Soc. 101 rw ch. 6
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Soc. 101 rw ch. 6






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    Soc. 101 rw ch. 6 Soc. 101 rw ch. 6 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 6
    • Outline What is a group? Primary and Secondary Groups Anomie In-groups and Out-groups Group Cohesion Social Influence Qualities of Leadership
    • What defines a group? Group-collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other Not groups: Crowd-temporary gathering of people in a public place; might interact, but don’t identify w/ each other- won’t remain in contact  Aggregate-collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations
    • Primary and Secondary Groups Primary groups-people  Secondary groups-larger who are most important to and less intimate than our sense of self; relations primary groups; characterized by:  *relationships usually  Face-to-face interaction organized around a  High levels of specific goal cooperation  often temporary  Intense feelings of  Ex.: your job belonging  Ex. Family
    • Social Networks  Social network-the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect her  Social ties-connections between individuals  Direct or indirect  Social networks  Sociologists study construction and influence of social networksSocial ties directly and indirectly  Ex.: We may change our mindsconnect people whom we vote for if enough of our friends vote for other candidate
    • Separate from Groups: Anomie Anomie- normlessness; alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change  Durkheim believed group membership keeps us from feeling anomie  More common with modernization?
    • In-Groups and Out-Groups In-group-a group that one identities with and feels loyalty toward Out-group-any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward Both can come from our ethnic, familial, professional, educational backgrounds We may feel a sense of superiority towards those excluded from our in-group At their worst in-group/out-group dynamics create the backdrop for social tragedies like slavery and genocide
    • Group Dynamics How do groups form, change, achieve goals, disintegrate, etc…? Group Dynamics-patterns of interaction between groups and individuals Dyad-two-person social group  Intense, unstable Triad-three-person social group  More stable because conflicts can be refereed *The smaller a group is, the more likely it is to be based on personal ties; large groups are more likely to be based on rules and regulations
    • Reference Groups Reference group-group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves  can be crucial to our sense of self  Ex.: Family, celebrities, pro athletes etc…  Live up to its standards  Sometimes you may aspire to belong, but are not yet a part
    • Group Cohesion Group cohesion-the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong  Force that binds members together Relies on shared values or demographic traits (race, age, gender…) Excessive group cohesion can bring about negative consequences Groupthink-in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members  May punish those who threaten to undermine consensus
    • ChallengerexplosionGroupthink may have playeda role in the Challengershuttle explosion. Scientistsmay have not takenweaknesses in the shuttle’sdesign seriously.
    • Social Influence Social influence (peer pressure)-the influence of one’s fellow group members  Part of being in groups  Can affect all ranges of behavior  We conform because we want to gain acceptance  Prescriptions-behaviors approved of by social group  Proscriptions-behaviors a particular social group wants members to avoid
    • Social Influence Social influence results in one of three kinds of conformity Compliance-mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishments Identification-type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a desire to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or group Internalization-strongest type of conformity; occurs when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them her own
    • The AschExperiment  Study on compliance conducted by Solomon Asch in 1951  Groups of 7-8 “students” each to participate in “visual perception”  Only one student in group was real research subject  Results:  33%: yielders-gave wrong answer though they knew it was wrong  Another 40% yielded less frequently  Only 25% were independents refusing to give in to majority
    • Qualities of Leadership Power-ability to control the actions of others; getting people to do things they may or may not want to do  Quality of all leaders  Coercive-backed by the threat of force  Influential-supported by persuasion Authority-legitimate right to wield power  Max Weber identified three types of authority found in social orgs.
    • Types of Authority Traditional authority- based on custom, birthright, or divine right Legal-rational authority- based on laws, rules, and procedures (not on heredity or personality) Charismatic authority- based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader 3 types not necessarily mutually exclusive
    • Bureaucracies  McDonaldization of Society Bureaucracies-secondary  McDonaldization-Ritzer’s group designed to perform term spread of bureaucratic tasks efficiently rationalization and the Specialization accompanying increases in Technical competence efficiency and dehumanization  Make us aware of “iron cage” of Hierarchy bureaucracy Rules and regulations  Rationalization- Impersonality implementation of formal Formal written rules in order to be more communications efficient w/out consideration of subjective concerns