Challenge-Based Learning for Responsible & Engaged Learners Bill Dolton Adjunct Faculty, Wilkes University Educational Technology Consultant, William Dolton LLC Retired Supervisor of Educational Technology, LMSD firstname.lastname@example.org at the intersection William Dolton LLC of technology educational technology consulting and teaching www.doltonroad.comSaturday, June 25, 2011 1
Introductory ClipsSaturday, June 25, 2011 2- 5-minute University- Not on the Text- Miguel from ALI/CBL home page: http://ali.apple.com/cbl/index.html
Saturday, June 25, 2011 3I just love satire. And sometimes there are timeless bits that unfortunately resonate far toolong because the underlying absurdity just doesn’t go away...
Saturday, June 25, 2011 4Pretty bleak, but let’s consider the alternative. Where learning is meaningful and rich andauthentic...
Saturday, June 25, 2011 5This is an introductory video for Project Based Learning by Common Craft for the BuckInstitute for Education website..... Let’s take a look at what Miguel is doing ...
Saturday, June 25, 2011 6This clip shows how learning can be relevant and rigorous and authentic and engaging. Andjust think of all the curricular standards being addressed through a project like this. IncludingISTE’s NETS for Students...
Saturday, June 25, 2011 7How many of these did Miguel deal with?
Curriculum 21st Century Standards Framework Differentiated Understanding Instruction by Design Research-Based Formative & Performance Instructional Strategies AssessmentSaturday, June 25, 2011 8This graphic represents what I think are the most critical components of a well-rounded viewof education.
Curriculum 21st Century Standards Framework Differentiated Understanding Instruction by Design Research-Based Formative & Performance Instructional Strategies Assessment Project-Based Learning / Challenge-Based LearningSaturday, June 25, 2011 9I contend that PBL/CBL, when done right, incorporates the best of all these frameworks andcritical aspects of education.
Why Challenge Based Learning?Saturday, June 25, 2011 10The terms Project Base Learning and Problem Based Learning are more prevalent. So why“Challenge” Based Learning? Ultimately it is a matter of semantics, but there are importantconcepts behind the terminology.
Saturday, June 25, 2011 11Too often Project Based Learning is dismissed as simply hands-on project work in theclassroom. If students are manipulating something or producing some kind of product, eitherin small groups or individually, some mistakenly think of this as Project Based Learning. Butreal Project Based Learning is much more.
Saturday, June 25, 2011 12Some educators have focused on Problem Based Learning in order to raise the bar andpresent some kind of situation or environment in which students have to solve a problem.This is similar to the medical model of interns doing case work in teaching hospitals.
Broad Range of Challenges • Experimental Inquiry • Problem-Solving • Decision-Making • Investigation • Systems Analysis • InventionSaturday, June 25, 2011 13But why stop with problem solving? And Challenge Based Learning also has some otherimportant attributes...
choice, ownership engaging, tech-rich authentic, real-world challenging, rigorous signiﬁcance, actionableSaturday, June 25, 2011 14CHOICE: student-centered, student choice yields ownership and responsibility for learningENGAGING: students not engaged cannot learn; Technology key here, especially if signiﬁcantAUTHENTIC: students will invest themselves in what they perceive to be real; Publishing andfeedback is critical; requires a real audience; Technology key here, tooCHALLENGING: students will embrace rigor when engaged and they believe it matters; theyrise to the challenge, often exceeding expectationsSIGNIFICANT: learning is too important to waste time in trivial pursuits; Taking action is moresigniﬁcant than ReportingTHE WHOLE IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF THE PARTS.
Saturday, June 25, 2011 15Apple’s Challenge Based Learning draws from the work of Understanding by Design (GrantWiggins and Jay McTighe), the Buck Institute for Education’s Project-Based Learning work,and Edutopia’s collections of project-based learning and is informed by many ADEs aroundthe world. See iTunes U “Beyond Campus” directory and click on ADEs.
Understanding by Design Stage 1: Learning Goals Big Idea, Enduring Understandings Essential Questions Posing the Challenge Stage 2: Assessment Performance, Criteria, Parameters Demonstrating Knowledge, Understanding, Skill Stage 3: Learning Activities Scaffolding – Guiding Activities, Guiding Questions Analysis – Publication, Feedback, ReﬂectionSaturday, June 25, 2011 16Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe’s UbD framework is based on the concept of backward design.Starting with the desired outcome (Stage 1--Big Idea, Enduring Understandings, & EssentialQuestions), determining how students can demonstrate understanding (Stage 2--performance assessment), and only then developing the Learning Activities (Stage 3).Intended as a curriculum development framework for use at the Unit level rather thanindividual, daily lessons. But there is a natural ﬁt with PBL/CBL.
UbD Stage One (no DI) UbD Stage Three (DI throughout) <-- UbD Stage Two (some DI)Saturday, June 25, 2011 17This is how I see Apple’s CBL Framework and the UbD Framework dove-tailing.
Workshop Goals • Big Idea • Essential Questions • Challenge • Assessment • Technology AssetsSaturday, June 25, 2011 18You will have an opportunity to work on as many of these areas as you are able and/or wishto deal with during the workshop. However, the tasks and templates will continue to beavailable on the wiki for your continued use. You are also invited and encouraged to use thewiki for your own use and/or for use with your colleagues in your own practice. Keep meposted by email if you have questions or want to share your experiences with CBL.
Big Ideas and Essential QuestionsSaturday, June 25, 2011 19Signiﬁcant; EngagingMaintains focus on important understandings
Saturday, June 25, 2011 20Big Ideas are really big -- even broader than most Content Standards. Topics like freedom,natural resources, responsibility to self and others. Big Ideas easily encompass more than onecurricular area. And learning is most effective — when students are able to transfer and applyunderstanding in new situations and novel circumstances. I encourage you to think beyondjust a Big Idea topic, however, and state your Big Idea as an Enduring Understanding per UbD.
Matrix of Essential Questions Overarching Topical • broad and deep • stimulate inquiry • open & alive; lasting & • deepen understanding Open recurring • not answerable by unit • cut across unit, course, & end often subject boundaries • cut across unit, course, • unit-speciﬁc Guiding and often subject • yield one or several boundaries deﬁnitive or settled core • yield one or more understandings desired understandings -- from Wiggins and McTighe, UbD 2nd ed., p. 116Saturday, June 25, 2011 21Wiggins and McTighe recommend 3 to 5 of mixed type- Topical/Guiding Qs answerable by recall or basic research- Topical/Open & Guiding/Overarching Qs require higher order thinking; Context important- Topical questions focus on unit understanding but not sufficient for transfer beyond unit- Overarching/Open Qs don’t link easily to core curriculum and can be aimless alone- Guiding Qs alone can stiﬂe more Qs, and inhibit or limit deeper learning & understanding
Performance AssessmentSaturday, June 25, 2011 22The Challenge frames and informs the Assessment; the Challenge should be actionable --active learning that compels students to actually DO something rather than simply report orpresent information or ideas.When planning, think about what kind of evidence could demonstrate understanding and turnthat into an actionable challenge.Performance and Publication are more authentic than objective, easily-scored assessments,but no less rigorous with proper assessment planning.
Principles of Effective Assessment Photo Album vs. Snapshot Match Measures with Goals Knowing is binary; Understanding is a matter of degree.Saturday, June 25, 2011 23Click for “Knowing is binary”Click again for “Understanding is a matter of degree”Jay McTighe: Like the judicial system, we need a “preponderance of evidence to convictstudents of learning.”
Curricular Priorities & Assessment MethodsSaturday, June 25, 2011 24Effective assessments match the type or format of the assessment and the needed evidencePaper-&-pencil tests & quizzes generally provide adequate and efficient measures for basicfacts and skillsDeep understanding requires more complex performances to determine if the goal has beenreachedGraphic shows relationship between assessment types and the evidence they provide fordifferent curriculum targets.
Characteristics of Performance Tasks • Realistically contextualized • Requires judgment and innovation • Student must “do” the subject; Take action! • Replicates situations that “test” adults • Negotiating a complex, multi-stage task • Performing and/or publishing with feedback –from UbD, 2nd ed., pp. 153-155Saturday, June 25, 2011 25Fits like a glove with CBL.
creative commons attribution: http://www.ﬂickr.com/photos/qilin/203966534/ Scaffold / DesignSaturday, June 25, 2011 26I like the analogy of the teacher as facilitator being like the scaffold as a building is beingconstructed -- similar to the Guide on the Side analogy. The CBL teacher scaffolds thelearning environment and makes available the tools necessary for students to help them buildtheir understanding. These tools ideally include a rich set of technology assets and add valueto each of these aspects of the CBL framework.
http://www.go2web20.net/Saturday, June 25, 2011 27This is a representation of Go2Web20 -- a website that catalogs Web 2.0 applications,websites, and online tools. Currently there are well over 3,000 listed! Some overlap, to besure, but an ever-growing wealth of tools. And then there are the emerging category ofmobile apps.Ubiquitous technology assets not only facilitates learning, it can transform learning intransformative ways not previously possible through new means of communication,collaboration, creativity, research, and problem-solving, decision-making, and criticalthinking (NETS•S Standards).
Saturday, June 25, 2011 28This is the framework from the perspective of how the student experiences CBL -- from topto bottom.
1 2 3Saturday, June 25, 2011 29But, following the UbD framework of backward design, this is the order of planning &development:1. Big Idea, Essential Questions, and Challenge (with preliminary development of Guiding Qs)2. Performance Assessment (with anticipation of possible modes of Publishing)3. Guiding Questions, Guiding Activities, Guiding Resources (Tech Assets), Action/Solution,Assessment (revise, reﬁne, realign), and PublishingHowever, the process is highly recursive (writing again?). The planning process is not as cut-and-dried as this might suggest.
Scope Small Project Ambitious Project Duration 5 to 10 days Semester Multiple Disciplines Breadth 1 Topic, 1 Standard & Standards Technology Limited Extensive Outreach Classroom-based Community-based Multiple Teachers & Partnership One Teacher Community Audience Classroom, School Expert PanelSaturday, June 25, 2011 30The Buck Institute for Education gives some guidance relative to project scope.Often projects involve ﬁeld research, interviews, library visits, and community inquiry.Scope should be determined before projects start.Consider student experience/readiness, schedule, subject/content, teacher comfort/expertise, available assets and support as you determine the scope of your project. Scaledown or up as necessary.
Student Role Limited Maximum Student Input Student Input Teacher selects Teacher solicits Students select topic student input topic Teacher crafts Students Students develop essential personalize questions questions questions Teacher deﬁnes Teacher & Students deﬁne learning students learning outcomes negotiate outcomesSaturday, June 25, 2011 31Consider also the student role in your project. This will not only vary based on studentdevelopmental maturity (not necessarily or always aligned exactly with age level), but alsobased on prior student experience with and readiness for PBL/CBL. Honors high schoolstudents can surprise you and balk at PBL/CBL because it takes them out of their comfortzone and their well-established patterns of success. Conversely, primary students can oftentake on far more responsibility and higher level thinking than their years might suggest. Becareful not to under estimate your students.from Buck Institute
Student Autonomy Limited Maximum Student Autonomy Student Autonomy Teacher deﬁnes Students deﬁne Teacher solicits products and products and student input activities activities Teacher controls Students are Students timeline and pace given some determine of the project choices timeline and paceSaturday, June 25, 2011 32again from Buck InstituteIn addition to Student Role, PBL/CBL can vary according to the degree of autonomy studentshave -- not only in conducting their project work, but even in the development of the projectincluding Big Idea, Essential Questions, and Challenge!
PBL/CBL Wiki http://lmsd-pbl.wikispaces.com/Saturday, June 25, 2011 33So now it’s your turn. If you haven’t already, open the workshop wiki in your browser (Firefoxrecommended) and go to the ISTE 2011 Workshop Page. Scroll down to the Handouts andTemplates and work on the Big Idea, Essential Questions, Challenge, Assessment, and/orTechnology components of the CBL Framework. I recommend you take these in the order onthe page, but use your own judgment and meet your own needs. Take as much or as littletime as you feel you need in each section. The templates are provided in 4 formats (Worddoc, Pages ﬁle, PDF, or RTF) -- select the one that works best for you and follow thedirections. Once you download the template, it is yours to work on and use as needed.