Soc. 101 rw ch. 5


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Soc. 101 rw ch. 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2. The Self And Interaction Nature vs. nurture Socialization Development of Self-Freud, Cooley, Mead, Goffman Impression Management Agents of Socialization-family, schools, peers, media Statuses and Roles
  3. 3. The Self and Nature vs. Nurture The self is connected to all social phenomena and interaction constructs them all What is human nature? Nature vs. Nurture – ongoing debate over the importance of genes and socialization in determining our behaviors and traits  Sociologists argue that human behavior is learned and shaped thru social interaction Either one alone is insufficient to explain what makes us human
  4. 4. Socialization and the Self Socialization – process of learning & internalizing the values, beliefs and norms of social group – helps us become functioning members of society  1. Skills to satisfy basic human needs  2. Teaches norms, values, beliefs Social Isolation – feral children –Isabelle  Babies do have innate capacities, but can only fully develop as human beings through contact with others  Isabelle-1930s Self – individual’s conscious, reflexive experience of personal identity, separate and distinct from others Self created through social interaction over a lifetime
  5. 5. Development of Self-Freud Freud’s theory of self centered on unconscious mind The mind consists of three interrelated parts: Id – basic inborn drive – instinctive psychic energy – goal is pleasure and avoid pain- selfish Ego – the realistic aspect of the mind that mediates between id and superego Superego – the conscience (moral) and ego ideal (ideally who we should be)-Internalized demands of society  Develops as a result of parental guidance
  6. 6. Development of Self-Cooley Looking-glass self-notion that the self develops thru our perception of others’ evaluations of us Dev. by Charles Horton Cooley (Chicago School) We all act like mirrors to each other, reflecting back images of ourselves  1.We imagine how we look to others  2. We imagine other people’s judgment of us  3. We experience some kind of feeling about ourselves based on our perception of other people’s judgments All of us come to know ourselves through relationships with others
  7. 7. Development of Self-Mead  George Herbert Mead (Chicago School)-development of self started in childhood-when kids develop language  Mead’s Theory of Self – 3 stages:  1. Preparatory stage – under 3 – imitate or mimic those around them  2. Play stage – after 3 – “roles” pretend play at being a “nurse”, “teacher,” etc…  3. Game stage – early school years- organized games at school – must follow rules of game and understand where others playing game are coming from (generalized other)
  8. 8. Development of Self-Goffman Mead-Generalized other- perspectives and expectations of others in society that child learns and takes into account when shaping his or her behavior Erving Goffman-*all meaning is constructed through interaction Thomas theorem- “if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”  Many interpretations are possible of same event  Woman slapping man in public?
  9. 9. Goffman Defines Expression Goffman looks at how we define situations interactionally Definition of the Situation- agreement about what is “going on” – allows us to coordinate our actions with others  Woman slapping man?-what are others’ reactions? Expressions of Behavior- small actions that serve as an interaction tool to project our definition of the situation to others Expressions given – verbal and intended (speech) Expressions given off – non-verbal, but observable – intended or unintended  Facial expressions, mannerisms, etc… It’s not just what you say but how you say it that creates meaning
  10. 10. What is Impression Management? Goffman-we work at controlling the impressions others have of us Impression Management – effort to control impressions we make on others so that they form a desired view of us and the situation  Dramaturgy-social life compared to theater Front- the setting or scene of performances that helps define the situation (classroom) Personal Front – equipment we use to present ourselves to others (glasses) Region – context or setting where performance takes place – person out of context can be confusing
  11. 11. What is Impression Management? Backstage – rehearse and prepare for performances Frontstage – where we deliver our public performance Cooling the mark out – behavior that allows others to avoid embarrassment  Civility or tact
  12. 12. Agents of Socialization Agents of Socialization-social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place 1. Family – most significant- social bonds created, learn norms and values of society 2. School – Besides teaching normal curriculum, also responsible for P.E., meals, discipline, child care, etc…  Hidden curriculum – values/behaviors that children learn at school (competition, obedience) 3. Peers – Family has longest-lasting effect on us, but by adolescence, youth spend more time w/ friends than anyone else 4. Media-Fiji (pg. 127)
  13. 13. Adult Socialization  Being adults means being put in new situations, having to learn and adjust to new conditions over the life course  Resocialization-process of replacing previously learned norms and values with new ones as part of a transition in life  Due to divorce, raising family, moving, losing a job, etc…  Total Institution – (Goffman) institutions in which individuals are cut off from rest of society – total control – strips away old identities for new ones
  14. 14. Statuses and Roles Statuses influence how others see us and respond to us Status – position in society that carries a particular set of expectations  Parent, CEO, waitress, etc… Ascribed Status – inborn and hard to change Embodied Status – physical characteristics (ex. beauty) Achieved Status – earned through effort or imposed by others (ex. occupation) Master Status – relevant and affects all other statuses.
  15. 15. Statuses and Roles Role – behavior expectations that go with a certain status Role Strain – contradictory expectations within ONE role  Parent-discipline or nurture Role Conflict – we occupy 2 or more roles with contradictory expectations  Work/family conflict Role exit-the process of leaving a role that we will no longer occupy *Statuses and roles help shape our identities by providing guidelines for our own behavior
  16. 16. Role Conflict: Chris Spielman Family or Football? Spielman-From Ohio, linebacker for Buffalo Bills Wife diagnosed with breast cancer, required her to stay in Ohio for treatment He would have to be on road for football… What did he choose?
  17. 17. Social Construction of Emotions Role-Taking Emotions-like sympathy, embarrassment and shame, require that we be able to see thing from someone else’s point of view Feeling Rules – norms regarding the expression and display of emotions – expectations about acceptable emotions in a given social situation Emotion Work – manage feelings to create a publicly observable display of emotion Copresence – face to face interaction in the presence of others – has lessened with technology.