Dolly Ramos    GallegoBeing a carefulobserverMerriam, (1998) QualitativeResearch and Case studyApplication in Education
 Observations:  natural field setting-  firsthand encounter with phenomenon Interviews: designated location-  secondhand...
Task 1 What is your experience of observing  someone’s class or having someone  observe your class? Was it a possitive or...
Subjected to                                                  controls                                 Recorded         (v...
Why                               How  Triangulate emerging findings     Selective attentiveness  Record behavior at the m...
Participant observation      Pros     Cons
Participant as observer            Complete observer• Near total immersion, they are   •Outsider- does not take part in th...
What to observe? Purpose of the study Conceptual framework The problem Research question“…Researchers often begin a se...
Context, space, objects, resourcesNumber, roles, purpose, characteristicsSequence and length of activities,connection of p...
Bogdan and Biklen (1992) What   are you actually going to do? Will you be disruptive? What are you going to do with you...
Participant as                     observers                     •Teacher or researcherNovice                             ...
Recording observations                             •Written accounts      Field notes             of the observation      ...
What to observe?
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Observations

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Observations

  1. 1. Dolly Ramos GallegoBeing a carefulobserverMerriam, (1998) QualitativeResearch and Case studyApplication in Education
  2. 2.  Observations: natural field setting- firsthand encounter with phenomenon Interviews: designated location- secondhand account of the world Fieldwork or field study: connote both
  3. 3. Task 1 What is your experience of observing someone’s class or having someone observe your class? Was it a possitive or negative experience? Why? What kind of useful information about teaching could be gathered through observation?
  4. 4. Subjected to controls Recorded (validity- systematically reliability) Planned intentionallyFor a researchpurpose
  5. 5. Why How Triangulate emerging findings Selective attentiveness Record behavior at the moment Learn to be a systematic observer •Writing descriptively Understand complex situations •Recording or using field notes •Choosing the essential info Useful when participants are reluctant
  6. 6. Participant observation Pros Cons
  7. 7. Participant as observer Complete observer• Near total immersion, they are •Outsider- does not take part in the part of the group being social setting at all. E.g. watching studied. Involved and children play from behind a two-way mirror. exposed to routines Complete Participant Observer as participant •Labeled as spy or traitor •Peripheral membership role •Questionable ethics •Observer before participant
  8. 8. What to observe? Purpose of the study Conceptual framework The problem Research question“…Researchers often begin a series ofinvestigations by impressionistic, informalobservation” (Hawkins)
  9. 9. Context, space, objects, resourcesNumber, roles, purpose, characteristicsSequence and length of activities,connection of people and activitiesParticipants and topics of conversationsNonverbal communication, symbolicwordsYour role, actions, reflections
  10. 10. Bogdan and Biklen (1992) What are you actually going to do? Will you be disruptive? What are you going to do with your findings? Why us? What will we get out of this?
  11. 11. Participant as observers •Teacher or researcherNovice Subjectivityresearchers •“a catalyst for•Judging teachers’ changes that are performance already taking place” (Frankenberg,1982) Concerns in observation
  12. 12. Recording observations •Written accounts Field notes of the observation •DuringVideotape- tape •Obtrusive recorders •Describing exactly Recounting what was the session observed •IntrospectiveFieldwork record of the journal experience
  13. 13. What to observe?

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