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  • 1. Dolly Ramos GallegoBeing a carefulobserverMerriam, (1998) QualitativeResearch and Case studyApplication in Education
  • 2.  Observations: natural field setting- firsthand encounter with phenomenon Interviews: designated location- secondhand account of the world Fieldwork or field study: connote both
  • 3. Task 1 What is your experience of observing someone’s class or having someone observe your class? Was it a possitive or negative experience? Why? What kind of useful information about teaching could be gathered through observation?
  • 4. Subjected to controls Recorded (validity- systematically reliability) Planned intentionallyFor a researchpurpose
  • 5. Why How Triangulate emerging findings Selective attentiveness Record behavior at the moment Learn to be a systematic observer •Writing descriptively Understand complex situations •Recording or using field notes •Choosing the essential info Useful when participants are reluctant
  • 6. Participant observation Pros Cons
  • 7. Participant as observer Complete observer• Near total immersion, they are •Outsider- does not take part in the part of the group being social setting at all. E.g. watching studied. Involved and children play from behind a two-way mirror. exposed to routines Complete Participant Observer as participant •Labeled as spy or traitor •Peripheral membership role •Questionable ethics •Observer before participant
  • 8. What to observe? Purpose of the study Conceptual framework The problem Research question“…Researchers often begin a series ofinvestigations by impressionistic, informalobservation” (Hawkins)
  • 9. Context, space, objects, resourcesNumber, roles, purpose, characteristicsSequence and length of activities,connection of people and activitiesParticipants and topics of conversationsNonverbal communication, symbolicwordsYour role, actions, reflections
  • 10. Bogdan and Biklen (1992) What are you actually going to do? Will you be disruptive? What are you going to do with your findings? Why us? What will we get out of this?
  • 11. Participant as observers •Teacher or researcherNovice Subjectivityresearchers •“a catalyst for•Judging teachers’ changes that are performance already taking place” (Frankenberg,1982) Concerns in observation
  • 12. Recording observations •Written accounts Field notes of the observation •DuringVideotape- tape •Obtrusive recorders •Describing exactly Recounting what was the session observed •IntrospectiveFieldwork record of the journal experience
  • 13. What to observe?