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  1. 1. Christmas Exam • 1/3 Chaps 1-3, 2/3 Chaps 4-7 • Multiple choice (30 pts). • Jeopardy style definitions (20 pts) • Short answer (3 @ 10 pts each) • Part 1: Short answer-type multiple choice (2 @ 10 pts each) » 2 pts for correct answer, 2 pts for stating why it is correct » 2 pts X (stating why each of the other 3 are incorrect) (6 pts) » Total 10 pts » Eg. 1.Which of the following is not a basic principle of cortical organization? a) Contra-lateral connections b) Back propagation c) Topographic organization d) Lateralization of function
  2. 2. Term Review Chapter 4: Attention » Attention ◊ Categorizing Attention – Arousal and Alertness – Input attention: Visual attention ◊ Controlled attention – Selection Models ◊ Attention as a Resource – Automaticity ◊ NeuroPsychology of Attention – Hemineglect » Consciousness ◊ Scientific investigation of consciousness – The ‘hard’ problem ◊ Awareness – Self-awareness ◊ Intentionality
  3. 3. Term Review Chapter 4: Attention » Key Terms ◊ Arousal; Orienting reflex; The spotlight metaphor; Controlled attention; Selective attention; Mental (cognitive) resources; Supervisory attentional system; Yerkes-Dodson Law; Zoom lens metaphor; Endogenous orienting; exogenous orienting; Valid and invalid trials; Pop-out search; Conjunction search; Divided attention; Shadowing; The bottleneck metaphor; Attenuation model; Early and late selection; Dual task procedures; Automatic processing; Dissociations; Relative sensitivity; Perception without awareness; Hemi-neglect; Sentience; Qualia; Unconscious processes; Self -knowledge; Dualism; Materialism; Unconscious influences; Objective threshold; Subjective threshold; The paint test; Intentionality; Orwellian vs. Stalinistic revisionism; Free will vs. free won’t; » Study Questions – Describe Ashcroft’s six meanings of attention. – If you were a cognitive psychologist who theorized that stimuli can be processed and pattern recognized without awareness, which model of attention would you likely adhere to: Early or late selection? Explain. – What is the red dot test and how is it used to test for self-awareness?
  4. 4. Term Review Chapter 5: Short-term working memory » The bottleneck approach ◊ Capacity, duration, and interference » Recall and retrieveal from STM ◊ Verbal, semantic, & visual codes » Baddeley’s Working Memory ◊ Components ◊ Testing the working memory model ◊ Neuropsychological evidence. ◊ Individual differences
  5. 5. Term Review Chapter 5: Short-term working memory » Key Terms ◊ Memory Capacity; Brown/Peterson technique; Proactive interference (PI); Retroactive interference (RI); Release from PI; Functional decay theory; Serial position curve; Recency effect; Primacy effect; Short-term memory; Long-term memory; Memory scanning; Exhaustive search; serial self-terminating search; The phonological (articulatory) loop; Semantic codes; Mental rotation task; The visuo- spatial sketchpad; The central executive; Operation span; Pronoun reference task; » Study Questions – Describe an experimental findings that demonstrates a distinction between short and long term memory – Describe empirical results to support each of the following types of codes in STM: verbal (acoustic ), semantic, and visual.
  6. 6. Term Review Chapter 6: Learning and Remembering » Overview of Long Term Memory ◊ Taxonomy of long term memory ◊ Mnemonics and Mnemonists » Storing Information in Episodic Memory ◊ Rehearsal ◊ Levels of Processing ◊ Encoding specificity » Retrieving Information from Episodic Memory ◊ Encoding specificity » Implicit /Explicit memory
  7. 7. Term Review Chapter 6: Learning and Remembering » Key Terms ◊ Savings score; Episodic memory; Semantic memory; Implicit memory; Explicit memory; Procedural memory; Declarative memory; Mnemonics; Mnemonists; The method of loci; Synaethesia; Encoding; Storage; Retrieval; The van Restorff effect; Rehearsal; Maintenance rehearsal; Elaborative rehearsal; Incidental learning; Orienting task; Self-reference effect; Subjective organization; Dual coding hypothesis; Law of disuse; Accessibility; Availability; Tip of the tongue phenomenon; Cued recall; Encoding specificity hypothesis; Context-dependent memory; Retrograde amnesia; Anterograde amnesia; Repetition priming; » Study Questions – Describe the three principles of mnemonics and give an example of how each serves to improve memory. – Describe the levels (depth) of processing approach to memory – Why would it likely be better for a student to write their exams in the same classroom in which they attend lecture? Relate Tulving’s encoding specificity principle to this phenomenon.
  8. 8. Term Review Chapter 7: Knowing » Models of Semantic Memory ◊ TLC ◊ Feature Comparison ◊ Spreading Activation – The Fan Effect » Neurophysiology I ◊ ERPs and the N400 » Concept formation » Neurophysiology II ◊ Damasio’s Study » Distributed representation ◊ Farah & McClelland’s model
  9. 9. Term Review Chapter 7: Knowing » Key Terms ◊ Sentence verification task; True-false effect; Category size effect; Semantic distance; typicality effect; Semantic priming; TLC; Hierarchical organization; Cognitive economy; Feature comparison model; Defining features; Characteristic features; Spreading activation; Propositional representation; The fan effect; Evoked responses; N400; Lexical decision task; Exemplar theory; Prototype theory; Category-based representation; Property-based representation » Study Questions – Describe four well established findings from the sentence verification task. Which of these findings are predicted by TLC and which findings are not handled well by TLC? Which findings can Feature Comparison and Spreading Activation handle? – What is the N400 and why is it important? – Compare and contrast category-based and property-based representation. How does this distinction account for the living/non-living dichotomy in neuropsychological studies?