (Alphabetical list) :
Brain Research Bulletin;
Brain Research Protocol;
Brazilian Journal of Medicine & Biomedical Research;
Developmental Brain Research,
European Journal of Neuroscience;
Journal of Neuroscience Research;
Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior;
Sleep & Hypnosis;
Sleep Research Online
Served Peer Reviewer for National Science journals :
Member National Level Scientific/Academic Committees :
Editorial Board Member of "Sleep and Hypnosis " (International Journal)
Editorial Board Member of "Neurobiology of sleep-wakefulness cycle" (International Journal)
Editorial Board Member of "Indian Journal of Physiology and Allied Sciences"
Research Projects : a) Completed : Ten b) Ongoing : Four
Ph.D. theses completed under my supervision - Eleven (others are continuing)
M.Phil. & M.Sc. dissertation completed under my supervision - Eleven (others are continuing)
Others short term trainee in the lab - More than twenty
Course Co-ordinator - 4th Refresher Course Life Sciences, Academic Staff College, JNU, 1998
Postgraduate and Ph.D. examiner for several Universities
Chaired session(s) during conferences/seminars/oration lectures, etc
Co-Chair Maj. Gen. S. L. Bhatia Oration Lecture, 1993, Trivandrum
Co-Chair Symposium - 3rd World Fed Sleep Res Soc Meeting, Dresden, Germany, Oct 3-9,
1999 Chair Symposium - 3rd
Asian Sleep Research Society Meeting, Bangkok, Dec 3-7, 2000
Co-Chair Indo-US Symposium on Brain Research, New Delhi, Jan 10-12, 2002
Chair Symposium - 4th
Asian Sleep Research Society Meeting, Zhuhai, China, Feb 28-Mar 2,
Membership : (International) :
International Brain Research Organization (IBRO);
Sleep Research Society, USA (SRS)
ISCA; ; APPI; NSI; IAN; ISC; ISCB
About students :
- Five published papers were judged best papers and my students were awarded by APPI
- Four posters (students) were judged best poster/presentation during National conferences
and students/researchers were awarded.
- One of my students was shortlisted for the INSA Young Scientist Award, however, due to
unavoidable circumstances she could not come from abroad for the final selection
- Two of my Ph.Ds. (doing Post-Doc in USA) received Young Investigators Award in
- Organizing Secretary, 38th Annual Conference of APPI, 1992
- Joint Organizing Secretary of the XI National Symposium of the ISC, 1996
- Organized one day mini-symposium on Neuroscience in SLS, JNU, April 1998 (BIC,
- President's Scout
- Divisional School Team Hockey player
S.No Period Place visited Purpose of visit
1. May 87 - July 88 UCLA, USA Research on Sleep-wakefulness
2. July 88 (3 days) Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan Delivered lecture
3. March 13-17, 1993 Mauii, USA WFSRS Meeting
4. Mar 93 - July 93 Harvard University, USA Research on Sleep-wakefulness
5. Mar 95 July 95 Univ. of California, USA Research on Sleep-wakefulness
6. May 30 - June 4, 95 Nashville, USA Sleep Research Society Meeting
7. Mar 97 - July 97 UCLA, USA Research on Sleep-wakefulness
8. June 10 - 15, 97 SanFrancisco, USA Sleep Research Society Meeting
9. Aug 25-28, 97 Jerusalem, Israel Lecture during 2nd
Asian Sleep Res Soc
10. Oct 4-9, 99 Dresden, Germany Co-Chair symposium, lectures during WFSRS Meeting
11. Oct 10-12, 99 Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry, Munich 2 Lectures
12. Dec 3-7, 2000 Bangkok, 3rd
Asian Sleep Res. Soc. Meet Plenary Talk & Session Chair
13. June 28-30, 2001 INSERM Lyon, France Lectures
14. July 1-6, 2001 Berlin, Germany, 7th
WCBP Symposium talk
15. Nov – Dec 2002 Univ of Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Guest Professor
Faculté des Sciences Nice Cedex 2 FRANCE
16. Feb 24-26, 2004 Neuro-Behavioural Biology Center Two Invited Lectures
Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
17. Feb 27-Mar 2, 2004ASRS Meeting, Zuhai, China Plenary Talk & Session Chair (2 Talks)
18. Mar 3-7, 2004 National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan Two Invited Lectures
19. Mar 3-7, 2004 Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan Invited Lecture
20. Mar 3-7, 2004 Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Taiwan Invited Lecture
21. Mar 3-7, 2004 Taiwan Invited Lecture
Invited lectures (International) :
Outside India :
1. Talk at Sepulveda VA Medical Centre, 1988
2. Talk at Osaka Biosciences Institute, Japan, 1988
3. Effects of REM sleep deprivation on brain biochemistry, Focus Group Meeting at the Conference,
World Federation of Sleep Research Societies, Mauii, March 13-17, 1993.
4. Possible cellular mechanism(s) of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induced changes in brain
excitability, Asian Sleep Research Society meeting, Second Congress, Jerusalem/Israel, August
5. "Possible interaction of neurotransmitters in the locus coeruleus for the regulation of rapid
eye movement (REM) sleep in rats", during the 3rd Congress of the World Federation of
Sleep Research Societies Meeting, Dresden, Germany, October 5-9, 1999.
6. Invited to participate in the Focus Group Meeting titled `Where Does REM sleep begin?' during
the 3rd Congress of the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies Meeting, Dresden,
Germany, October 5-9, 1999.
7. `Possible cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of action during spontaneous and disturbed REM
sleep in animal models', Invited lecture at Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry, Munich, Germany
on Oct 11, 1999.
8. `Cholinergic and GABA-ergic interaction in the locus coeruleus for the regulation of REM sleep in
rats', 3rd Asian Sleep Research Society Meeting, Bangkok, 3-7 Dec 2K .
9. `One of the Functions of REM Sleep is to Maintain Brain Excitability : Possible Cellular
Mechanism of Action', 3rd Asian Sleep Research Society Meeting, Bangkok, 3-7 Dec 2K.
10. When And How Do Locus Coeruleus Neurons Cease Firing? 3rd Asian Sleep Research
Society Meeting, Bangkok, 3-7 Dec 2K, talk during the workshop.
11. Neuronal Basis of REM Sleep Generation, At Inserm, Claude Bernard Univ., Lyon/France, June
12. REM Sleep Maintains Brain Excitability - Cellular and Molecular Mechanism(s) of Action, At
Inserm, Claude Bernard Univ., Lyon/France, June 2001.
13. GABA in Locus Coeruleus in REM Sleep Regulation, 7th World Congress of Biological
Psychiatry, July 1-6, 2001, Berlin, Germany.
14. Univ of Nice-Sophia Antipolis 2002
15. Feb-Mar 2004, ASRS China
16. Feb-Mar 2004, ASRS China
17. Feb-Mar 2004, Lecture in Bangkok
18. Feb-Mar 2004, Lecture in Bangkok
19. March 2004, Neural Basis of REM Sleep Regulation : Its Possible Role in Normal and Disordered
States, Lecture in Taiwan
20. March 2004, Mechanism of changes in body temperature during REM sleep and its Deprivation
Lecture in Taiwan
21. Mar 2004, Interactions Between Neurons For The Generation Of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Lecture in Taiwan
22. Mar 2004, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Loss Alters Brain Excitability : Cellular Mechanism of
Lecture in Taiwan
23. Mar 2004 Lecture in Taiwan
Invited lectures (International) :
Within India :
1. Sleep-awake-temperature regulation by medial and lateral preoptic areas, Second Cong.
Asian-Oceanian Physiological Societies Meeting, New Delhi 12-15 Nov, 1990.
2. I was invited to teach in the "Third Intensive Workshop on Basic Neuroscience" as a
member of the International Teaching Team, held at AIIMS, 1990.
3. Independent regulation of sleep-wakefulness-body temperature by the medial preoptic
area, Int. Conf. Sleep-wakefulness, New Delhi 9-11, September 1992.
4. Possible cellular mechanism for rapid eye movement sleep loss induced changes in brain
functions, Second APSN Meeting, Hyderabad, September 14-16, 1994.
5. "Communication between neurons during REM sleep regulation and molecular mechanism
of action during their disturbances", International Colloquium on "Brain Research"
National Brain Research Centre, Oct 1-3, 1999, New Delhi.
6. "How And What Do Neurons Share For The Generation Of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep".
International Colloquium on "Brain Research" National Brain Research Centre, Dec 15-
17, 2003, Manesar, Gurgaon.
7. “Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Physiology and Effects of its Deprivation” Sleep
Medicine in the 21st
Century, Feb 11-12, 2005, Dept of Neurology, AIIMS, New Delhi.
8. “GABA-ergic Involvement in REM-Sleep Deprivation” Symposium talk during
WFSRSSM meeting in Delhi Sept 22-26, 2005
9. “Role of GABA in LC and PPT in the Regulation of REM Sleep in Rats” Symposium talk
during WFSRSSM meeting in Delhi Sept 22-26, 2005
Invited lectures (National) :
1. Sleep-awake related neuronal behavior during spontaneous and induced changes, Ind.
Acad. Neurosci. New Delhi 12-14 Dec, 1990.
2. Changes in neuronal physiology on rapid eye movement sleep loss and its implications,
39th APPI Conf. Trivandrum, 27-29 Dec, 1993.
3. Rapid eye movement sleep - Effects on neurons to gross behavior, ISCA Meeting,
Frontiers of Neuroscience, Jan 3-8, 1996, Punjabi University, Patiala.
4. Study of brain functions in vivo : From gross to cellular level, Fifth workshop on
Techniques in Neurobiology, 9-20, Dec, 1996, Dept of Biochemistry, AIIMS, New Delhi.
5. Possible cellular mechanism for physiological changes in the brain due to disturbance in
rapid eye movement sleep, XIth Nat. Symp. Ind. Soc. Chronobiol., New Delhi, 1996.
6. Behaviour and nature of functioning of neurons in relation to sleep-wakefulness-
Workshop on Interaction between Biology and Computer Science, at IIT Kanpur Feb 13-
7. Can Yoga Help Improve Sleep Loss Related Problems? World Householders' Yoga:
Conference on sane living. Dec 25-26, 1997, Bombay, India.
8. Invited lecture at IIT Delhi, Electrical Engineering Department, 1998.
9. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Maintains Brain Excitability : Possible Cellular
Mechanism(s) Of Action, Soc of Biol Chem Ind, Dec 19-21, 1998, New Delhi.
10. Invited by the Organizers of Guha Research Committee, 1998.
11. Cellular mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep generation role of sleep and waking
areas in the brain, during 11th Annual Conference of the Physiological Society of India, Delhi,
28- 30, Nov 1999.
12. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Function and its Cellular Mechanism of Action - lecture
delivered in the Department of Physiology, Calcutta University, on May 5, 2000 on the
occasion of felicitation by the Department to me.
13. REM sleep maintains brain excitability: Mechanism of action from neuron to behaviour-
invited lecture delivered at the Dabur Research Foundation, on May 20, 2000.
14. Norepinephrine Plays a Key Role in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation Induced
Changes in Brain Functions, Soc of Biol Chem Ind, Dec 7-9, 2000, Calcutta.
15. Neural Basis of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Generation, ISCA Jan 3-7, 2002, Lucknow.
16. Neuro-behavioural correlates of REM sleep Regulation, Jamia Millia Islamia, Feb 19,
17. Mechanism of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Regulation, 3th
Annual Conf. PSI,
Calcutta, Feb 23-24, 2002. (Ramendra Sundar Sinha Memorial Oration)
18. Norepinephrine and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep, Indian Statistical Institute,
Kolkata, Feb 25, 2002.
19. Neuron and its Functions – lecture at the ACBR, Delhi Univ., June 25, 2002.
20. Neuronal Mechanism of REM Sleep generation, lecture at ACBR, Delhi Univ., June
21. REM Sleep Loss Disturbs Brain Excitability : Its Possible Mechanism of Action – Talk
given at AIIMS as part of Institute Science Seminar, invited by the Society of Young
Scientists (SYS), AIIMS, July 18, 2002.
22. Why does REM Sleep occur ? A popular Lecture delivered on Jan 29, 2003 on invitation
Neuroscience Centre, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Indian Academy of Neurosciences and
Society for Neurochemistry (India) Gwalior Branch.
23. How Does Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Loss Mediate its Effects? Symposium on
RAS, Mahavir Medical College and S. J. Hospital, New Delhi, Sept 20, 2003
24. Lecture at ACTREC, Mumbai, Nov 3, 2004 (Wednesday Forum)
25. Panelist at BARCOA, meeting (Science Policy, Implementation and Assessment) Nov 4,
2004, BARC, Mumbai.
26. Lecture at Sophia College, Mumbai, Nov 5, 2004
27. Lecture at Central Institute For Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai, Nov 5, 2004
28. Lecture at BIC, JNU Nov 17, 2004
29. Lecture at Daulat Ram College, Oct 28, 2005 (at Biomania 2005) Neuron to Brain :
30. Lecture at Lucknow University, Zoology Dept, Nov 12, 2005. “REM sleep maintain brain
31. Lecture at Annamali University, Chidambaram, 4th
SERC School Dec 28, 2005
32. Lecture at Annamali University, Chidambaram, 4th
SERC School Dec 29, 2005
(In addition, Academic Staff College Lectures – average 4 lectures per year for
at least past 12 years i.e. approx 50 lectures until 2005)
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
A. Research papers :
Mallick,B.N., Chhina,G.S., Sundaram,K.R., Singh,B. and Mohan Kumar, V. Activity of preoptic
neurons during synchronization and desynchronization, Exp. Neurol., 81 (1983) 586 - 597.
Mohan Kumar,V., Mallick,B.N., Chhina,G.S. and Singh,B., Influence of ascending reticular
activating system on preoptic neuronal activity, Exp. Neurol., 86 (1984) 40 - 52.
Mallick,B.N., Mohan Kumar,V., Chhina,G.S. and Singh,B., Responses of preoptic neurons to
stimulation of caudal and rostral brain stem reticular structures, Brain Res.Bull., 13 (1984) 353 -
Mohan Kumar,V., Mallick,B.N., Chhina,G.S. and Singh,B., Alterations in preoptic unit activity
on stimulation of caudal brain stem synchronizing structures, Exp.Neurol., 89 (1985) 304 - 313.
Mallick,B.N., Mohan Kumar,V., Chhina,G.S. and Singh,B., Comparison of rostro-caudal brain
stem influence on preoptic neurons and cortical EEG, Brain Res. Bull., 16 (1986) 121-125.
Mohan Kumar,V., Mallick,B.N., Chhina,G.S. and Singh,B., Correlation of preoptic neuronal
activity with spontaneous and induced cortical EEG change, Ind.J.Physiol. Pharmacol., 32 (1988)
Wu,M.F., Mallick,B.N. and Siegel,J.M., Lateral geniculate spikes, muscle atonia and startle
response elicited by auditory stimuli as a function of stimulus parameters and arousal state, Brain
Res., 499 (1989) 7-17.
Mallick,B.N., Siegel,J.M. and Fahringer,H., Changes in pontine unit activity after REM sleep
deprivation, Brain Res., 515 (1990) 94-98.
Alam,M.N. and Mallick,B.N., Differential acute influence of medial and lateral preoptic areas on
sleep-wakefulness in freely moving rats, Brain Res., 525 (1990) 242-248.
Mallick, B. N. and Alam, M. N., Medial preoptic area affects sleep independent of associated
body temperature change in free moving rats, Brain Res. Bull., 26 (1991) 215-218.
Thakkar, M. and Mallick, B. N., Effect of REM sleep deprivation on rat brain acetyl-
cholinesterase, Pharmacol.Biochem. Behav., 39 (1991) 211-214.
Mallick, B. N. and Thakkar, M., Short term REM sleep deprivation increases acetyl-
cholinesterase activity in the medulla of rats, Neurosci. Lett., 130 (1991) 221-224.
Mallick, B. N., Fahringer, H., Wu, M. F. and Siegel, J. M., REM sleep deprivation reduces
auditory evoked inhibition of dorsolateral pontine neurons, Brain Res., 552 (1991) 333-337.
Alam,M.N. and Mallick,B.N., Differential influence of medial and lateral preoptic areas on body
temperature in conscious and unconscious rats, Brain Res., 566 (1991) 303-307.
Mallick, B. N. and Thakkar, M., Effect of REM sleep deprivation on molecular forms of
acetylcholinesterase, Neuroreport, 3 (1992) 676-678.
Mallick, B. N., Alam, M. N., Different types of norepinephrinergic receptors are involved in
preoptic area mediated independent modulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature, Brain
Res., 591 (1992) 8-19.
Gulyani, S. and Mallick, B. N., Effect of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on rat brain Na-K
ATPase activity, J.Sleep Res., 2 (1993) 45-50.
Thakkar, M. and Mallick, B. N., Effect of REM sleep deprivation on rat brain monoamine
oxidases, Neuroscience, 55 (1993) 677-683.
Mallick, B. N. and Gulyani, S., Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation increases chloride sensitive
ATPase activity in the rat brain, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 45 (1993)359-362.
Thakkar, M. and Mallick, B. N., Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induced changes
in glucose metabolic enzymes in rat brain, Sleep 16 (1993) 691-694.
Alam, M. N. and Mallick, B. N., Role of lateral preoptic area alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors
in sleep-wakefulness and body temperature regulation, Brain Res. Bull., 35 (1994) 171 - 177.
Gulyani, S. and Mallick, B. N., Possible mechanism of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation
induced increase in Na-K ATPase activity, Neuroscience, 64 (1995) 255 - 260.
Mallick, B. N., Thakkar, M. and Gangabhagirathi, R. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation
decreases membrane fluidity in the rat brain, Neurosci. Res., 22 (1995) 117-122.
Thakkar, M. and Mallick, B. N., Effect of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation on 5'nucleotidase
activity in the rat brain, Neurosci. Lett. 206 (1996) 177-180.
Singh, S. and Mallick, B. N. Mild electrical stimulation of pontine tegmentum around locus
coeruleus reduces rapid eye movement sleep in rats, Neurosci. Res., 24 (1996) 227-235.
Mallick, B. N. and Gulyani, S., Alterations in synaptosomal calcium concentrations after rapid eye
movement sleep deprivation in rats, Neuroscience, 75 (1996) 729-736.
Mallick, B. N. and Joseph, M. M., Role of cholinergic inputs to the medial preoptic area in
regulation of sleep-wakefulness and body temperature in freely moving rats, Brain Res. 750
Kaur, S., Saxena, R. N. and Mallick, B. N., GABA in locus coeruleus regulates spontaneous rapid
eye movement sleep by acting on GABAA receptors in freely moving rats, Neurosci. Lett. 223
Mallick, B. N., Thankachan, S. and Islam, F., Differential responses of brain stem neurons during
spontaneous and stimulation induced desynchronization of the cortical EEG in freely moving cats,
Sleep Res. Online, 1(1998) 132-146.
Mallick, B. N. and Joseph, M. M., Adrenergic and cholinergic inputs in preoptic area of rats
interact for sleep-wake-thermo-regulation, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. , 61 (1998) 193-199.
Adya, A. and Mallick, B. N. , Comparison of Na-K ATPase activity in rat brain synaptosome
under various conditions, Neurochem. Intnl. , 33 (1998) 283-286.
Thankachan, S., Islam F. and Mallick B. N., Adrenergic and cholinergic modulation of
spontaneous and brain stem reticular formation stimulation induced desynchronization of the
cortical EEG in freely moving behaving cats, Sleep and Hypnosis, 1 (1999) 14-21.
Ali, M., Jha, S. K., Kaur, S. and Mallick, B. N., Role of GABA-A receptor in the preoptic area in
the regulation of sleep-wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep, Neurosci. Res., 33 (1999)
Mallick, B. N. and Adya, H. V. A., Norepinephrine induced alpha-adrenoceptor mediated
increase in rat brain Na-K ATPase activity is dependent on calcium ion, Neurochem. Intnl. 34
(1999) 499 - 507.
Adya, A. and Mallick, B. N. Uncompetitive stimulation of rat brain Na-K ATPase activity by
rapid eye movement sleep deprivation, Neurochem. Intnl., 36 (2000) 249-253.
Das, M., Mallick, B. N., Dasgupta, S. C. and Gomes, A., A sleep inducing factor from common
indian toad (Bufo melanostictus, Schneider) skin extract, Toxicon, 38 (2000) 1267- 1281.
Mallick, B. N. , Adya, H. V. A. and Faisal, M., Norepinephrine stimulated increase in Na-K
ATPase activity in the rat brain is mediated through α-1A adrenoceptor possibly by
dephosphorylation of the enzyme, J. Neurochem., 74 (2000) 1574-1578.
Gulyani, S., Majumdar, S. and Mallick, B. N., Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and Significance of its
Deprivation Studies - A Review, Sleep and Hypnosis, 2 (2000) 49-68.
Sanan, N., Mallick, B. N. and Sopory, S. Electrical signal from root to shoot in Sorghum bicolor:
induction of leaf opening and evidence for fast extracellular propagation, Plant Sci., 160 (2001)
Mallick, B. N., Kaur, S. and Saxena, R. N. Interactions between cholinergic and GABA-ergic
neurotransmitters in and around the locus coeruleus for the induction and maintenance of rapid
eye movement sleep in rats, Neuroscience, 104 (2001) 467-485.
Thankachan, S., Islam, F. and Mallick, B. N., Role of Wake inducing Brain Stem area on Rapid
Eye Movement Sleep regulation in freely moving cats, Brain Res. Bull., 55 (2001) 43-49.
Jha, S. K., Islam, F. and Mallick, B. N., GABA exerts opposite influence on warm and cold
sensitive neurons in medial preoptic area in rats, J. Neurobiol., 48 (2001) 291-300.
Kaur, S., Saxena, R. N. and Mallick, B. N. GABA-ergic neurons in prepositus hypoglossi
regulate REM sleep by its action on locus coeruleus in freely moving rats, Synapse, 42 (2001)
Jha, S. K., Yadav, V. and Mallick, B. N. GABA-A receptors in mPOAH simultaneously regulate
sleep and body temperature in freely moving rats, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 70 (2001) 115-121.
Mallick, B. N., Jha, S. K. and Islam, F. Presence of α-1 adrenoreceptors on thermosensitive
neurons in the medial preoptico-anterior hypothalamic area in rats, Neuropharmacology, 42
Mallick, B. N., Majumdar, S., Yadav, V., Faisal, M., Madan, V. and Pal, D. Role of
norepinephrine in the regulation of rapid eye movement sleep, J. Biosci. 27 (2002) 539 – 551.
Majumdar, S . and Mallick, B. N. Increased Levels of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Glutamic Acid
Decarboxylase in Locus Coeruleus Neurons after Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation in
Rats, Neurosci. Lett. 338 (2003) 193-196.
Majumdar, S., Faisal, M., Madan V. and Mallick, B. N., Increased Turnover of Na-K ATPase
Molecules in the Rat Brain After Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation, J. Neurosci. Res. 73
(2003) 870 - 875.
Mallick, B. N., Jha, S. K. and Islam, F., Wakefulness inducing area in the brainstem excites warm
sensitive and inhibits cold sensitive neurons in the medial preoptic area in anesthetized rats,
Synapse 51 (2004) 59-70.
Mallick, B. N., Thankachan, S. and Islam, F., Influence of hypnogenic brain areas on wakefulness
and REM sleep related neurons in the brain stem of freely moving cats, J. Neurosci. Res., 75
Kaur, S., Panchal, M., Faisal, M., Madan, V., Nangia, P., and Mallick, B. N., Long Term
Blocking of GABA-A receptor in Locus Coeruleus by Bilateral Microinfusion of Picrotoxin
Reduced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and Increased Brain Na-K ATPase Activity in Freely
Moving Normally Behaving Rats, Behav. Brain Res., 151 (2004) 185-190.
Pal, D. and Mallick, B. N. GABA in pedunculo pontine tegmentum regulates spontaneous rapid
eye movement sleep by acting on GABAA receptors in freely moving rats, Neurosci. Lett. 365
(2004) : 200 - 204.
Mallick, B. N., Singh, S. and Pal, D. Role of alpha and beta adrenoceptors in locus coeruleus
stimulation induced reduction in rapid eye movement sleep in freely moving rats, Behav. Brain
Res. 158 (2005) 9-21.
Majumdar, S. and Mallick, B. N., Cytomorphometric Changes in Rat Brain Neurons after Rapid
Eye Movement Sleep Deprivation, Neuroscience, 135 (2005) 679 - 690.
Pal, D., Madan V. and Mallick B. N. Neural Mechanism of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
Generation : Cessation of Locus Coeruleus Neurons is a Necessity, Acta Physiol. Sinica, Sheng Li
Xue Bao. 57 (2005)401-413
Book chapters :
1. Mohan Kumar,V., Chhina,G.S., Mallick,B.N., Datta,S., Bagga,N. and Singh,B., Preoptic
area in sleep-wakefulness. In: Motivational and emotional stress. Ed: K.V.Sudakov,
USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, 1984, p. 67-76.
2. Mallick, B. N. and Alam, M. N., Sleep-awake-temperature regulation by medial and
lateral preoptic areas. In : Advances in Physiological Sciences, Eds. S. K. Manchanda, W.
Selvamurthy, and V. Mohan Kumar, McMillan India, pp. 575-586, 1992.
3. Mallick, B. N. and Alam, M. N., Independent regulation of sleep-wakefulness-body
temperature by the medial preoptic area. In : Sleep-Wakefulness, Eds. V. Mohan Kumar,
U. Nayar, H. N. Mallick, Wiley Eastern, pp. 41-47, 1993.
4. Mallick, B. N., Thakkar, M, and Gulyani, S., Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation
induced alteration in neuronal excitability - possible role of norepinephrine. In :
Environment and Physiology, Eds. B. N. Mallick and R. Singh, Narosa Publishing House,
1994 pp. 196-203.
5. Mallick, B. N., Can yoga help improve sleep loss related problems? Proceedings of the
World Householders' Yoga: Conference on sane living, Dec 25-26, 1997, Bombay, India
1997, pp. 85-88.
6. Mallick, B. N., S. Kaur, S. K. Jha and Siegel, J. M., Possible role of GABA in regulation
of REM sleep with special reference to REM-off neurons. In : Rapid Eye Movement
Sleep, eds. B. N. Mallick and S. Inoue, Marcel Dekker (and also by Narosa Publishing
House, New Delhi), pp. 153 - 166, 1999.
7. Mallick, B. N., Adya, A. and Thankachan. S. REM sleep deprivation alters factors
affecting neuronal excitability : Role of norepinephrine and its mechanism of action. In :
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, eds. B. N. Mallick and S. Inoue, Marcel Dekker (and also by
Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi) pp. 338 - 354, 1999.
8. Mallick, B. N., Kaur, S., Thankachan, S. and Jha, S. K. Use of bio-physical correlates to
elucidate neural regulation of some physiological phenomena. In : Biophysical process in
Living Systems. Oxford University Press & IBH Publishers, New Delhi, ed. P. Parda
Saradhi, pp. 327-342, 2001.
9. Mallick, B. N. and Thankachan, S., Role of sleep and wake areas of the brain stem in the
regulation of REM Sleep, In : Trends in Physiological Sciences: Cells to Systems,
Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Univ of Delhi, Delhi, ed. Md. Fahim, pp. 299-316,
10. Mallick, B. N., Madan, V. and Faisal, Mohd. Biochemical Changes. In : Sleep
Deprivation : Basic Science, Physiology and Behavior, Ed : C. A. Kushida, Marcel
Dekker, Inc, USA, 2005, pp. 339-357.
11. Mallick, B. N., Kaur, S., Thankachan, S. and Pal, D. Role of Wakefulness Area in the
Brainstem Reticular Formation in Regulating Rapid Eye Movement Sleep. In : Sleep and
Sleep Disorders : A Neuropsychopharmacological Approach (vol.1 & II), Eds. Lader
M., Cardinali D. P. and Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Landes Bioscience Publisher, George
Town, Texas, USA, 2004.
12. Mallick, B. N., Jha, S. K. and Madan V. Role of Norepinephrine in Thermoregulation
during Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and its Deprivation. In : "Molecular and
cellular Biology" Eds. M. K. Thakur, Narosa, New Delhi, 2005 (in press).
13. Mallick, B. N., Madan V. and Pal, D. Locus coeruleus and adrenergic modulation of rapid
eye movement sleep. In : Neuroendocrine Correlates of Sleep/Wakefulness, eds. D.
Cardinali and S. R. Pandi-Perumal Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., New York,
USA, pp. 163-178, 2006.
14. Mallick B. N., Madan, V. Pal, D. and Baskey, G. C. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
physiology and effects of its deprivation, Proceedings of the Sleep Medicine in the 21st
Century, Dept of Neurology, AIIMS, New Delhi, Feb 11-12, 2005.
15. Rapid Eye Movement sleep regulation by modulation of noradrenergic system. In : The
Neurochemistry of Sleep and Wakefulness, eds. M. Monti, C. Sinton, S. R. Pandi
Perumal, Cambridge University Press, (submitted).
C. Books edited/written :
1. Mallick, B. N. and Singh, R. (1994) Environment and Physiology, New Delhi. Narosa
Publishing House, 278 p.
2. Mallick, B. N., and Inoue, S. (1999) Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Marcel Dekker Inc,
419 p. (Also published by Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi).
3. Mallick, B. N., (2001) Sleep-Wakefulness, National Book Trust, India.
D. Deposited in the data bank :
'Homology Modeling of Alpha1A-Adrenoreceptor '
RCSB ID : rcsb 035534
PDB ID : code 2F75
Vijayan, R., Subbarao, N. and Mallick B. N.
Summary of Research Contributions
A) Mechanism of Rapid eye movement sleep generation :
i) Wake inducing area keeps Locus Coeruleus noradrenergic REM-OFF neurons active, which keep
the cholinergic REM-ON neurons inactive ;
ii) During slow sleep the REM-OFF neurons are disinhibited ;
iii) At a depth of sleep the brain stem sleep inducing area stimulates REM-ON neurons;
iv) REM-OFF neurons must cease firing during REM sleep generation ;
v) This cessation is triggered by activation of cholinergic REM-ON neurons which execute its action
through GABA ;
vi) The REM-OFF neurons receive GABA from local interneurons and from prepossitus hypoglossi.
B) Mallick's hypothesis :
"One of the functions of REM sleep is to Maintain Brain Excitability"
i) REM Sleep deprivation alters neuronal firing rate when challenged with the stimulus to which the
respective neuron was responsive to;
ii) The REM Sleep deprivation alters neuronal excitability by affecting Na-K ATPase, one of the
primary factors responsible for maintenance of neuronal excitability;
iii) This deprivation induced increase in Na-K ATPase activity is mediated by norepinephrine acting
on α-1A adrenoceptor;
iv) The norepinephrine action on α-1A adrenoceptor is mediated through phospholipase C pathway
causing release of calcium from the membrane. This calcium then dephosphorylates the Na-K
v) Also, the REMS deprivation may be affecting the neuronal responsiveness through changes in
membrane fluidity and membrane lipid peroxidation.
C) Sleep-wakefulness and relation to thermoregulation :
i) The preoptic area regulates sleep-wakefulness and body temperature simultaneously, however, the
medial preoptic area is more effective than the lateral;
ii) the preoptic area has independent parallel pathways to regulate those functions. The regulation of
those two functions may be dissociated, however, they go hand in hand to maintain the body
temperature within physiological limit i.e. one of the functions of sleep is to maintain the body
iii) Norepinephrine, acting on the medial preoptic area, alters sleep, wakefulness and body
temperature by acting on α-2, β and α-1 adrenoceptors, respectively;
iv) The cholinergic and adrenergic systems have parallel inputs (and not in series) into the preoptic
area where they are integrated and the output is an algebraic sum of those inputs.
D) Marker for REM Sleep deprivation :
We have identified a blood protein (~200 KDa) which decreases after REM sleep deprivation. Its
physiological importance is under study.
E) Changes in Cellular Morphology after REM sleep deprivation :
REM sleep deprivation alters the neuronal morphology. Its physiological significance and cellular
mechanism of action are under investigation.
The findings have been schematically represented in the Figs 1 & 2.
The findings mentioned above have been cited by others in several reviews including Annu. Rev.
Psychol., Curr. Opinion Neurobiol., Prog. Brain Res., and in several journals including Acta Neurol., Am.
J. Physiol., Arch. Ital. Biol., Brain Research, Brain Res. Bull., EEG Clin.Neurophysiol., J. Comp. Neurol.,
Neuroscience, Neurosci. Res., Psychopharmacology, Science, Sleep, Sleep Res Online, etc., to name a few.
REM SLEEP LOSS
LC REM-OFF NEURONS
INCREASED Na-K ATPase