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001 Human Body.ppt






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    001 Human Body.ppt 001 Human Body.ppt Presentation Transcript

    • The Human Body: An Orientation Ch 1
      • Anatomy:
      • Study of the structure of
      • body parts
        • Gross- large body structures
        • Regional- all parts in
        • a specific region
        • Developmental- structural
        • changes over a life time
        • Embryology- developmental
        • changes that occur before birth
      • Physiology:
      • Study of the body’s function
        • Cardiovascular
        • Renal
        • Reproductive
        • Neurophysiology
      Complementarity of structure and function
      • Atoms
      • Molecules
      • Organelles
      • Cells
      • Tissues
      • Organs
      • Organ Systems
      • Organism
      Levels of Structural Organization
    • Levels of Structural Organization carbon atom organ system DNA molecule organelle cell tissue organism organ
    • Basic Life Processes
      • Metabolism
      • Responsiveness
      • Movement
      • Growth
      • Differentiation
      • Reproduction
      • The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc.
      • Anabolism - build up of complex molecules
      • Catabolism - break down of complex molecules
    • Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + energy
        • All organisms must maintain a constant internal environment to function properly
          • Temperature
          • pH
          • Salinity
          • Fluid levels
    • Relatively stable internal environment Homeostasis
    • Negative Feedback vs Positive Feedback
      • Receptor
      • Control center
      • Effector
      Feedback Systems
    • Body Temperature Regulation Negative Feedback
    • Blood Sugar Levels Negative Feedback
    • Feedback cycle ends when plug is formed. Positive feedback cycle is initiated. Positive feedback loop Break or tear occurs in blood vessel wall. Platelets adhere to site and release chemicals. Released chemicals attract more platelets. Platelet plug forms. 1 2 3 4 Positive Feedback
    • Positive Feedback Oxytocin
    • Homeostasic Imbalance
      • Disease
      • Disorder
      Moderate imbalance: Severe imbalance:
      • Death
    • Figure 1.3a Nails Skin Hair (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
    • Figure 1.3b Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
    • Figure 1.3c Skeletal muscles (c) Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat.
    • Figure 1.3d Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
    • Figure 1.3e Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
    • Figure 1.3f (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood. Heart Blood vessels
    • Figure 1.3g Lymphatic vessels Red bone marrow Thoracic duct Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
    • Figure 1.3h Nasal cavity Bronchus Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
    • Figure 1.3i Liver Oral cavity Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Small intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
    • Figure 1.3j Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
    • Figure 1.3k-l Prostate gland Ductus deferens Penis Testis Scrotum Ovary Uterine tube Mammary glands (in breasts) Uterus Vagina Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System
    • Orientation & Directional Terms
    • Orientation & Directional Terms
    • Body Planes Distal Proximal Frontal plane Posterior Anterior Midsagittal plane Transverse plane Superior Inferior Medial & Lateral oblique
    • Dorsal & Ventral Body Cavities
      • Organs surrounded by double layer membrane called serosa or serous membrane
      • Composed mostly of simple squamous epithelia and a little connective tissue
      • Filled with serous fluid- function reduce friction
      • Parietal (outer) vs Visceral (inner)-- both secrete serous fluid
      • heart: parietal pericardium  visceral pericardium
      • lungs: parietal pleura  visceral pleura
      • abdominopelvic: parietal peritoneum  visceral peritoneum
      • Diseases:
      • pleurisy  inflammation of pleura
      • peritonitis  inflammation of peritonea
      • pericarditis  inflammation of pericardia
      • inflammation - less serous fluid
    • Membranes
    • Membranes Mucous
    • Membranes Serous: pericardium, pleura, peritoneum Parietal pericardium Visceral pericardium Serous fluid
    • Membranes Cutaneous
    • Membranes Synovial
    • Abdominopelvic Regions
      • Hypogastric - large intestine, sm intestine, bladder
      • Umbilical - sm and lg intestine
      • Epigastric - stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas
      • Right hypochondriac - liver
      • Left hypochondriac - stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas
      • Right lumbar - large and small intestine
      • Left lumbar - large and small intestine
      • Right iliac - large intestine, cecum
      • Left iliac - large intestine
      Abdominopelvic Regions
    • Medical History
    • Ancient Greece
      • Hippocrates (460 – 370? B.C.)
      • Greek physician
      • Diseases have natural causes
      • Rejected view that disease caused by evil spirits
      • Believed that the brain was area of higher thought and emotion, not heart
      • Program for good health: rest, good nutrition, and exercise.
      • Started “Western Medicine”
    • Hippocrates’ Four Humors
      • Blood : considered to be made by the liver.
      • Phlegm: associated with the lungs.
      • Yellow bile : associated with the gall bladder.
      • Black bile: associated with the spleen.
      • Sanguine: Disease, excess blood
      • Phlegmatic: Disease, excess phlegm
      • Choleric: Disease, excess yellow bile
      • Melancholic: Disease, excess black bile
      Imbalances of the Humors Cause Disease
      • Galen (130 - 200 A.D.)
      • Anatomy & Physiology
      • disease resulted from an internal imbalance of the four humors
      • Mistakes in understanding circulation
      • Research based on ape dissection
      • Textbook used for 1000 years
      Roman Times
    • Dark Ages- 200 to 1200 A.D.
      • Sad time
      • Little new knowledge
      • Taboo against dissecting human cadavers continued
      • Avoided actual involvement
      • Authority prevails
      • da Vinci (1452-1515)
      • Anatomy & Physiology
    • Renaissance Vesalius dissects a female cadaver in his anatomy lab
      • Vesalius (1514-1564)
      • Anatomy & Physiology
      • Followed Galen’s writings, but later found he was wrong
    • Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius A late thirteenth-century illustration of the venous system within the body.
    • Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius This early representation (c. 1300) of a dissection shows a surgeon and a monk.
    • Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius
    • Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius
    • Vesalius’ Images
    • The female pelvic anatomy. From Vesalius's De Corporis Humani Fabrica , 1543. Vesalius’ Images
    • Microscope
    • William Harvey 1578 - 1657 Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and circulatory system operated
    • Arteries & Veins
    • The Heart
    • Veins
    • Circulation
    • Arteries, Veins & Capillaries
    • 1600’s Medicine: Leeches A prescription leech at the Harborview Medical Center pharmacy. Leeches and Maggots make a comeback
    • Medical Imaging CT MRI Ultrasound PET
    • Inquiry
      • Locate each region on your own body, and then identify it by its common name and the corresponding anatomical descriptive form.
      • What are the four types of planes that may be passed through the body?
      • Is the radius proximal to the humerus?
      • Is the esophagus anterior to the trachea?
      • Are the ribs superficial to the lungs?
      • Is the urinary bladder medial to the ascending colon?
      • Is the sternum lateral to the descending colon?
      • Distinguish between negative and positive feedback.
      • What is homeostasis?
      • What organs would you find in the left iliac region?
      • Galen’s textbook was based on research of ______ not humans.
      • What did Velsalius discover?
      • Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, and Galileo invented the____.
      • List 4 modern “non-evasive” technologies that allow us to look in the body.
      • What are leeches and maggots used for?
      • The pericardium, pleura and peritoneum refer to ________.