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Analysing Facial Affect Displays using the Component Process ...

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  • 1. Facial Affect Displays During Tutoring Sessions Mattijs Ghijsen – Dirk Heylen* Rieks op den Akker Anton Nijholt
  • 2. 2 INES
  • 3. 3 Facial Expressions • What do they tell about how the student is experiencing the situation? • How might we be able to use this to improve the tutoring system?
  • 4. 4 Previous Work • Based on – Student Activity – Difficulty – Errors • Adjust – Adjust teaching strategy – Adjust dialogue move
  • 5. 5 Pilot • Collect data • See what happens
  • 6. 6 Interpreting • If some expression occurred • What triggered it? • What does it mean? = How can a system make sense of what happened and react appropriately?
  • 7. 7 Elements to consider • Events: – system – student • Appraisals • Facial Expressions
  • 8. 8 Facial Expression Dictionary? • Emotions • Mental state • Conversational function • Adaptor
  • 9. 9 More complex • Using Stimulus Evaluation Checks: – Situation: how could it be evaluated – Face: what could have triggered it • Why do it? • Some way of flexibility: – if match between f.e.-sec and sit.-sec: ok – if no match than: reason
  • 10. 10 Component Process Model • Scherer • Eclectic • Appraisal process – Stimulus Evaluation Checks – 5 criteria – Performed sequentially
  • 11. 11 Stimulus Evaluation Checks Novelty change in the pattern of external or internal stimulation Intrinsic pleasantness whether a stimulus event is pleasant, inducing approach tendencies, or unpleasant, inducing avoidance tendencies Goal/Need significance whether a stimulus event is relevant to important goals or needs of the organism; outcome consistent with expectations; conducive or obstructive to reaching goals Coping potential evaluating the causation of a stimulus and the coping potential available, particularly the degree of control over the event and relative power Norm/Self compatibility evaluating whether the event, particularly an action conforms to social norms, cultural conventions…
  • 12. 12 Component Process Model Function Subsystem Component Evaluation of stimulation Information processing Cognitive System regulation Support Neurophysiological Preparation and direction of action Executive Motivational Communication and direction of action Action Expressive Monitoring, attention, focus, reflection Monitor Subjective feeling
  • 13. 13 SEC  AU Novelty High Low Sudden 1 + 2 + 5 + 26/27 (1/2=brow raiser; 5= eyelid; 26/27=mouth) Familiarity 4b + 7 Predictability 4b + 7
  • 14. 14 INES
  • 15. 15 The Exercise • Ask patient to put arm on table • Disinfect part of the arm • Insert the needle • Inject medicine
  • 16. 16 Movie
  • 17. 17 Movie
  • 18. 18 Movie
  • 19. 19 Movie
  • 20. 20 Movie
  • 21. 21 Movie
  • 22. 22 Movie
  • 23. 23 Situation – Expression Patient asks for clarification raised brows (2), frown (1), head pulled back (1) Patient repeatedly does not understand what student says smile (2) Patient pulls up her sleeve smile (4), raised brows (2), nod (1), pull head back (1) Student is disinfecting the arm smile (7), raised brow (1)
  • 24. 24 Facial Expression  Appraisal Expression Novel Pleasant Goal significant Coping Potential Smile (22) 3 18 19 14 Raised eyebrows (11) 7 4 2 0 Mouth corners pulled down (2) 2 1 1 1
  • 25. 26 For our application • Facial expressions tell us something • that might be of use. – Students are finding it pleasant – Students are concentrating – Students are not frustrated – Students were not expecting something
  • 26. 27 Discussion • Not only emotion • Pilot: not real data • Complicated procedure • Many things indeterminate
  • 27. 28 Questions: • How to classify situations in terms of SECs? – Situation: what to take into account? – Appraisal not situation – Coder consistency • Facial expression: – how to analyse in terms of SECs – ambiguity – incompleteness • How to make a system work with such information structures?
  • 28. 29 Problem • Matching 1) potential appraisals of situation types with 2) potential significance of facial expression • 1) = hard to do for types • 2) = lots of ambiguity
  • 29. 30 So • Why do it? • Some way of flexibility: – if match between f.e.-sec and sit.-sec: ok – if no match than: reason

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