Stephen Krashens model is one ofthe most influential and well-knowntheories of SLA. In the late 1970s Krashen developed the Monitor Model, an ‘overall’ theory of SLA, that had important implications for language teaching.
The acquisition-learning hypothesis The monitor hypothesis The natural order hypothesis The input hypothesis The affective filter hypothesis
“ Learning cannot become acquisition and that fluency in a second or foreign language is due to what learners have acquired, not what they have learned” meaningfulconscious knowledge interaction about the language
Gregg: Krashen’s insistence that “learning” cannot become “acquisition” is quickly refutedKrashen states that grammar has no place in learning and that it doesn’t lead to fluencyAnderson: Two types of Brain ◦ Short memory or working memory ◦ Long-term memorythe information that is in short term memory must be incorporated in the network system.
“ Learners acquire the rules of a language in a predictable sequence”Order of AQC (structures GR)& Sequence of ACQ=(U shaped course of development Verbs)Simple tocomplex The orderis immune Its not the teaching order
1. Present progressive verb: (is) playing 2-3. Prepositions: in/on 4. Regular noun plural: toys, cats, dishes 5. Irregular past tense verbs: came, fell, saw 6. Progressive noun: daddy´s, doggie´s 7. Uncontractible copula: Here I am, Who is it? 8. Articles: a and the 9. Regular past tense verbs: played, washed 10. Regular third person singular present tense verbs: 11. Irregular third person singular present tense verbs: does, has 12. Uncontractible auxiliary: She isn´t crying, He was eating 13. Contractible copula: That´s mine, What´s that? 14. Contractible auxiliary: He´s crying Brown (1968)
Rules that the learner uses are not necessarily the traditional rules of the class, but that he constructs for thru interaction, and the construction of hypotheses. Gagné The difference between speaker of two different L1 does not present a linear process. Mclaughin
“ Learned system acts as a monitor, making minor changes and polishing what the acquired system has produced” Three conditions: sufficient time, focus on form and knowing the rules Only Learning (applies monitoring) Monitoring and personality planning, editing and correcting-Extroverts(under-users)-introverts(over-users)-Lack of self-confidence (over-user)
Good learners tend Restricting Learning is to be more aware learning for editing of the l/ing process merely to grammar and itself, and to be the role of thus ignores comprehensi able to give editing on specific accounts production of how they learn, completelyReiss (1983) Gregg Gregg
Through reading or hearing language structures that slightly exceed their current ability input that is one step beyond her current stage of linguistic compet Comprehensible Comprehensible Input that belongs Input that belongs to level ii+ 1 to level + 1 natural natural communicative communicative input is the key to input is the key to designing a designing a syllabus syllabus
The learner’ s state of mind or disposition or disposition HIGH MOTIVATION/self- HIGH MOTIVATION/self- conf/anxi are conf/anxi are better equipped for better equipped for success success LOW MOTIVATION self- LOW MOTIVATION self- esteem= can raise‘ the affective esteem= can raise‘ the affective filter filter and form aamental block and form mental block when the filter is up‘ when the filter is up‘ ititimpedes language impedes language acquisition. acquisition.
Krashens Monitor Theory of SLA had a great impact on the way SLL was viewed, and initiated research towards the discovery of orders of acquisition.
Despite the various criticisms, Krashens Monitor Theory of secondlanguage acquisition had a great impact on the way second language learning was viewed, and initiated research towards the discovery of orders of acquisition.
“This is not to say that Krashen is wrong in hisprescriptions about language teaching. Manyresearchers working in the field agree with him onbasic assumptions, such as the need to move fromgrammar-based to communicatively orientatedlanguage instruction, the role of affective factors inlanguage learning, and the importance ofacquisitional sequences in second languagedevelopment.”
Attempting to cover most of the factors involved in SLA : Age Personality traits Classroom instruction Innate mechanisms of language Acquisition Environmental influences Input, etc., but not without limitations.
Gomez, Luis F. 2007. Therories of first and Second Language Acquisiton Brown, H. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Prentice Hall Regents www.svsu.edu/~herks/ WWW.Coe.sdsu.edu./people/jmora/natApprTheory%2DEng/ www.stanford.edu/~kenro/lau/IClangLit/natralApproach.htm http://spider.georgetowncollege.edu/Education/documents/District %20Guidelines/ESL%20Theories.pdf http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLec tures/L6_Natural_Order.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Krashen http://www.timothyjpmason.com/WebPages/LangTeach/Licence/CM/OldLec tures/L10_Monitor.htm